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PROCEEDINGS 



GENERAL MEETINGS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON 



FOR THE YEAR 



1894. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
AND SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER-SQUARE. 

LONDON : 
MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO., 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 



LIST 



COUNCIL AND OFFICERS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



1894. 



COUNCIL. 



(Elected April 30, 1894.) 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., Sc.D., F.R.S., President. 



Dr. John Anderson, F.R.S. 

William Bateson, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S. 

William T. Blanford, Esq., 
F.R.S., Vice-President. 

George A. Boulenger, Esq., 
F.R.S. 

Henry E. Dresser, Esq. 

Herbert Druce, Esq., F.L.S. 

Charles Drtjmmond, Esq., Trea- 
surer. 

Sir JosEr-H Eayrer, K.C.S.I., 
F.R.S., Vice-President. 

John P. Gassiot, Esq. 

Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.S. 



Dr. Axbebt Gunther, F.R.S. , 
Vice-President. 

Dr. Edward Hamilton, Vice- 
President. 

Professor George B. Howes. 

Lt.-Col. Leonard H. Irby. 

Major Henry P. St. John 
Mildmay. 

Professor Alfred Newton, 
F.R.S. , Vice-President. 

Howard Saunders, Esq. 

Philip LVutley Sclater, Esq., 
M.A.,Ph.D., F.R.S.. Secretun,. 

Henry Seebohm, Esq., Vice- 
President. 

JosErn Travers Smith, Esq. 



PRINCIPAL OFFICERS. 

P. L. Sclater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary. 
Frank E. Beddard, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Prosector. ' 
Mr. A. D. Bartlett, Superintendent of the Gardens. 
Mr. F. H. AVaterhouse, Librarian. 
Mr. John Barrow, Accountant. 
Mr. W. J. Williams, Chief Clerk. 



LIST 




CONTRIBUTORS, 



With References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



Page 
Adams, W. H. 

On the Habits of the Flying-Squirrels of the Genus 
Anomalurus 243 

Andeews, Chas. W., B.Sc, F.Z.S. 

On some Remains of JEpyomis in the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.). (Plates XIV. & XV.) 108 

AplIu, Outer Veenon, M.B.O.U. 

Field-Notes on the Mammals of Uruguay 297 

Baedeleben, Prof. Kael von, M.D. Berol. 

On the Bones and Muscles of the Mammalian Hand and 
Foot. (Plates XX. & XXI.) 354 

Baekley, MacDonald. 

Notes upon the Antelopes of the Pungue Valley 130 

Baktlett, A. D., Superintendent of the Society's Gardens. 
On a singular case of one Snake swallowing another in 

the Society's Reptile-House 660 

a 2 



IV 



Bateson, William, M.A., F.B.S., F.Z.S., Fellow of St. Johu's 
College, Cambridge. 
Exhibition of specimens of the Common Pilchard (Clupea 
jnlchardus), showing variation in the number and size of the 

scales 164 

On two Cases of Colour-variation in Flat-fishes illus- 
trating principles of Symmetry. (Plate XVII.) 246 

Exhibition of specimens and drawings of a Phytophagous 
Beetle, in illustration of discontinuous variation in colour. 391 

Beddaed, Frank E., M.A., F.B.S., Prosector to the Society. 
Notes upon the Tadpole of Xenopus Icevis (Dactylethra 
capensis). (Plate XIII.) 101 

On Two new Genera, comprising Three new Species, of 
Earthworms from "Western Tropical Africa 379 

On some Points in the Visceral Anatomy of Omitho- 
rhynehus ' io 

Beddard, Frank E., M.A., F.E.S., &c, and Mitchell, P. 
Chalmers, M.A., F.Z.S. 

On the Anatomy of Palamedea comuta 538 

Bell, F. Jeferey, M.A., Sec. R.M.S., F.Z.S., Professor of 
Comparative Anatomy in King's College, London. 

Notes on Three Species of River- crabs of the Genus 
Thelphusa, from Specimens collected in Eastern Africa by 
Dr. J. W. Gregory, Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., and Mr. F. 
J. Jackson 166 

On the Echinoderms collected during the Voyage of 
H.M.S. ' Penguin' and by H.M.S. ' Egeria,' when surveying 
Macclesfield Bank. (Plates XXIII.-XXVII.) 392 

* 

Notice of the acquisition by the Natural-History Museum 

of some Specimens of remarkable Corals of great size from 
North-west Australia 694 



V 

Page 
Ben-ham, W. Bla.xla.tstd, D.Sc. (Lond.), Hon. M.A. (Oxon.), 

Aldrichian Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy in 

the University of Oxford. 
Notes on a particularly Abnormal Vertebral Column of 
the Bull-frog ; and on certain other Variations in the 
Anuran Column. (Plate XXXIII.) 477 

Blaauw, F. E., C.M.Z.S. 

Bemarks upon drawings of the heads of two North- 
American Swans (Cggnus americanus and 0. buccinator) . . 606 

Boitlengee, Geoege Albeet, F.B.S., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a specimen of a new 
Gecko from South Africa (CEdura nivaria) 608 

Third Beport on Additions to the Batrachian Collection 
in the Natural-History Museum. (Plates XXXIX. & 
XL.) 640 

Second Beport on Additions to the Lizard Collection in 
the Natural-History Museum. (Plates XLVII.-XLIX.) . . 722 

Bullee, Sir Waltee L., K.C.M.G., E.B.S., C.M.Z.S., &c. 

Notes on the Petrel named (Estrelata leucopftrys by 
Captain Hutton 653 

Btjtlee, Aethtte G., Ph.D., E.L.S., E.Z.S. 

On a Collection of Lepidoptera from British East Africa, 
made by Dr. J. W. Gregory between the Months of March 
and August 1893. (Plates XXXVI. & XXXVII.) 557 

Collett, Prof. Bobeet, P.M.Z.S. 

On a new Agonoid Fish (Agonus gilberti) from Kamt- 
schatka. (Plate XLV.) 670 

Collinge, Waltee E., Demonstrator of Zoology and Com- 
parative Anatomy, Mason College, Birmingham. 

Description of a new Species of Slug of the Genus 
Janella , 526 



VI 

Page 
Coryndon, R. T. 

On the Occurrence of the White or Burchell's Rhinoceros 
in Mashonaknd. (Plate XVIII.) 329 

Cunningham, J. T. 

Notice of a Communication from, treating of the signi- 
ficance of diagnostic characters in the Pleuronectidaa .... G55 

Flower, Sir William Henry, K.C.B., LL.D., F.B.B., &c. 

Letter and Journal of the late Dr. Emin Pasha, C.M.Z.S., 
and remarks thereon 596 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a specimen of a Hairy 
Armadillo (Tatusia pilosa) 655 

Fowler, G. Herbert, B.A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of 
Zoology in University College, London. 

On two Sea-pens of the Family Veretillidce from the 
Madras Museum. (Plate XXII.) 376 

Notes on some Specimens of Antlers of the Fallow Deer, 
showing Continuous Variation, and the Effects of Total or 
Partial Castration. (Plate XXXIV.) 485 

Garstang, Walter, M.A., F.Z.S., Fellow and Lecturer of 
Lincoln College, Oxford. 

On the Gastropod Golpodaspis pusilla of Michael Sars. 
(Plate XLIV.) 664 

Goeldi, Dr. Emil August, Director of the Colonia Alpina 
(Theresopolis). 

Critical Gleanings on the DideVphyidce of the Serra dos 
Orgaos, Brazil 457 

Gregory, J. Walter, D.Sc, F.Z.S. 

Remarks on the factors that appear to have influenced 
Zoological Distribution in Africa ; and exhibition of, and 
remarks upon, a series of photographic slides, illustrative 
of his recent Expedition to Mount Kenia 165 



Page 

GiiNTHEB, Albert C. L. G., M.A., F.E.S., V.P.Z.S. 

Report on the Collection of Reptiles and Fishes made by 
Dr. J. W. Gregory during his Expedition to Mount Kenia. 
(Plates VIII.-XI.) S4 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, specimens of Lepi- 
dosiren paradoxa, collected by Dr. Bohls on the Upper 
Paraguay 316 

Exhibition of a portion of the hollow trunk of a Tree in 
which a pair of Hornbills had nested 391 

Guppy, R. J. Lechmeeb, C.M.Z.S. 

On some Foraminifera from the Microzoic Deposits of 
Trinidad, West Indies. (Plate XLI.) 647 

Holt, Ernest W. L., Naturalist on Staff, M.B. Assoc. 

Studies in Teleostean Morphology from the Marine 
Laboratory at Cleethorpes. (Plates XXVIII.-XXX.) . . . . 413 

Howes, G. B., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Assistant Professor of Zoology, 
Royal College of Science, London. 

On Synostosis and Curvature of the Spine in Fishes, 
with especial reference to the Sole. (Plate XII.) 95 

Jacoby, Martin, F.E.S. 

Descriptions of new Species of Coleoptera of the Genera 
(Edionychis and Asphcera. (Plate XXXVIII.) 609 

Johnson, G. Lindsay, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.Z.S. 

On the Pupils of the Felidce 481 

Kerbert, Dr. C, C.M.Z.S. 

Exhibition of a Photograph of a Mountain Antelope 
(Nemorlicedus sumatrensis) 654 

Lankester, Prof. E. Ray, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 

Notice of a Memoir on the External Characters which 
distinguish the two Dipuoid Fishes Lepidosiren and 
Protopterus 485 



VI u 

Page 

Last, J. T. 

On the Bones of the ^Epyornis, and on the Localities 
and Conditions in which they are found 123 

LlTTLEDALE, St. GEORGE, F.B.G.S. 

Field-Notes on the Wild Camel of Lob-Nor 446 

Loder, Sir Edmund Giles, Bart., F.Z.S. 

On the " Eeem " Antelope of Algeria 473 

Note on the Period of Gestation of the Indian Antelopp, 
Antilope cervicapra (Linn.) 476 

Lydekker, Eichard, B.A., F.E.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Eemarks on a visit to the La Plata Museum, and ob- 
servations on some of the principal objects contained 
therein 3 

Exhibition of a painting of the head of a "Wild Goat 
(Cajrra wjagrus) of unusual dimensions 3 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a Photograph and 
Model of an Egg from Southern Patagonia in the La Plata 
Museum 654 

Maxxehs-Smith, T., B.A. (Cantab.), M.E.C.S., Chief Demon- 
strator of Anatomy, Mason College, Birminghan. 

On some Points in the Anatomy of Omithorhynchus 
paradoxus 694 

Meyer, Dr. A. B., C.M.Z.S. 

Eemarks on an African Monkey, Cercopithecus wolfi. 
(Plate YII.) 83 

Mitchell, P. Chalmers, M.A., F.Z.S. 

On the Perforated Flexor Muscles in some Birds 495 

Mitchell, P. Chalmers, M.A., F.Z.S., and Beddard, F. E., 
MA., F.E.S. 

On the Auatomv of Palamedea cornuta 536 



ax 

Page 
MlTPORD, C. B. 

Extract of a letter from, containing an account of a 
visitation of Locusts in Sierra Leone 1 

Extract of a letter from, respecting the occurrence of 
the Elephant in Sierra Leone 2 

MoELLENDORFE, O. E. VON, Ph.D. 

On a Collection of Land-Shells from the Samui Islands, 
Gulf of Siam. (Plate XVI.) 146 

Mole, E. E., and Erich, F. W. 

Biological Notes upon some of the Ophidia of Trinidad, 
B. W. I., with a Preliminary List of the Species recorded 
from the Island 499 

Parker, W. N., Ph.D., E.Z.S., Professor of Biology in the 
University College of S. Wales and Monmouthshire, 
Cardiff. 

On some Points in the Structure of the Young of Echidna 
acideata. (Plates I.-III.) 3 

Parsons, E. Gh, E.E.C.S., E.Z.S., E.L.S., Lecturer on Com- 
parative Anatomy at St. Thomas's Hospital. 

On the Myology of the Sciuromorphine and Hystrico- 
morphine Bodents 251 

On the Anatomy of Aiherura africanus compared with 
that of other Porcupines 675 

Bidevood, W. Gr., B.Sc, E.L.S., Lecturer on Biology at 
St. Mary's Hospital Medical School. 

On the Hyoid Arch of Ceratoclus 632 

Salvin, Osbert, F.E.S., E.Z.S., &c. 

Exhibition of a pair of the newly described Butterfly, 
Ornithoptera paradisea 608 



X 

Page 

Sanyal, Babu Ram Bramha, C.M.Z.S. 

Notes on Cynogale bennetti, Gray 296 



Sauvage, Dr. H. E. 

Exhibition of a Vertebra of what was believed to be the 
earliest known Suake yet discovered 391 

Schaus, William, E.Z.S. 

On new Species of Heterocera from Tropical America . . 225 

ScHERREN, HEXRY, E.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the nest of an Amphi- 
podous Crustacean (Amphithoe littorina) 485 

Sclater, Philip Lutley, M.A., Ph.D., E.R.S., Secretary to 
the Society. 

Eeport on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
December 1893 1 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a coloured drawing of 
the head of Cercopithecus eri/thror/aster 1 

Eeport on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
January 1894 92 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a mounted specimeu of 
the River-hog of Madagascar (Potamochoerus echvanki), with 
notes on its habits by Mr. J. T. Last 92 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a stuffed specimen of 
the White-billed Great Northern Diver {Cohjmbus adamsi) 
from Norway 94 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
February 1894 162 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a photograph of a young 
male Gaur or Indian Bison (Bos gaurus) 249 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
March 1894 316 



XI 

Page 
Remarks on the Specimens of Protopterus anneciens living 
in the Society's Reptile-house 353 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
April 1894 390 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
May 1894 456 

Remarks upon animals observed in the Zoological Gardens 
of Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Hanover, Berlin, and Hamburg. 456 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a skin of an African 
Monkey (Cercopitheeus diana Ignitus) 484 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the typical specimen 
of Cercopitheeus grayi, Eraser 484 

On the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in June, 
July, August, and September, 1894 594 

On the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in October 
1894 654 

On the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in November 
1894. (Plate XL VI.) 693 

Shaepe, Emily Mary. 

List of Butterflies collected by Capt. J, W. Pringle, R.E., 
on the March from Teita to Uganda, in British East Africa. 
(Plate XIX.) 334 

SlLERBORN, C. DAVIES, F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a copy of the reprint of 
George Orel's ' North- American Zoology ' 609 

Shipley, Akthujr E., M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Christ's 
College, Cambridge. 

Note on Nematode Parasites from the Animals in the 
Zoological Gardens, London. (Plate XXXV.) 531 

Skufeldx, Dr. R. W., C.M.Z.S. 

Communication from, containing remarks upon the 



Xll 

Page 
methods used in preparing certain Invertebrates adopted in 

the U.S. National Museum 136 

On the Affinities of the Steganopodes 160 

On the Osteology of certain Cranes, Eails, and their 
Allies, with remarks upon their Affinities 250 

Correction to his paper " On the Affinities of the Stega- 
nopodes " 608 

Simon, Eugene. 

On the Spiders of the Island of St. Vincent.— Part II. . . 519 

Smith, T. Manners, see Manners-Smith, T. 

Swayne, H. G. C, Capt. E.E., C.M.Z.S. 

Further Field-Notes on the Game- Animals of Somaliland. 316 

Tegetmeier, W. B., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a Pheasant in abnormal 
plumage 3 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the felted covering of 
a long-haired Augora Eabbit 654 

Thomas, Oldeield, F.Z.S., Natural History Museum. 

Description of a new Bat of the Genus Stenoderma from 
Montserrat 132 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a skin of a Giraffe from 
Somaliland 135 

On the Mammals of Nyasaland : third Contribution .... 136 

On the Dwarf Antelopes of the Genus Madoqua 323 

On some Specimens of Mammals from Oman, S.E. Arabia. 
(Plate XXXI.) 448 

On some Gazelles brought by Sir Edmund Loder from 
Algeria. (Plate XXXII.) 407 



xiil 

Page 
Thomson, Aethue, Head-Keeper of the Society's Menagerie. 

Eeport on the Insect-house for 1893 133 

Teimen, Eoland, P.E.S., F.Z.S., &c, Curator of the South- 
African Museum, Cape Town. 

On a Collection of Butterflies made in Manica, Tropical 
South-east Africa, by Mr. P. C. Selous, in the year 1892. 
(Plates IY.-VI.) 14 

Letter from, with reference to Dr. A. G. Butler's remarks 
on his paper on Butterflies from Manica 606 

Uhlee, P. E. 

A List of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the Families 
Antliocoridce and Geratocombidce collected by Mr. H. H. Smith 
in the Island of St. Vincent; with Descriptions of new 
Genera and Species 156 

On the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the Island of Grenada, 
"West Indies 167 

Ueich, P. W., and Mole, E. E. 

Biological Notes upon some of the Ophidia of Trinidad, 
B. "W. I., with a Preliminary List of the Species recorded 
from the Island 499 

Weie, J. Jennee, P.L.S., P.Z.S., &c. 

Exhibition of a specimen of the " Tsetse " (Glossina mor- 
sitans) from the Transvaal 3 

Woodwaed, A. Smith, P.Z.S. 

A Description of the so-called Salmonoid Pishes of the 
English Chalk. (Plates XLII. & XLIII.) 655 



LIST OF PLATES. 

1S94. 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 



Structure of young- Echidna 



XXX. 



Butterflies from Manica, S.E. Africa 14 

Cercopithecus wolfi 83 

Bunocnemis modestus \ 

Oreochromis niger L ra 

Fig. A. Chromis spihtrua : Fig. B. Lubeo greyorii . . . . ( 

Barbus tanensis > 

Synostosis and Curvature of the Spine in Fishes .... 95 
Tadpoles of Xenopus Icevis 101 

' \ Fossil Bones of sEpyomis 108 

Land-Shells from the Samui Islands 146 

Variety of Rhombus Icevis 246 

Rhinoceros simus, S 329 

New Butterflies from British East Africa 334 

Bones of Mammalian Hands and. Feet {^ 054 

Muscles of Mammalian Hands and Feet ! 

Cavernulctria malabarica 376 

Eudiocrinus yranulatus ") 

Antedon bassett-smitJii 

Figs. 1-3. Patiria briareus ; Figs. 4-6. Archastcr 

tenuis ; Figs. 7-9. Pectinura sphcmisci ^ 392 

Fig. 1. Culcita; Figs. 2 & 3. Salmacis rufa ; Figs. 4 & 5. j 

Layanum decay onale 

Ophiocrene (enigma J 

Fig. 1. Molva abyssorum; Fig. 2. M. vulgaris . . . . ") 
Abdominal Viscera of Molva : Figs. 3-3 a. M. abys- I 

sorum ; Fig. 4. M. vulgaris [ 

Dissections of Flat-fishes : Figs. 5, 6, 7. Pleuronecies f 

platessa; Fig. 8. Ilippoglossus vulgaris) Figs. 9 & 10. 

Solea vulgaris J 



413 



s 



XVI 



Plate 

XXXI. 

xxxir. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 



XL. 



XII. 

XLII. 
XLIII. 
XLIV. 

XLV. 
XLVI. 

XLvn. 

XLVIII. 



Hemitragm jayakari 

Gazella loderi 

Abnormal Vertebral Column of Rana mngiens 

Horns of Fallow Deer 

Sections of Ascaris transfuga 

New Lepidoptera from British East Africa 



Page 

448 
467 
477 
485 
531 



XLIX. 



New Coleoptera of the Genus (EdionycJiis 

Fig. 1. Rana quecketti; Fig. 2. Phrynobatrachtu 
ranoides ; Fig. 8. Casnna obscura ; Fig. 4. Hylam- 
bates millsonii 

Fig. 1. Nectophryne signata-. Fig. 2. Hyla goeldii ; 
Fig. 3. Hylella parvula ; Fig. 4. Dennophis gre- 
gorii ; Fig. 5. D. thomensis J 

Foraminifera from the Microzoic deposits of Trinidad 

Osmeroides leivesiensis I 

Fig. 1. Elopopsis crassus: Figs. 2-6. Aidolepis typus. I 

C'olj)odaspis piisilla 

Agonus gilberti 

Dendrolagus bennettianus 

Fig. 1. (Edura nivaria; Fig. 2. Elasmodactylm tuber-"} 
culosus ; Fig. 3. Urocentrum guentheri | 

Fig. 1. Anolis rixi; Fig. 2. A. rhombifer; Fig. 3- J 
Sceloporus bidleri ; Fig. 4. S. heterolepis ; Fig. 5. ' 
Diploglossus bivittatus ( 

Fig. 1. Tachydromus hnlsti ; Fig. 2. Lygosoma luzon- I 
ense; Fig. 3. L. decipiens ; Fig. 4. Ablcpharus \ 
carsonh J 



557 
609 

640 

647 
655 

664 
670 
693 



722 



LIST OF WOODCUTS. 

1894. 



Page 

Left femur of sEpyornis titan (?), from front 114 

Left femur of JEpyornis (?), from front 114 

Left femur of JEpyornis titan (?), from behind 115 

Left femur of JEpyornis (?), from behind 115 

Young King Vulture in down plumage 103 

Digastric of Pteromys 255 

Shoulder-muscles of Ceredon rupestris 261 

Left fore foot of Sphingurus prehensilis (superficial dissection) 267 

Left fore foot of Castor canadensis (extensor tendons) 269 

Eight fore foot of Cozloge.nys paca 271 

Left fore foot of Ceredon rupestris 272 

Right fore foot of Coelogenys paca (deep dissection) 273 

Right fore foot of Hystrix cristata (deep dissection) 273 

Panniculus of Octodon 274 

Panniculus of Hystrix cristata 275 

Skull of Madoqua guentheri. Side view 324 

Skull of Madoqua guentheri. Top view 325 

Skull of Madoqua phillipsi 327 

Millsonia nigra. Part of the posterior region of the body cut open 

to display the excretory system 381 

Millsonia rubens. Intestinal ceeca 381 

Nannodrilus. Male efferent apparatus 380 

Adult Sole with symmetrical eyes. Anterior region from right side. ) 

The same from left side j J 

Wild Camel of Lob-Nor 447 

Skull of Hemitragus jayakari. Front view 452 

Skull of Hemitragus jayakari. Side view , 453 

Skull of Gazella rufina . . . 468 

Skull of Gazella loderi 471 

Shape of the pupils in the Felidce 482 

Cats' eyes, showing the contraction of iris when exposed to light, &c. 483 
Dissection of the right leg of L'alcarica chrysupelargus, seen from the 

outer side 496 

Dissection of the right leg of Kycticorax gardeni, seen from the outer 

side 497 

Pitoc. Zool. Sue. — 1894. l> 



xvm 

Page 

Dissection of the right leg of Eclectus roraiun, seen from the outer 

side 498 

Psilochorus nir/rifrons. Prsemaxillaris maris 520 

Theridion antiUanum. Bulba genitalis maris 522 

Theridionfucssh/i. Bulba genitalis maris 523 

Theridion sti/lifrons. Cephalothorax maris and Pramiaxillaris maris. 520 

Generative system of Janella macidata 52 < 

Generative system of Janella bitentaculata 528 

Portion of the generative organs of Janella metadata in natural 

position 529 

Portion of the generative organs, showing the distinctness between 
the penis and vas deferens in an example of Janella bitentacu- 
lata 520 

Digestive system of Janella maculata 530 

Cteca of Palamedea 53/ 

Syrinx of Palamedea 538 

Caudal muscles of Palamedea 542 

Muscles of leg of Palamedea. Outer view 549 

Muscles of leg of Palamedea. Inner view 552 

Pelvis of Palamedea 554 

Hyoid bone of Palamedea 554 

Ceratodus forsteri. Hyoid arch, ventral view 632 

Ceratodus forsteri. Hinder portion of the skull with the hyoid arch. 033 

Ceratodus forderi. The hyomandibular and adjacent parts 037 

Atherura africana. Base of skull, showing the temporary premolar 

tooth being replaced by the permanent one .... 076 

Atherura africana. Lumbar vertebra?, showing the position of the 

intercentra 678 

Atherura africana. Posterior surface of the liver 683 

Atherura africana. The lungs from in front 684 

Atherura africana. The brain 687 

Atherura africana. Brachial plexus 688 

Atherura africana. Lumbo-sacral plexus 690 

Ornithorlnjnchus. Muscles of arm 698 

Ornithorhi/nchus. Muscles of front of forearm and hand 701 

Ornithorhi/nchus. Muscles of posterior surface of forearm and hand. 702 

Ornithorhynehwi. Muscles of thigh 705 

Ornithorhi/nchus. Muscles of the posterior surface of leg and sole of 

foot 708 

Omithorhynchtis. Muscles of anterior surface of leg and dorsum of 

foot 709 

Ornithorhi/nchus. Scheme of arteries of trunk, head, and neck .... 714 
Ornithorhijnclius. Stomach and commencement of duodenum .... 718 

Ornithorhi/nchus. Testis and vas deferens 720 

Omithorhynchtis. Heart of, with right ventricle opened 72] 



LIST OF NEW GENERIC TERMS. 



1894. 



Page 
Apbelonotus (Rhynch.) 20S 

Bunocnemis (Reptilia) 85 

Cresera (Lep.) 232 

Dukinfieldia (Lep.) 234 

Elasmodactylus (Reptilia) 726 

Gonatosphrcra (Protozoa) 651 

Grapbea (Lep.) 232 

Hymenobates (Rhynch.) 214 

Lainpruna (Lep.) 231 

Macharaptenus (Lep.) 228 



Page 

Millsonia (Vermes) 380 

Munona (Lep.) 233 

Nannodrilus (Vermes) 383 

Ommaticles (Rhynch.) 159 

Oncerodes (Rhynch.) 159 

Pbasicnecus (Lep.) 585 

Ptycbotricos (Lep.) 227 

Pygaeus (Rhynch.) 187 

Rbapbiceropsis (Lep.) 336 

Spbyrotinus (Aracbn.) 524 

Stilostomella (Protozoa) 649 

Velidia (Rhynch.) 206 



PROCEEDINGS 



GENERAL MEETINGS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 16, 1894. 

Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions to the 
Society's Menagerie during the month of December 1893 : — 

The registered additions to the Society's Menagerie during the 
month of December 1893 were 62 in number. Of these 29 were 
acquired by presentation, 15 by purchase, 7 were born in the 
Gardens, and 11 were received on deposit. The total number of de- 
partures during the same period, by death and removals, was 91. 



Mr. Sclater exhibited a coloured drawing of the head of Cerco- 
pithecus enjihrogaster taken from the specimen of that Monkey iu 
the Paris Museum, and read an extract from a letter addressed to 
him (enclosing it) by M. E. de Pousargues (Preparateur au Labora- 
toire de Mammalogie au Museum, 55 Rue de Buffon). It appeared 
that in the adult of this species the bans on the nose are white, 
and that the species should therefore probably be removed, in Mr. 
Sclater's arrangement of the genus, to " Section A. C. rhinosticti " 
(P. Z. S. 1893, p. 244), in the neighbourhood of 0. petaurista. In 
the type iu the British Museum these hail's were blackish, but 
there were indications of whitish at their bases, and the specimen 
was probably young. 



The Secretary read the following extract from a letter addressed 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. I. 1 



2 MB. C. B. MITFOBD OS ELEPHAS AFB1CASUS. [Jan. IB, 

to him by Mr. 0. B. Mitford, dated Freetown, Sierra Leone, 26tb 
November, 1893 : — 

" I have one of the most interesting phenomena to tell you about, 
which has not been seen in Freetown for the last 60 or 70 years, 
but as it only commenced yesterday I can give you but a short 
account of it now. At 1.30 P.M. yesterday I noticed the hills at 
Wilberforce assuming a very driea-up appearance, which gradu- 
ally extended to the water's edge, and on calling the attention of a 
native to the peculiar change in the appearance of the ' bush ' he 
informed me that Locusts were coming. 

" What he said proved to be correct, for in a very short time huge 
black clouds appeared above the hills, as if a severe storm were 
brewing, and those I at first saw, the advance guard, in the bril- 
liant sunshine gradually gave one an idea that the whole of the sides 
of the hills were on fire ; these hills, I should say, are three miles 
off in a bee-line. 

" At 2.45 p.m. these supposed clouds reached Freetown, and 
proved to be a continuous mass of locusts, which passed without 
intermission till 5.10. p.m., and. as in their progress they were 
only 30 or -40 feet above the ground, a sound like a rushing stream 
at a distance could be distinctly heard. 

" During their course the sky was obscured. Myriads settled on 
the houses, trees, roads, &c, but made no apparent difference in 
the size of the swarms passing over. The whole town was covered 
with their excrement. 

" Last night, when I went out about 10 p.m. to see what was 
going on, I found plenty of locusts in the garden, but on a near 
approach to the plants they dropped suddenly on to the ground. 

" This morning, when I got up about 6 a.m., only two or three 
were to be seen. At 9.45 a.m. the stream began again, but not in 
^uch dense masses as were seen yesterday, and continued up to 1 p.m. 
" A more marvellous sight I have never seen, nor has. so far as I 
can ascertain, the oldest resident in Freetown, although I hear they 
appeared here sixty or seventy years ago. as I said before. 

" As you walk along the roads they rise like a large nock of birds, 
most of them rising and joining the main band, but others coming 
down and taking their places." 

The Secretary stated that Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, of the British 
Museum, in whose hands he had placed specimens of this Locust 
transmitted by Mr. Mitford for examination, had determined them 
to belong to Pachytybtg migratoroides (Eeiche et Fairmaire) (Ferr. 
et Gral. Voy. en Abyss, iii. p. 430), originally described from 
Abyssinia, but recently ascertained to occur also in West Africa. 



A second extract from the same letter referred to the occurrence 
of the Elephant (EUphas africanus) in Sierra Leone : — 

" In reference to the occurrence of the Elephant in Sierra Leone, 
I cau only state, in continuation of what I told you before, that 1 
have been informed, on, I think, very reliable information, that 
within a certain mountainous portion of the western district 



P. Z.S 18 9 4. Plate 1 






Ja Jl ■ 



W.N.I i MFP it-idLdnat. 
MPIMiUi 






Structure of yoxma Echidna. 



aln. aUn.to 



RZ.S.1894.EialeH. 

cUn. 




WlT.P.dfil.adnab. 
MP.P.litk. 



West.Nev/m^- 



Stru-cfure of young Echidna. 



P.Z.S.1894.PlateHL. 







.- 

:th. 



%st,Kewmar imp. 



Stn Ldna. 



1894.] ON THE YOUNG OP ECHIDNA ACTTLEATA. 3 

bounded by the farms or villages of York, John Obey, and Tombo, 
on the sea-shore, and by Pickett Hill in an easterly direction inland 
from Kent, Elephants do exist. 

" Another dead one was found not long ago and a regular scramble 
took place for the flesh. The skull of the one which I got was found 
12 hours' walk from the beach. 

" A farmer named Wise often complained recently to the late 
acting manager that Elephants did a good deal of damage to his 
crops and made deep holes in the ground when they came down to 
drink. 

" I am assured that if there is one Elephant in the district there 
are at least a hundred. This statement I accept with reservation, 
but that they do exist I have not the slightest doubt. 

" At John Obey, a place about halfway between York and Kent, 
the spoor of Elephants can be found on many farms not quite a 
mile away from the village." 

Mr. E. Lydekker, E.Z.S., gave an account of some of the prin- 
cipal objects observed during his recent visit to the La Plata 
Museum, calling special attention to the series of remains of Dino- 
saurian Reptiles, of Cetaceans, and of Ungulates of three different 
suborders. Mr. Lydekker also made remarks on some of the 
specimens of Edentates and of the gigantic birds of the genus 
Brontornis contained in the Museum. 



Mr. Lydekker also exhibited a painting of the head of a Wild 
Goat (Copra cegagrus) of unusual dimensions. 

Mr. J. Jenner Weir, E.Z.S., sent for exhibition a specimen of 
the " Tsetse," Glossina morsitans (P. Z. S. 1850, p. 261, pi. xix.), 
which had been transmitted to him from the Transvaal by Dr. Percy 
Kendall, E.Z.S. 

Mr. W. B. Tegetmeier, F.Z.S., exhibited and made remarks on a 
Pheasant with abnormal plumage assimilating to that of " Pencilled 
Fowls." 

The following papers were read : — 

1. On some Points in the Structure of the Young of Echidna 
aculeata. By W. N. Parker, Ph.D., F.Z.S., Professor 
of Biology in the University College of S. Wales and 
Monmouthshire, Cardiff. 

[Keceived November 7, 1893.] 
(Plates I.-III.) 

At the meeting of the British Association held in Cardiff in 
1891 I exhibited some young specimens of Echidna \ and made a 

1 Brit. Assoc. Report, 18'.)1, p. 093. 



4 prop, w. n. paekeh, ojs xHE [Jan. 16, 

few remarks on the structure of certain parts of the head. The 
present paper refers to the same individuals, and treats of the 
external characters and the structure of the fore part of the head 
only ; at a future time I hope to deal with other regions. 

The specimens are from the collection of my father, who received 
them from Dr. E. P. Ramsay, Curator of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney. I do not know of any description of the external cha- 
racters of the young Echidna ; and as such young specimens are 
very rarely obtained, I have thought it worth while to figure the 
two stages in my possession (Plate I. figs. 1 & 2), the older of which 
is rather smaller thau the young Omithorhynclms figured by my 
father in his ' Mammahan Descent' (p. 25). 

I. External Characters. 

Stage I. (Plate I. fig. 1). — The dorsal side is very convex, the 
head being bent so far round that the snout points directly back- 
wards. The ventral side of the body is flattened, and the trunk 
passes insensibly into the conical tail, the apex of which is directed 
backwards. The length of the animal along the dorsal curve from 
the end of the snout to the tip of the tail is 12*5 cm., and the 
greatest diameter of the body 3 cm. ; the head measures 2*8 cm. in 
length. The integument has a pitted appearance in the dorsal and 
lateral regions of the body, and though no hairs have yet appeared 
at the surface, the places in which the strong spines later break 
through can be plainly seen. The gape is narrow, and extends less 
than halfway along the snout, the anterior part of which is dis- 
tinctly horny, the horn fading off posteriorly, so that the hinder part 
of the snout is covered with a soft integument like that of the rest 
of the head. The nostrils are ovoid and oblique, and a projecting 
septum extends into each from the inner side, about halfway 
across. Between the nostrils a distinct caruncle or " egg-breaker," 
like that of the young OrnithorJiynchus 1 , can be seen at this stage. 
Narrow slits indicate the position of the eyes, the upper and 
lower eyelids being confluent. The external auditory aperture is 
also slit-like, and extends into the thick layer of muscles covering 
the hinder part of the skull. The cloaca is shallow, and the vent 
is plugged by a rounded projection from its walls. 

The fore limbs are larger and stronger than the hind, and the 
digits are provided with well-developed claws, those of the 1st 
and 5th being smaller than, though forming a regular series with, 
the others. The hallux is short and small, and situated more 
proximally than the other digits of the pes : it has a well-marked 
claw. The hind toe is very large, its strong claw projecting far 
beyond those of the remaining three digits, which are of considerably 
less diameter than the 1st, and bear small claws. 

Stage II. (Plate I. fig. 2). — The flexure of the body is similar 
to that seen in Stage I., except that the end of the tail is now bent 
under the body, so that its conical end points towards the snout. 

1 Cf. W. K. Parker, ' Mammalian Descent ' (London, 1885), pp. 45 & 49. 



1894.] TOUlSrG OF ECHIDNA aculeata. 5 

My two specimens of this stage measure respectively along the dorsal 
curve from the end of the snout to the tip of the tail 21*5 cm. (see 
fig. 2) and 25*5 cm., the greatest diameter of the body being about 
6 cm., and the head 4 cm. in length. The rough integument is 
covered with papillae, and the stiff bristles now project about 3 mm. ; 
the position of the stronger and sparser spines amongst these can 
be seen more plainly than in the earlier stage, though they still 
hardly project above the surface. The snout is more plainly 
marked off from the rest of the head than in Stage I., and is relatively 
flatter : it is entirely covered with horn, and much resembles the 
" beak " of Omithorhynchus except in the relative extent of the gape. 
The nostrils are now more completely valvular, and the caruncle 
is no longer recognizable. The eyelids are beginning to separate, 
the conjunctival chamber communicating with the exterior by a 
small aperture. The cloaca has become deeper, folds of the integu- 
ment radiating out from the vent. 

The integument on the ventral side of the body is much folded ; 
and in the larger of the two specimens, which is probably a female, 
a shallow triangular pouch, the apex of which points backwards, 
can be seen between and rather anteriorly to the hind limbs. 
There can be little doubt that this represents the mammary pouch 
as described by Haacke * ; and as it is so distinct at this stage, it 
seems improbable that it would altogether disappear in the adult 
between the periods of suckling. I do not propose to treat of its 
structure or of its relation to the pouch of Marsupials in the present 
paper 2 . 

The pes is now nearly as large as the manus, though its claws 
are not so strongly developed. The calcaneal spur can be seen in 
both specimens, but is considerably larger in the smaller of the 
two, which is probably a male. 

II. Integument of the Head. 

The resemblance of the snout to that of Omithorhynchus has 
already been remarked upon ; and this is more particularly the case 
in the later stage, in which it is relatively flatter than in the 
younger one. As in Omithorhynchus, the lips, as well as the whole 
integument of the snout, are immobile, owing to the development of 
a thick horny layer from the epidermis (Plates II. & III.). The horn 
is much thicker in the older of the two stages, and this is all the 
more remarkable as in the adult the skin in this region can hardly 
be said to be horny at all. The horny layer extends over the 
margins of the gape, and then thins off gradually : it also passes 
inwards to line the external narial passages (Plate II. fig. 4 and 
Plate III. fig. 13). The caruncle (figs, land 4) is formed by a ridge 
of the epidermis on which the horn is especially thick 3 . 

1 W. Haacke, " On the Marsupial Ovum, the Mammary Pouch, and the Male 
Milk-glands of Echidna hystrix," Proc. Roy. Soc. vol. xxxviii. p. T2 ; and Biol. 
Centralblatt, viii. 

2 Cf. H. Klaatsch, Morph. Jahrbuch, Bd. xvii. p. 483. 

3 Cf. Carl Rose, " Ueb. die Zahnleiste und die Eischwiele der Sauropsiden," 
Anat. Anz. vii. Jahrgang, 1892, p. 748. 



6 PROF. W. N. PARKER ON THE [Jan. 16, 

An examination of the end of the snout with a hand-lens shows 
the presence of a number of fine dots on both jaws extending 
about as far back as the gape. These are indicated in figs. 1 and 2. 
Sections show them to be due to the presence of funnel-shaped 
apertures in the horny layer, which extend inwards, surrounded 
by a continuation of the horn, and gradually become narrower 
(figs. 4, 5, 12, and 13). Just beneath each aperture the epidermis is 
prolonged inwards to form an elongated oval process (fig. 12), which, 
slightly below the base of the dermal papilla?, narrows somewhat 
to form a tube extending for some distance into the derma, where 
it becomes convoluted ; its walls are composed of a double layer 
of cells, and the lumen becomes greatly coiled on passing into the 
swollen base of the epidermal process and then communicates 
with the aperture at the base of the horny ingrowth. It will thus 
be seen that these glands are precisely similar in structure to 
ordinary sweat-glands. I should mention that the lumen is not 
developed in the young stages. 

Poulton l has described structures in Omithorhynchus which are 
apparently similar to these, and suggests that they may correspond 
to modified hairs ; this, however, seems tome improbable. I have 
found nothing which could correspond to the sensory organs of the 
bill of Omithorhynchus described by Poulton. 

No hairs, nor any structures resembling hairs, are present on the 
horny snout. Behind this, hairs are developed in abundance (figs. 
2 and 10), and in the older stage the sebaceous glands can be seen 
arising as buds from the hair-follicles. No sweat-glands are 
present on the hairy part of the head ; the rest of the body I 
have not yet examined. It should, however, be remembered that 
G-egenbaur 2 has shown that the mammary glands are modified 
sweat-glands in these animals. 

III. The Oral Cavity. 

Even in the younger stage the mouth has already acquired its 
narrow and tubular form (see figs. 5-7, 10, and 14). The elongated 
tongue is covered with a thin layer of horn at the tip. The sub- 
lingual glands are numerous, and open at various points into the 
floor of the mouth. The naso-palatine canals communicate with the 
oral cavity anteriorly (fig. 6, vp.c.) ; and from this point backwards, 
some distance beyond Jacobson's organ, a number of simple gland- 
tubes, very similar to those already described in the snout, are 
present on the roof of the mouth (tig. 7). Similar glands are also 
present in this region in the young Omithorhynchus. 

The epithelium in certain regions both above and below gives 
rise to horny teeth, which on the anterior part of the lower jaw 
form marked ridges (figs. 5, 7, 14, 16). A dermal papilla extends 
into the thickened epithelial ridge, which produces a thick horny 
layer on its outer surface. 

1 " On the tactile terminal Organs and other Structures in the Bill of Omitho- 
rhynchus," Journ. Pbysiol. vol. v. p. xv. (Proc. Physiol. Soc. 1884). 

2 ' Zur Kenntniss der Mammarorgnne der Monotremen,' Leipzig:. 1S8R. 



1894.] young or echidna aculeata. 7 

The question as to the presence of rudiments of true teeth in 
Echidna is of especial interest. After a fruitless search through 
sections of the older stage, I hoped to be more successful in tbe 
younger specimen, but have not succeeded in finding any indication 
of the development of teeth at all, and am confident that earlier 
stages must be examined before any signs of these organs can be 
recognized. It is certainly remarkable for all traces of them to 
have disappeared so early, especially when we consider how well 
they are developed in Ornithorhynchus ' : this is probably to be 
accounted for by the extreme and early specialization of the mouth 
in Echidna. 

The fact that Eose 2 has succeeded in finding traces of teeth in a 
small embryo of Manis 7*6 cm. long, while they have entirely 
disappeared in older embjros from 17-30 cm. in length, further 
indicates the probable formation and early reduction of a " Zahn- 
leiste " in Echidna. 

IV. The Nose and Jacobson's Organ. 

In the note already referred to I drew attention to the marked 
development of Jacobson's organ in Echidna, and to the fact that it 
possesses a " turbinal " supported by cartilage. The organ had 
been previously recognized in Ornithorhynchus by Sir W. Turner 3 
and my father 4 , and sections of a young specimen of this animal 
in my possession showed that it closely resembles that of Echidna. 
Since the publication of my note, however, Dr. Symington ° has 
given such an excellent account of the nose of Ornithorhynchus, 
comparing it with that of other Mammals and also giving the 
literature of the subject, that it will be only necessary for me to 
refer to this animal for purposes of comparison with Echidna. 

In each stage I bisected the head to one side of the septum 
nasi. The half in which the latter was intact was then decalcified 
and cut into serial sections, the other half being used for purposes 
of dissection. 

Tig. 3 (Plate I.) represents a longitudinal section of the head at 
the older of the two stages, and shows the form and relations of the 
nasal cavity, which is 2*5 cm. in length. A comparison with a figure 
of the adult given by Zuckerkandl ° shows that the nasal cavity is 
now comparatively short and broad (compare also transverse sections 
of both stages, figs. 5-11, 14, and 15, Plates II. & III.). 

The cartilaginous nasal capsule is more complicated than in 

1 Of. E. B. Poulton, Quart. Journ. Micros. Science, vol. xxix. 1888 ; and Old- 
fielrl Thomas, Proc. Roy. Soc. vol. xlvi. 

2 C. Rose, Anat. Anz. vii. Jahrgang, 1892, p. 618. 

:| " The dumb-bell shaped bone in the palate of the Ornithorhynchus com- 
pared with the p re-nasal bone in the Pig," Journ. Anat. and Physiol, vol. xxv. 

4 'Mammalian Descent,' Loudon, 1885, pp. 52 and 54. 

s " On the Nose, the Organ of Jacobson, and the Dumb-bell-shaped Bone in 
the Ornithorhynchus," Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 575. 

8 E. Zuckerkandl, ' Das periphere Geruchsorgan der Saugetbiere,' Stuttgart, 
1887, pi. i. fig. 3. 



8 PROF. W. N. PARKER OK THE [Jan. 16, 

Ornithorhynchus. The thick and solid septum nasi, which is rounded 
off below, gives rise to two lateral ali-nasal wings (aln.) above, 
and these extend anteriorly beyond the septum and support the 
external nostrils on the anterior, inuer, and upper sides. Bather 
further back, each Aving gives rise to a curved rod (fig. 5, aln.tb.) 
(the " ali-nasal turbinal " of W. K. Parker l ), which passes into 
the valvular process already noticed as extending into the nostril 
from the inner side, and a turbhial-like ridge is thus formed from 
the roof of the anterior part of the nasal cavity — this ends 
anteriorly to the " maxillo-turbinal." In Stage II. the ridge 
supports a very complete valve, which can probably close the 
aperture of the nostril completely (fig. 13). It will thus be seen 
that there are no transverse connective-tissue septa in the front 
part of the nose as in Ornithorhynchus. 

Posteriorly to the nostril, the two wings gradually extend further 
downwards, so as to form an outer projecting wall to the nasal 
chambers, and a short distance behind the naso-palatine ducts they 
are continuous ventrally with the partial cartilaginous floor, which 
supports about the outer half of the anterior part of the nasal 
cavities (figs. 7-11, and 14, Plates II. & III.). 

The lower side of the snout, below the nostrils, is supported by 
a large transverse rostral cartilage (figs. 4-6 and 13, rs.), continuous 
dorsally with the two ali-nasal wings in front of the nostril and 
also with the septum nasi. This cartilage becomes constricted off 
from the septum slightly in front of the naso-palatine canals, and 
then forms an independent plate on either side, the swollen 
internal margins of which abut against the base of the septum 
(fig. 5). This thickened edge is separated off from the rest of the 
plate as a club-shaped mass in the region of the naso-palatine duct, 
which passes between the two portions. The inner club-shaped 
portion then becomes hollowed out on the external side, where 
Jacobson's duct enters its cavity as an offshoot from the naso- 
palatine canal, and the cartilage then forms a complete independent 
tube, enclosing Jacobson's organ (figs. 6-8, 14 and 16). The 
lateral part of the cartilaginous nasal floor sends up a process on 
the dorsal side (fig. 6), which soon meets with the roofing cartilage 
(figs. 7-9 and 14) ; a small plate becoming separated off from its 
inner edge (fig. 7), which then meets with its fellow to form a 
median plate lying beneath the two Jacobson's organs (figs. 14 
and 16), and gradually fades off into a median and two lateral 
backwardly directed processes which end beneath the posterior 
part of Jacobson's organ. In the young Ornithorhynchus the nasal 
capsule is simpler and forms a more complete box (fig. 17). 

Even in the older stage, none of the turbinals have begun to 
ossify. The ethmoid turbinals (" Kieehwulste ") are more 
numerous and complicated than in Ornithorhynchus, in which 
Zuckerkandl describes three only, and he therefore considers 
Ornithorhynchus to be " anosraatic," its ethmoid being reduced in 

1 Cf. "On the Structure and Development of the Skull in the Pig," Phil. Trans. 
1874. ! *' 



1894.] YOUNG OF ECHIDNA ACULEATA. 9 

adaptation to its aquatic habits. Symington, however, thought he 
could recognize five, the number characteristic of most osmatic 
mammals, and therefore describes Ornithorhynchus as " micros- 
matic." Echidna, on the other hand, is, to use Turners nomen- 
clature, " macrosmatic " ; and Zuckerkandl describes eight ethmoid 
turbinals in the middle line in this animal. In my younger stage 
I could only recognize six, and in the older seven, which are easily 
seen, and probably a smaller eighth behind these (fig. 3). The 
sphenoidal sinus is represented by a shallow groove. 

In Stage I. the six ethmoid turbinals appear in my dissection as 
simple lobes, all being at about the same level and not reaching 
the septum nasi. Sections, however, show that some, at any rate, 
are becoming subdivided (fig. 11). In Stage II. this subdivision 
into secondary lobes has gone still further, the second to the sixth 
exhibiting distinct folds (fig. 3) ; and in transverse sections a 
considerable complication is seen. In the adult this branching is 
carried further still, so that in the dry skull about the posterior 
half of the nasal chamber is filled with a complicated mass of 
spongy bones (compare pi. i. fig. 3 of Zuckerkandl's memoir) : 
from the fifth backwards these do not extend so far towards the 
median line as the others, on account of the folds on the septum 
nasi in this region, between which the turbinals extend. The 
proper olfactory region of the nasal chamber is thus very largely 
developed, and the cribriform plate is especially large, and per- 
forated, as in all mammals but Ornithorhynchus. The first ethmoid 
turbinal (so-called " naso-turbinal ") is a simple plate extending 
forwards some distance beneath the nasal bone (figs. 3 & 15, e.tb. 1 ), 
with which it becomes united in the adult. The 7th (and ? 8th) are 
also quite simple in Stage II. A sensory and ciliated epithelium 
covers all these except the " naso-turbinal." 

In Stage I. a simple " maxillo-turbinal " (" ISasenmuschel ") ex- 
tends from near the anterior end of the nasal cavity backwards as far 
as the fourth ethmoturbinal (fig. 3, m.tb.), narrowing off gradually 
posteriorly as well as anteriorly. Sections of Stage I. show that 
it has the form of a ridge, which is beginning to become branched 
(figs. 10 and 11), the branching being carried much further in 
Stage II. (fig. 15), a fold being visible even with the naked eye 
along its middle part (fig. 3). The folding is much more compli- 
cated in the adult, and from a comparison with the skeletal parts 
of an adult E. spinosus the maxillary turbinal apparently belongs 
to the folded (" gefalteten '"), and not to the doubly-coiled 
(" doppelgewundenen ") variety, as stated by Zuckerkandl ; while 
in Ornithorhynchus, according to Symington, it " constitutes a well- 
marked example of the branching variety (veriistigte Muschel)," 
though Zuckerkandl describes it as a " gefaltete Nasenmuschel." 
The epithelium covering this turbinal is, as usual, non-sensory, 
resembling that lining the general nasal cavity, and bearing cilia. 

A communication between the two nasal cavities has been 
described by Home in Ornithorhynchus. Zuckerkandl was unable 
to observe this ; but I have satisfied myself that both Monotremes 



10 prof, w. n. park.ek, ok tile [Jan. 16, 

agree in this respect, and that the left and right nasal chambers 
communicate by a slit-like passage beneath the septum just behind 
Jacobson's organ. 

On either side of the septum nasi, a rounded ridge can be seen 
projecting into the nasal cavity vent rally (figs. 5-11 and 14—16), 
beginning close to its anterior end and passing right back into 
the ethmoidal region, where it is eventually continuous with the 
partition separating the nasal chamber from the posterior nares. 
Within the anterior part of this ridge Jacobson's organ is con- 
tained (Ja.), while posteriorly it encloses a racemose gland. This, 
which we may call the "septal gland"' (sp.gl.), opens by a 
large duct into the posterior end of Jacobson's organ and by a 
number of others into the nasal cavity along the anterior part of 
the ridge, one extending even in front of Jacobson's organ (fig. 5). 
The anterior part of the ridge was noticed by Zuckerkandl, but he 
says no more about it. In fig. 3 the part behind Jacobson's organ 
is removed, so as to show the turbinals. 

As already mentioned, Jacobson's cartilage forms a large and 
independent tube, into the anterior end of which an offshoot from 
the naso-palatine duct (fig. 6, Ja.d.) passes to open into the cavity 
of the organ l , which does not extend anteriorly to this point, as it 
does in Ornithorhynclius. In other words, Stenson's duct is situated 
further from the end of the snout in the latter animal, so that 
Jacobson's organ does not extend so much beyond it posteriorly as 
in Echidna. From the outer side of the tube an ingrowth occurs 
so as to form a sort of shelf or turbinal cartilage along the greater 
part of its length (figs. 7, 14, and 16). This disappears posteriorly, 
and the tube itself ends about opposite the anterior extremity of 
the maxillary t.urbinal (figs. 8 and 9), in which region sections 
show a solid piece of cartilage, representing part of the wall of the 
tube, as well as the mass of nerves and duct of the septal gland 
which plug the end of the tube. 

Passing now to the organ itself, it will be seen, by a glance at 
figs. 7, 14, and 16, that the lumen is narrow and horseshoe- 
shaped, owing to the projecting shelf on the outer wall. In 
Ornithorhynclius this " Jacobson's turbinal " is distinctly coiled 
towards the ventral side, and the cartilage follows the curve 
(fig. 17), so that if straightened out it would more than reach to 
the opposite wall of the organ. In Echidna the shelf extends 
almost straight across the organ, leaving a narrow lumen between 
it and the wall, and the supporting cartilage only passes about 
halfway along the shelf. In this respect the Jacobson's organ 
of Echidna may be said to be less highly developed than that of 
Ornithorhynclius : moreover in the young of the latter it is 
relatively slightly larger than in the adult and than in the young 
Echidna. 

A sensory epithelium lines the concave margin of the lumen, and 

1 For details as regards Jacobson's organ in other mammals compare 
Herzfeld, P., " Ueb. das Jacobson's Organ des Mrnsehen u. tier Saugethiere," 
Znol. Jahrb., Abth. f. Anat. u. Ontog., Bd. iii. 



1894.] TOFNG OF ECHIDNA ACTTLEATA. 11 

this is much thicker than the non-sensory epithelium covering the 
shelf, which is columnar and stratified, and bears especially strong 
cilia (fig. 16). I was unable to recognize any cilia on the sensory 
epithelium. The function of " Jacobson's turbinal " must there- 
fore be a purely mechanical, and not a sensory one. The sub- 
epithelial tissue on the dorsal and internal side of the organ 
encloses large bundles of olfactory nerves, which send branches to 
the other parts. A number of small gland-tubes are present in 
the connective tissue of the turbinal, and these open at intervals 
into the lumen of the organ. 

On the dorsal and lateral side of Jacobson's cartilage a thick 
mass of tissue is present between it and the epithelium covering 
the ridge which projects into the nasal cavity and in which the 
whole organ is enclosed. This tissue contains a number of simple 
glands, which also extend posteriorly to Jacobson's organ, exter- 
nally to the more complicated " septal gland," and open at intervals 
into the nasal cavity (figs. 6-11 and 14-16) ; the septal gland 
with its ducts is therefore of great extent, passing along almost 
the entire length of the nasal chamber. 

The epithelium covering the whole ridge is columnar and 
ciliated like that lining the general nasal cavity, and passes into 
stratified pavement-epithelium behind the naso-palatine duct, the 
latter form extending back still further on the nasal floor. 

Grland-tubes similar to those just described are also present in 
great abundance beneath the epithelium of the posterior part of 
the maxillo-turbinal (=Steno's gland?) (figs. 11 and 15), and also 
to a less extent beneath that of the ethmo-turbinals and other 
parts of the nasal cavity. 



I do not propose to describe the structure of the eye here, and 
wdl only mention that in the young Echidna it lies some distance 
from the surface, and a groove, lined by a thick cuticle, extends 
inwards towards it from the integument. 

In Stage I. the two layers of epithelium bounding this groove 
join at its base so as to form a solid band connecting the con- 
junctiva with the epidermis. 

In Stage II. the eyelids are beginning to separate, a narrow 
slit being present in their middle part. There is a very large 
Harderian and a smaller lacrymal gland, and folds of the epithelium 
of the eyelids apparently represent the developing Meibomian 
glands. The naso-lacrymal duct (n.d.) opens into the outer side 
of the nasal chamber rather further back than Stenson's duct, in 
a bay between the " ali-nasal turbinal " and the floor of the chamber. 
From this point it extends directly backwards, just outside the 
nasal capsule, to the conjunctival chamber. 



Neglecting their more obvious resemblances and differences, 
and confining ourselves to the observations recorded above, it will 



12 PROF. W. N. PARKER ON THE [Jan. 16, 

be seen that the young Echidna resembles Ornithorhynchus in 
possessing : — 

1. A thick horny layer covering the snout, as well as horny 
teeth and a horny caruncle for breaking open the egg-shell. 

2. Glands resembling ordinary sweat-glands opening on the 
snout as well as on the anterior part of the palate. 

3. A highly developed Jacobson's organ, resembling that of 
Lizards and Snakes, enclosed in an independent tubular cartilage, 
and possessing a large " turbinal " supported by a cartilaginous 
shelf continuous with the investing tube. 

4. A complicated " maxillo- turbinal." 

5. A communication between the two nasal cavities, as in 
certain birds. 

6. Numerous glands in connection with the nasal chamber and 
Jacobson's organ, including a specially large " septal gland " and a 
" Steno's gland." Most of these characteristics are peculiar to 
Monotremes amongst Mammals. 

On the other hand, Echidna differs from Ornithorhynchus in : — 

1. The absence of any rudiments of true teeth in the young of 
12 cm. in length and onwards, and the early extreme specialization 
of the entire mouth-cavity. 

2. The possession of a mammary pouch in the young female. 

3. The less solid character of the nasal capsule, the much higher 
development of the ethmoid turbinals, and the absence of transverse 
connective-tissue septa in the anterior part of the nasal cavity. 

4. The slightly smaller relative size of Jacobson's organ and of 
its turbinal, the organ also not extending anteriorly to the naso- 
palatine canal. 

Since his communication already referred to, Dr. Symington ' 
has shown that the Jacobson's organ of Marsupials conforms to the 
general type met with in the Eutheria, and thus differs markedly 
from that of the Prototheria. The former may very probably 
have arisen from the latter, but it has undergone various degrees 
of degeneration : a very slight step in this direction has possibly 
occurred in Echidna. Symington is probably correct in his 
opinion that Jacobson's organ reaches its highest deA^elopment in 
the Monotremes — higher even than in Lizards and Snakes, in which 
it presents many points in common with that of the Prototheria. 

It certainly seems probable that " Ornithorhynchus is far the 
most primitive type " 2 of the two Monotremes : the young Echidna 
resembles Ornithorhynchus much more than does the adult, and is 
very highly specialized as regards many characters besides those 

1 " On the Organ of Jacobson in the Kangaroo and Rock Wallaby (Maeropus 
giganteus and Petrogale penieillata)," Journ. of Anat. and Physiol, vol. xxvi., 
n. s. vol. vi. 1892. 

Quite recently Rose has described the Jacobson's organ in embryos of the 
Wombat and Opossum, and has shown that in the former its duct is situated 
on the floor of the organ as in Ornithorhynchus, and not at its anterior end ; 
and also that a large mucous gland is connected with its posterior end (Anat. 
Anz. viii. Jahrgang, 15 Sept. 1893, p. 766). 

2 W. K. Parker, he. cit. p. 36. 



1894.] YOUNG OF ECHIDNA ACULEATA. 13 

referred to here. But though Ornithorhynchus has probably 
remained closer to the Prototherian stock than Echidna, the 
presence of a horny bill in both forms as well as the characters to 
which attention has recently been drawn by Westling 1 and Howes 2 
seem to indicate the close genetic relation of the two genera, in 
spite of their special adaptive characters. 

Note (Jan. 8th, 1894). — Since this paper was sent in for publi- 
cation, I have received from Prof. Wilson and Mr. Martin a copy 
of their recent paper, " Observations upon the Anatomy of the 
Muzzle of Ornithorhynchus " (Macleay Memorial Volume, part 6), 
in which it is stated that " the epidermis of the muzzle of Pla- 
typus is no more ' horny ' than that of a dog's nose, from the 
texture of which indeed it does not greatly differ." There is 
no doubt, however, that in my specimens of the young of both 
genera the horny layer of the epidermis covering the muzzle is 
so thick as to justify one in speaking of a "horny" snout, even 
though this is of course more flexible than the beak of a Turtle or 
Bird : and in these specimens there can have been no possibility 
of a partial desiccation. 

I should also mention that " the peculiar rod-like tactile organs 
in the integument and mucous membrane of the muzzle of 
Ornithorhynchus^ previously described by Poulton, have been 
treated of by the same authors in part 7 of the ' Macleay Memorial 
Volume,' in which it is stated that no such organs are present on 
the anterior portion of the snout and palate of Echidna: this 
agrees with my own observations. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate I. 
Fig. 1. Ventral view of a young Echidna aculeata, 125 cm. in length along the 
dorsal curve (Stage I.). 

2. Ventral view of an older (male) specimen, 21 - 5 cm. in length (Stage II.). 

3. The snout in longitudinal section (Stage II.), the cut having been made 

to the left side of the septum nasi, so as to show the left nasal chamber. 
The greater part of the glandular ridge on the septum has been re- 
moved, the anterior part, enclosing Jacobson's organ, being left in situ. 

Plate II. 
Figs. 4-11 represent transverse sections through the snout of Stage I. 
Fig. 4. Through the external nostril and caruncle. 

5. Through the " ali-nasal turbinal," just in front of Jacobson's organ. 

6. Through the naso-palatine and Jacobson's ducts. 

7. Through about the middle of Jacobson's organ. 

8. Through the posterior end of Jacobson's organ. 

9. Rather farther back than fig. 8, showing the end of Jacobson's cartilage. 
1U. Through the septal gland and maxillo-turbinal. 

11. Through the septal gland, maxillo-turbinal, and ethmo-turbinal. 

12. Section through the integument and a sweat-gland of the lower jaw 

(Stage II.). 

1 Bihang till K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. (Stockholm), Bd. xv. 1890. 

2 " On the Mammalian Pelvis, with special reference to the young of 
Ornithorhynchus anatinus" Journ. Anat. and Physiol, vol. xxvii. (1893). 



14 



MR. E. TEIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES PROM [Jail. 16, 



Plate III. 

Figs. 13-15 represent transverse sections through the snout of Stage II. 
Fig. 13. Through the external nostrils. 

14. Through about the middle of Jaeobson's organ. 

15. Through the septal gland, maxillo-turbinal, and 1st ethtno-turbinal 

(" naso-turbinal "). 

16. Jaeobson's organ from the section represented in fig. 14, more highly 

magnified. 

17. Transverse section of the snout of a young Omithorhynchics slightly 

larger than Stage II. of Echidna. The section passes through 
Jaeobson's organ behind the naso-palatine duct, and is drawn for 
comparison with fig. 14. 

List of Abbreviations. 



aim. Ali-uasal cartilage. 
aln.tb. Ali-nasal " turbinal." 
0. Caruncle. 
c.n. External nostril. 
e.tb. Ethmoturbinals. 
h. Horny layer of snout. 
hr. Hairs. 
h.t. Horny teeth. 
Ja. Jaeobson's organ. 
Ja.c. Cartilage of Jaeobson's 

organ. 
Ja.d. Duct of Jaeobson's organ. 
Ja.gl. Gland-tubes of Jaeobson's 

organ. 
Ja.n. Nerves of Jaeobson's organ. 
Ja.tb. " Turbinal " of Jaeobson's 
organ. 
m. Mouth-cavity. 
vnn. Lower jaw. 



m.tb. Maxillo-turbinal. 
ti.i: Nasal cavity. 
n.d. Naso-lacrymal duct. 
n.gl. Small glands of the nose. 
np.c. Naso-palatine canal. 
p.ffl. Palatine (sweat) glands. 
r. Ridge on septum nasi. 
rs. Cartilaginous rostrum or 

floor of nasal chamber. 
s.n. Septum nasi. 
sp.gl. Septal gland. 
sp.gl.d. Ducts of septal gland. 
sp.gl.d'. Duct of septal gland which 
enters Jaeobson's organ. 
St.gL Steno's gland. 
sw.gl. Sweat-glands. 
t. Tongue. 
vo. Vomer. 



2. On a Collection of Butterflies made in Manica, Tropical 
South-east Africa, by Mr. F. C. Selous, in the year 
1892. By Roland Trimen, F.R.S., &c._, Curator of the 
South- Africau Museum, Cape Town \ 

[Received November 13, 1893.] 

(Plates IV.-VI.) 

In cornmunicatiug to the Zoological Society this account of what 
1 believe to be the first collection of Butterflies made in the 
Manica Country, I am fortunate in being able to preface it by the 
following interesting sketch of that hitherto very little-known 

1 Mr. A. G. Butler, who, in Mr. Trimen's absence, has kindly corrected the 
proofs of this paper, sends the subjoined remarks : — 

" I think it would be well to call your attention to the fact that Mr. Trimen 
has unwittiugly redescribed some of the species recorded in my paper on 
Mr. Johnston's collections from Nyasaland (P. Z. S. 1893, p. 643) not yet pub- 
lished. For example, the Charaxes (p. 45) which he calls C. selousi is palpably 
only a slight variety of my C. whytei {op. cit. p. 649) , Lyciena exclusa (p. 47) 
is evidently the male of my Castalius hypoleucus (op. cit. p. 660) [N.B. Trimen 
does not adopt the modern genera proposed for the Lycceninee] ; Cyclopides 



P.Z.SJ834.P2ateIV: 




"WP-uxkias cKromo Irtk. "Weat, Ne-wman nn.p 

Butterflies from Manic a, S.E.Africa. 



P.Z.S.1894.PlateV. 




WPiipjnss dn-omoiiik. 



"Wf St, NVwryi JTl l TTTp 



Butterflies from Manic a,, S.E.Africa. 



EZ.S.18 94. Plate VI. 




~W Purkiss chroxu o L+h . 



W&sc,!N( ... 



imp 



Butterflies from Matuca S.E.Africa. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 15 

tract from the pen of my friend Mr. Selous. It will probably be 
new to many who are well acquainted with his name as an explorer, 
a hunter, and a pioneer, to learn that Mr. Selous has not by any 
means restricted himself to large game, but has for many years 
kept an eye upon such " small deer " as the entomologist loves. 
From time to time I have had the pleasure of recording many 
specimens of his collecting, but the highlands of the South-African 
Interior generally are poor in Lepidoptera ; and it was not until 
the beginning of last year that Mr. Selous found himself at the 
best season in an exceptionally rich field, and with characteristic 
energy set to work to make the most of the opportunity. To 
construct in the brief space of three mouths from 60 to 70 miles 
of waggon-road in Tropical Africa, with raw Mashuna labour and 
very scant European superintendence, and in the height of summer, 
is a task well calculated to tax to their utmost the powers of any 
man, however inured to such exertions ; and it is amazing how 
Mr. Selous found both time and strength enough to form such a 
fine entomological collection and to note locality and date for 
every specimen. 

Mr. Selous writes as follows : — 

" I reached Umtali from Salisbury at the end of January, 1892, 
at the height of the rainy season, having been sent down by the 
British South Africa Company to construct a road from Umtali to 
Chimoia's Kraal. This work occupied me for three months — the 
three best months of the year, as it happened, for collecting 
insects — and during that period I devoted every spare hour of 
every single day to the diligent collecting of Butterflies and 
Beetles 1 . 

" I commenced to collect immediately upon leaving Umtali 
township. Umtali lies at a height of about 3800 feet above the 
sea-level in an open grassy valley surrounded by hills. The river 
Umtali flows just below the township. Beyond this river the road 
lies through an open grassy country to the foot of Christmas Pass, 
and then at once commences to ascend to the top of the Pass 
through shady cuttings bordering swift-running little streams 
shaded by trees and ferns. The hill-sides are all covered with 
open forest. Although all the conditions seemed so favourable for 



mineni (p. 72) is in ray opinion the Ceratrichia stellata of Mabille ; and Pam- 
jjhila Arnhazo (p. 74) is Pamphila ranoha of West wood (which is a species of 
Osmodes). In Plate IV .my Pvripli/sia johnstoni is figured as Physcaneiora pione 
of Godinan (this identification is, I think, correct ; the genus Physccsnetira being 
new to me), but Mr. Godman's figure is somewhat heavily coloured, and thus 
I failed to remember it. Mr. Trimen and I have both figured the male, 
Godman the female. Mr. Trimen, on the same Plate, figures Precis simia, 
Wallengr., which appears to me to be the insect described by me some years 
ago as Junonia micromera (Ann. & Mag, Nat. Hist. ser. 4, xviii. p. 482), but 
this name is not quoted as a synonym, either in this paper or in Mr. Trimen's 
work on South African Butterflies." — Ed. 

1 My colleague, Mr. Louis Peringuey, has mounted and arranged the 
Goleoptera collected by Mr. Selous. He finds 166 species, represented by 510 
examples, and provisionally recognizes 15 species as probably new to science. 



V 

16 MB. R. TRIMEN OK BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

Butterflies, 1 did not take any great number on the Uintali side of 
Christmas Pass, partly doubtless owing to the fact that during 
the greater part of the time I was working there the weather was 
very rainy ; but as soon as I had crossed the Pass and got to the 
coast side of the range of hills to the south of Uintah, I at once 
found myself in an excellent collecting ground. As I had to make 
a long cutting down the side of the mountain and blast away a lot 
of hard rock, I was luckily enabled to remain in this happy hunting- 
ground for nearly a month. Scarcely a day passed that 1 did not 
catch something new to me. Just below Christmas Pass was an 
isolated granite hill, very thickly wooded on its lower sides, and in 
the hollow between this hill and the main range was a deep shady 
raviue, at the bottom of which ran a small stream. At the top of 
the ravine the country was covered with bush interspersed with 
large granite boulders, and beyond this again open prairie-land 
running up the hill-sides, on which flowers of many varieties were 
very plentiful. Thus in a small extent of ground I found a great 
diversity of conditions and many different species of Butterflies. 
The elevation of this portion of the country is about 3000 feet. 

" After leaving Christmas Pass the road leads through open 
prairie-land for four or five miles to the head of the Mineni Valley. 
This open grass country is intersected by the Sikuva Eiver and 
several of its tributaries. I did not take many Butterflies in this 
part of the country. 

" The Mineni Valley runs between two high ranges of hills, and 
is for the most part well wooded with open forest, intermixed with 
large open glades entirely free from forest or bush. Several large 
tiibutaries flow into the Mineni from the surrounding ranges of 
mountains, and innumerable smaller streams. The banks of these 
streams, overhung as they were by large shady trees and ferns, I 
found to be very favourable places for collecting, and I caught a great 
many sorts of Charaxes and Skippers drinking at the fords which 
we cut across the streams for the waggon road. It was also in the 
Mineni Valley that I was lucky enough to find a tree from one of 
whose branches some sap was exuding, which proved a constant 
attraction to many species of Charaxes : and on this tree I caught 
a fine series of C. bohemani, one of the handsomest of a genus that 
are often very difficult to catch. 

" After leaving the Mineni Valley one gets out of the hills and 
enters upon a level country covered almost entirely with forest, 
sometimes free from underwood but in places becoming thick 
jungle. This country is intersected by many rivers, such as the 
Bevue (into which the Mineni flows), and the Lusika and Lopod/i. 
The general altitude of this part is about 2500 feet above sea-level. 
At the river Lusika I found another tree, a species of Acacia, which 
was much frequented by Butterflies of the genus Charaxes, and 
here I captured the only specimen of C. azota that I saw — a female 
in very fine condition. 

" I do not think there is anything more to be said about the 
country, except that during the whole of the time I was working 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 17 

between the Lusika River and Chimoia's the weather was dull and 
rainy and unfavourable for collecting. Had it been fine I might 
have seen and caught a few more specimens. 

" P.S. — The Pungwe Valley, in which I caught a few Butterflies 
last September and October, is covered with forest and intersected 
by numerous streams. The altitude is here, however, below 1000 
feet. Below Sarmento, and from there to the coast, there is a 
great deal of open country covered for the . most part with ex- 
cessively long grass." 

The tract so well described by Mr. Selous is a belt of not more 
than about ten miles in width, running east and west between 
S. lat. 18° 50' and 19°, and E. long. 32° 32' and 33° 20'. Prom 
Chimoia's to Sarmento and the Pungwe River is a narrower con- 
tinuation of the same belt to the eastward for another sixty miles, 
at first a little north but afterwards slightly south of the 19th 
parallel. Prom the existing maps the entire tract seems to be less 
than 200 miles south of the nearest reach of the Zambesi. 

Including two forms of Mycalesis which I have not been able to 
determine with certainty, and two of Terias which I cannot 
satisfactorily place, Mr. Selous's collection contains representatives 
of 166 species, represented by over 1100 examples. This is a very 
good result of three months' collecting, but it must not by any 
means be regarded as completely representing the Butterfly fauna 
of the district, as there can be no doubt that many forms known to 
range both north and south of Manica, although not represented 
in Mr. Selous's collection, must occur in the intermediate tract. 
Pifteen such species, for instance, are recorded from the Zambesi 
Valley and from extra-tropical South Africa — ten of them ranging 
widely also in other parts of the continent — and these can hardly 
be absent from Manica. Moreover, a certain proportion of species 
are sure to be peculiar to the dry-season months, during which 
Mr. Selous had not the opportunity of collecting. 

Of the 165 species in the collection 44 are of general distribution 
south of the Sahara ; and of the remainder, 26 (of which 9 appear 
to be undescribed) seem peculiar to the South-Tropical area. As 
many as 51 inhabit both the South-Tropical and the South Extra- 
tropical areas, and 13 others are also found in both these areas, 
but hitherto, as regards the former area, have been recorded from 
Manica only. Twelve are dispersed through both these areas as 
well as in part of the West North-Tropical area, and eight through 
the two former and also the East North-Tropical area ; while seven 
others inhabit both Tropical areas, but are unknown in the South 
Extra-tropical area. Three (DeudorLv ccerulea, Durbania hilde- 
gcvrdi, and Pterygospidea galenus) seem elsewhere to be recorded 
from the West of both Tropical areas, and one (Lycana antinorii) 
from Abyssinia only. 

The collection is disappointing in one respect, viz., its deficiency 
in mimicking species. There is no example of any form of Euralia 
or Pseudacrcea, and the only imitative Butterflies represented are 
the female Diadema misippus and two forms of the female Papilio 

Pitoc. Zool. Sou— -1S94, No. 11. 2 



18 Mil. It. 'IRIMEIS ON BUTTERFLIES EROM [Jail. 16, 

cenea. Auioug the rarer aud more interesting species are : — Fhy8- 
cceneura pione and Melanitis libya (both hitherto represented by 
single specimens) ; Pseudonympha vigilans, previously unknown to 
extend into the tropical area ; Acrcea asema and A. acrita ; Planema 
jnhnstoni, not hitherto known from south of Usambara ; Precis 
simia (of which only the type and one other South-African example 
had before been recorded) ; Precis artaxia ; Gharaxes lasti ( $ ), 
G. azota, C. pollux (not apparently received before from any part 
on or near the East Coast), and G. yuderiana ( $ ) ; Lyccena antinorii 
and L. poygei ; Teracolus celimene ; Thymelicus capanas ; Abantis 
zambesina ; and Hesperia unicolor. 

The apparently undescribed species are the following, viz. : — 

Nyinphalidae. 
(Nymphalinse.) 

Charaxes manica, p. 43. 
,, selousi, p. 45. 

Lyctenidae. 

Lyccena exclusa 1 , p. 47. 
Lyccenesthes lunidata, p. 51. 
Chrysorychia cruenta, p. 55. 
Durbania puellaris, p. 59. 

Hesperidse. 

Gyclopides mineni, p. 72. 
Pamphila zimbazo, p. 74. 
„ chirala, p. 76. 

Mr. Selous personally brought down his collections towards the 
close of last year, and I thus had the advantage of obtaining and 
writing down his notes on the habits of each species as I unpacked 
the specimens. 

Family Nymph a lid jE. 
Subfamily DastaiNjE. 
Genus Danais, Latr. 

1. Danais chrysipptts (Linn.). 

Three of the four specimens are of the ordinary typical form, 
but the fourth, taken at Sarmento on the Pungwe River, is of the 
var. alcipjms, Cram., and has the white area in the hind wings 
almost as largely developed as in the West-African specimens. 

Genus Amaueis, Hiibn. 

2. Amauris echeria (Stoll). 

The two specimens (male and female) were taken at Christmas 
Pass in February. They belong to the var. albimaculata, Butl., 

1 In ti footnote (p. 48) I have described as Lyccena mashuna a close ally of this 
species previously discovered by Mr. Selousinthe adjacent district of Mashuna - 
land. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 19 

characterized by having all the spots of the fore wings white and 
the underside paler and browner. These examples are small (exp. 
al. 6 2 in. 9 lin., 5 3 in.) ; and the male has the fore wings 
decidedly less elongated apically than usual, while the ochry- 
yellow band of the hind wings is in both sexes paler and rather 
naiTOwer. 

Judging from the brief description (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1888, 
p. 91), I should refer to this variety of A. eclieria the A. hanning- 
tonii of Butler, from Terta near Kilima-njaro. I also consider 
that A. jacksoni, E. M. Sharpe (op. cit. 1891, p. 633, pi. xlviii. 
fig. 2), from Sotik, Kavirondo, is inseparable from the same variety, 
only differing in the reproduction on the upperside of a good many 
more of the hind-marginal and submarginal spots of both wings 
always present on the underside. 

3. Amaueis ochlea (Boisd.). 

Euplaea ochlea, Boisd. App. Voy. de Deleg. dans l'Afr. Aust. 
p. 589 (1847). 

Six examples captured in the Pungwe River present no variation 
from the Natalian type-form. 

4. Amatjbis dominicanus, Trim. 

Amauris dominicanus, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1879, 
p. 323. 

Three specimens from Pungwe River quite agree with extra- 
tropical examples. Mr. Selous noted a good many of this con- 
spicuous species settling on bushes among large trees in a shady 
ravine. 

Subfamily Satybinje. 

Genus Tpthima, Westw. 

5. Ypthima astebope, Klug. 

A male (Christmas Pass) and a female (Mineni Valley) are 
above the usual size and paler ; in these respects, in the distinctness 
of the common submarginal dark streak, and in the well-defined 
pale space round the outlines of the fore wings they approach those 
brought from Tropical S.W. Africa by Mr. Eriksson ; but as regards 
the underside, the minute striolation of both wings and the ocelli of 
the hind wings are much better developed and approximate these 
two examples to the smaller specimens received from Natal and 
Zululand. 

6. Tpthima itonia, He wits. 

Ypthima itonia, Hewits. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 3rd ser. ii. 
p. 287, pi. 18. fig. 13 (1865). 

There are four males of this distinct species — three from 
Christmas Pass and one from Mineni Valley. In the hind wings 
the minute subapical and inferior anal-angular ocelli are wanting 
on the upperside, and in two examples the first and third in the 

2* 



20 "Mil. E. TRIMBN OW BUTTEKFEIEB FROM Man. 16, 

series of seven ocelli are very minute and subobsolete on the 
underside. In addition to the median narrow brown fascia on the 
underside (described as " rufous " by Hewitson), there is a shorter 
parallel pre-median one, variable in distinctness but well marked in 
one example. 

This species does Dot appear to have been met with so far to the 
South before now. It has a very wide range, the locality of the 
examples on which the species was founded being the White Nile ; 
while Fernando Po, Gold Coast, and Angola are the habitats 
given in Kirby's ' Catalogue of the Hewitson Collection ' (p. 125), 
and Mr. Butler (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1888, p. 59) records two 
examples as sent by Eniin Pasha from two localities in the 
Equatorial Province of Central Africa. The South-African Museum 
possesses two specimens taken at Sierra Leone. 

Genus Physcjsneura, Wallengr. 

7. PhyscjExei'ra pione, Godm. (Plate IV. fig. 1, d •) 

Physcmieura pione, Godm. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1880, p. 183, pi. xix. 
figs. 2,3 [$]. 

This ally of P. panda (Boisd.), which in the creamy-white of the 
upperside exhibits some approach to P. leda (Gerst.), from 
Mombasa, was described from a single female example, recorded 
as taken by Mr. J. T. Last in the Gnuru Hills, opposite Zanzibar. 

A good series is in the collection from Manica under notice, a 
few having been taken in Christmas Pass but many more in the 
Mineni Valley. I give the following description of the male : — 

J . Exp. al. 1 in. 4—6 lin. 

Creamy-white, with fuscous borders. Fore wing: fuscous border 
rather narrow from base as far as extremity of discoidal cell, but 
broad apically and thence gradually narrowing to posterior angle ; 
inner margin with a broad fuscous border from base, bounded 
superiorly by median nervure and its 1st nervule, and narrowing 
abruptly just before posterior angle, where it joins hind-marginal 
border: along inner edge of hind-marginal border, between 1st 
and 3rd median nervules, two more or less distinct black spots ; 
basal swelling of costal nervure ochre-yellow, traces of the striola- 
tion of the underside visible, chiefly in basal half : two submarginal 
black streaks, parallel and close together, just perceptible in fuscous 
border. Hind wing : costa narrowly and faintly clouded with 
fuscous ; apex and hind margin with a rather broad fuscous border, 
irregular along its inner edge, where it is more or less distinctly 
marked by a series of black spots ; submarginal streaks as in fore 
wing, except that they are bordered, very unequally and inter- 
ruptedly, towards anal angle by two white streaks : striolation of 
underside very apparent along inner-marginal area. Cilia whitish. 
Underside. — Creamy, slightly yellower than upperside ; each wing 
along costal and inner-marginal borders transversely marked with 
black striolae of variable length and thickness (here and there 
confluent), and with a submarginal series of ochre-yellow ocelli 



1894.] MASTCA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 21 

centred with pale metallic golden ; besides two parallel submarginal 
black streaks, an inner less regular catenulated one outwardly 
bounding the series of ocelli. Fore iving : basal swelling of costal 
nervure ochre-yellow ; a few striolations usually completely across 
basal third, but otherwise the creamy middle area is clear from 
base to ocelli ; the latter form a nearly straight series of five, of 
which the last (between 2nd and 3rd median nervuies) is usually a 
little apart from and smaller than the rest, with the exception 
of the first. Hind iving : striolation well developed in inner- 
marginal area, but very rarely extending at any point into discoidal 
cell ; ocelli seven, of which the first is separate from and con- 
siderably before the rest (being between subcostal nervuies), while 
the others are contiguous (the 6th and 7th confluent). 

The male is smaller than the female (escp. al. 1 in. 4|-7 lin.), and 
has the fuscous borders much darker on the upperside, where also 
the ochre-yellow ocelli (always more or less w ell-marked in the 
female) are represented only by two or three indistinct black spots. 
On the underside the male differs constantly in the restriction of 
the black striolation to the costal and inner-marginal borders, 
■whereas in the female this covers all the area in both wings except 
a small discal space immediately before the ocelli. 

P. pione resembles P. leda in its whitish fuscous-bordered upper- 
side, but in its striolation and position of the ocelli on the under- 
side, as well as in its stouter structure throughout, is more nearly 
related to P. 'panda. The fuscous bar along the inner margin of 
the fore wings on the upperside is a Aery striking feature in pione, 
and gives the species a curious superficial likeness to some of the 
smaller female Teracoli and Terias in the distant group of Pierince. 

This very interesting Physaeneura was found during the greater 
part of March, flying very slowly in open forest and settling on 
grass. In Natal I found its close ally, P. panda, quite away from 
forests, frequenting steep exposed hill-sides and often settling on 
the bare ground. 

Genus Pseudonympha, "Wallengr. 

8. Pseudonympha yigilans, Trirn. 

Pseudonympha vigilans, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 84. n. 15 (1887). 

The single good example (a female) of this Butterfly was 
captured in the Christmas Pass on the 11th February, a locality 
about 400 miles northward of the most northern of the previously 
recorded stations of this generally distributed South- African species, 
viz. the Lydenburg district of Transvaal. Mr. Selous's specimen 
comes nearest to the Natalian and Transvaalian examples, but is 
characterized on the upperside by the unusual restriction of the 
fulvous patch in the fore wing (which, though it extends rather 
nearer to the hind margin beneath the ocellus, does not impinge 
on the discoidal cell), and by the well-developed small ocellus near 
the anal angle of the hind wing ; while on the underside the hoary- 
grey and brown mottlings are more sharply contrasted, and both 



22 ME. B. TTtlMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

ocelli of the hind wings, though small, are distinctly marked. A 
second much-worn female, taken in the same locality on 22nd 
February, appears to resemble the first very closely. 

Genus Mycalesis, Hiibn. 

9. Mycalesis safitza, Hewits. 

Mycalesis safitza, Hewits. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 394. n. 10, pi. 66. 
fig. 3 (1851). 

All the examples (two from Christmas Pass and twelve from 
Mineni Valley) have the underside ocelli strongly or very strougly 
developed, a feature which, as I have pointed out (S.-Afr. Butt. hi. 
p. 395), is characteristic of the summer or wet-season form of this 
Mycalesis. The specimens in all respects agree with the tropical 
type-form more closely than with extra-tropical examples, one 
character being the feeble expression of the ocelli on the upperside 
of the fore wings, which in two of the males are obsolete, and a 
second the more strongly-marked common pale median streak on 
the underside. 

Genus Melanitis, Fabr. 

10. Melanttis led a (Linn.). 

Papilio leda, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 773. n. 151 (1767). 

Of nine specimens (six males and two females from Mineni 
Valley and one male from Christmas Pass) taken from 27th 
February to 26th March, all but one — a female from the former 
locality captured on 12th March — are of the typical smaller and 
darker form, with largely-developed underside ocelli, which is 
characteristic of the summer or wet season. All the dated material 
obtained on the Natal Coast by Mr. A. D. Millar and myself and 
at Delagoa Bay by the Bev. H. Junod confirms Mr. L. de Niceville's 
discovery at Calcutta, that in this widely-distributed and highly 
variable species there are two well-marked seasonal forms, viz. 1, 
a summer or wet-season race, superiorly duller but inferiorly with 
well-developed and conspicuous ocelli, and possessing non-augulated 
or but slightly augulated fore wings ; and 2, a winter or dry-season 
race, superiorly brighter, more or less rufous, but inferiorly with 
very imperfect, reduced, and obsolescent ocelii, and possessing 
well-angulated fore wings. As in the case of Mr. Selous's 
example just referred to, occasional specimens of the dry-season 
form are met with in the wet season, and vice versa ; but these are 
so very few that they can only be regarded as accidentally late 
survivors of the preceding, or early precursors of the succeeding 
generation. 

11. Melanitis libya, Dist. (Plate IV. fig. 2, tf .) 

Melanitis libya, Dist. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 5th ser. x. p. 405 
(1882). 

There are only two examples of this striking form, both males — 
one captured in Mineni Valley on 12th March, the other on the 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 23 

Pungwe River on 1st September. In outline they resemble the 
dry-season race of M. leda, but have even a sharper angulation of 
the fore wings. The upperside inclines to a more chocolate tint of 
brown than that shown by M. leda, but its notable distinction lies in 
the great development and oblique position of the two subapical 
white spots, which have pale bluish edges and are surrounded by 
a rather vaguely denned deep fuscous space. Throughout all the 
variations of M. leda the corresponding white spots are small and 
constitute the pupils of a more or less developed compound ocellus, 
and the lower one is directly beneath (or even slightly before) the 
upper one, instead of almost wholly beyond it. On the underside 
of libi/a there is evidently (as in that of leda) great variation, 
Mr. Selous's two specimens differiug widely from each other as well 
as from Mr. Distant's description of the type, both, however (but 
especially the Pungwe River example), having a yellower general 
tint than 1 have found in M. leda. At the same time the markings 
in all respects, down to the minute incomplete and partly obso- 
lescent submarginal oceUi, are in unquestionable accordance with 
those of M. leda (dry-season brood) ; and the striking divergence of 
the upperside of the fore wings came as a surprise when expanding 
Mr. Selous's specimens. The captor informed me that both were 
taken in the shade, among the roots of trees, in the bottom of 
ravines. 

Mr. Distant informs me that he has not seen any other speci- 
mens of M. libya except the type, which he recorded as inhabiting 
" Masasi, East Africa." I find that Masasi is placed on the maps 
to the north of the Rovuma River, apparently about 150 miles 
inland from Cape Delgado and some 600 miles north of Manica. 

12. Melanttis diversa (Butl.). 

Grnophodes diversa, Butl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 5th ser. v. 
p. 333 (1880). 

Melanitis diversa, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 116. n. 30 (1887). 

Three examples from the valley of the Pungwe River, taken on 
1st September, do not differ from typical Natalian specimens 
except in their smaller size, one being quite dwarfed. 

Subfamily Acrjein^e. 

Genus Acr^ea, Fabr. 

13. AcrjEA obeira, Hewits. 

Acrcea obeira, Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1863, p. 65 ; 
Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1891, p. 172 [ $ ]. 

A single female, taken at Christmas Pass on 22nd February, 
differs from the Natalian and Zululand females described by me 
(I. c.) in having the hind wings and basal half of fore wings pale dull 
ochry-yellow instead of very dull brick-red. The females of this 
(the horta) group of Acrcea are inclined to vary in this directiou, the 
females of A. horta, Boisd., and A. hova, Boisd., sometimes presenting 



24 MR. E. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES PROM [Jail. 16, 

the same tint, and those of A. boscce, Saalin., and A. u/ola, Trim., 
apparently being always of that colour. Mr. Selous's example has 
the last spot of the discal series in the hind wings much reduced 
in size, as well as the basal and subbasal spots, in comparison with 
the more southern specimens referred to ; the former of these 
distinctions approximating it more to the figures given by Gran- 
didier of Madagascar examples. Mr. Selous notes that this was 
the only individual of this species met with ; it was flying slowly 
on an open hill-side. 

14. ACRiEA NOHARA, Boisd. 

Acra'a noliara, Boisd. App. Voy. de Deleg. dans l'Afr. Aust. 
p. 590. n. 54 (1847). 

A male and female of the usual size from the Mineni Valley, 
and three small males from near the Vunduzi River, all differ 
from the Natalian type-form in the marked reduction of all the 
black markings ; in the fore wings the subbasal spot below the 
median nervure is present only in two males, while that beyond 
middle below first median nervule is absent in all the specimens ; 
and in the hind wings the third and fifth spots of discal series 
are wanting. There is also less black on the apical half of the 
back of the abdomen in both sexes. 

15. AcryEa asema, Hewits. (Plate IV. figs. 3, 3 a, $2 •) 

Acrcea asema, Hewits. Ent. M. Mag. xiv. p. 52 (1877) ; nee 
Trim. Proc. Zool. Soc 1891, p. 68, pi. viii. figs. 9, 10. 

Mr. Selous's series of both sexes of this Butterfly — 3 from 
Christmas Pass, 1 from Sikuva River, 15 from the Mineni Valley, 
and 2 from the Vunduzi River — has made it clear that I was 
mistaken in identifying with A. asema, Hewits. (founded on 
examples from Lake Nyassa), the Acra'a from tropical South-Avest 
Africa described fully by me loc. cit. In order to obtain an 
independent opinion as to the true A. asema, I sent one of Mr. 
Selous's specimens to my friend Mr. A. Gr. Butler, for comparison 
with the type specimens in the Hewitson Collection, and he reports 
it as undoubtedly belonging to the species in question. Mr. 
Hewitson's brief description of A. asema applies equally well to both 
the forms concerned, but as it is now settled which was actually the 
subject of it, and as the S.W. African form must in my opinion be 
pronounced a distinct species, I propose for the latter the. name of 
Acraia omrora l . I think it well to give a fresh description of bo^h 
sexes of A. asema from the full material supplied by Mr. Selous. 

1 For a detailed description of both sexes, the reader is referred to Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1891, pp. 08-70. It will be sufficient to note here that 
A. omrora differs from A. asema in the following particulars, viz. : — 1, more 
opaque wings ; 2, on both surfaces a much brighter yellower ground-colour ; 
3, a greatly reduced condition of the black spots, which in some examples are 
little more than dots, and of which in most examples (especially in the hind 
wings) there is a varying number quite obsolete ; 4, on the upper side, a 
narrower, more sharply defined black hind-marginal and apical edging in the 
fore wings, but a broader, blacker, unspotted, or indistinctly spotted, border in 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 25 

Exp. al.(S)l in. 8-11 lin. ; (?) 1 in. 9 lin. to 2 in. 
<$ . Pale dull ochre-yellowish ivith a brownish tinge, semi-transparent, 
ivith numerous small black spots. Fore wing : a very fine linear fuscous 
edgiug along costa and a slightly wider one along hind margin, 
the apex between 2nd subcostal and 1st median nervules being 
rather widely tipped with fuscous ; across discoidal cell, towards 
extremity, an elongate spot, sometimes surmounted by a very 
small rounded costal spot ; a small upper terminal discocellular 
spot ; below median nervure, before middle, a rather elongate 
spot ; an exceedingly irregular discal series of 8 spots, — of which 
the upper four are contiguous, forming a curved costal bar 
reaching the 3rd median nervule, — the fifth separate, beyond the 
fourth, between 3rd and 2nd median nervules, the sixth far before 
fifth, between median nervure and its first nervule, the seventh 
rather beyond the sixth, below 1st median nervule, and the eighth 
(very small, minute, or sometimes wanting) before the seventh, on 
inner-marginal edge ; a submarginal series of five small rounded 
spots, between upper radial nervule and submedian nervure, of 
which the upper three form a line at an angle with the lower two, 
which are equidistant from hind margin (in one example there is 
an additional superior spot, above upper radial nervule); base 
usually with some limited fuscous scaling, chiefly near inner 
margin. Hind wing : fuscous hind-marginal border variable in 
•width, regularly indented on nervules along its inner edge, and 
enclosing seven more or less distinct spots of the ground-colour ; 
near base, a rounded spot in discoidal cell (sometimes obscured 
by some fuscous basal suffusion), followed by a curved subbasal 
series of five spots, of which the second is in discoidal cell, and the 
fourth and fifth (both smaller than the others) on inner margin ; 
an exceedingly irregular discal series of 8 spots, of which the first, 
fourth, and sixth are before the rest and the third small or minute 
(in one specimen wanting). Underside. — Very much paler than 
upperside, glossy, the hind wing of a dull pale-creamy tint, in parts 
sometimes tinged ivith pale red ; markings as on upperside, but those 
of hind wing more sharply defined. Fore iving : markings some- 
what fainter, especially apical fuscous, which is traversed and in 
some specimens almost replaced by three pale-creamy marks. 
Hind wing : two additional small spots close to base, one on costa, 
the other at origin of costal nervure ; a pinkish-red inner-marginal 
suffusion, very variable in depth of tint and in extent, sometimes 
tinging basal half of discoidal cell but rarely rising above cell ; in 
most examples a slight reddish tinge over the ground-colour before 

the bind wings ; 5, in the male a well-defined blackish cloud at the base of 
both wings on the upperside ; and 6, in both sexes, no trace of reddish 
colouring at base or along inner margin of the hind wings. The abdomen in 
both sexes is, apart from the dorsal black on basal third, white tinged with 
canary-yellow, instead of pale ochreous-yellow with prolonged dorsal black (in 
the female reaching to the tip, and containing two rows of pale-yellowish spots), 
as in asema ; and the interior subterminal corneous appendage in the female 
has a brondcr, less deeply forked recurved process. 



26 MB. E. TR1MEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

the hind-marginal border ; spots in the latter much larger than on 
upperside, pale-creamy, the fuscous reduced to a narrow very 
sharply defined edging to the "spots l . 

$ . Duller, varying from a somewhat browner tint than that of the 
male to a decidedly dusky pale brownish grey — the fore wing usually 
duller than the hind wing (which retains more of the ochry- 
yellow tinge), and in the darker specimens exhibiting a more or 
less ill-defined whitish subapical cloud : spots usually larger ; basal 
areas usually duskier than rest of wing, but rarely with the limited 
fuscous scaling common in male. Hind winy : hind-marginai 
border broader and blacker, its enclosed spots sometimes much 
paler, almost whitish. Underside. — Much paler than upperside, 
but varying in correspondence with its brighter or duskier tint. 

This dull-tinted Acra>a has much of the aspect of A. doubledayi, 
Griier., the spots being very similar in size and disposition, but 
differs in its much shorter abdomen, shorter and much less apically- 
produced fore wings, the possession of three upper submarginal 
spots instead of linear internervular streaks in the fore wings, the 
better definition of the hind-marginal fuscous border (and of its 
enclosed spots) in the hind wings, and, in the female, in having 
merely an indication of white subapical clouding in the fore wings 
in place of a conspicuous broad white bar. The colouring and 
marking of the abdomen agree with those exhibited by each sex 
respectively of A. doubledayi, yet a female received from Bihatla, 
Delagoa Bay (Rev. H. Junod), approaches A. omrora in having the 
back and sides of the terminal half all white. 

It is worth notice, as showing the intimate interrelation of the 
species of this genus, that every marking in A. asema corresponds 
closely in form and position with those of the totally different- 
looking, very strongly-marked, and richly-coloured A. violarum, 
Boisd. ; and, curiously enough, a precisely similar aberration Occurs 
in the male of both species, viz. all the spots in the submarginal 
series of the fore wings being crescentic instead of rounded. 

16. ACRiEA DOUBLEDAYI, Gfuer. 

Acrosa doubledayi, Guer. Voy. Lefebv. en Abyss, vi. p. 378 
(1847) ; Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 147. n. 41 (1887). 

Of this widely distributed species in Eastern and South-eastern 
Africa there are 23 examples, 18 being from the Mineni Valley. 

17. ACR^EA AXLTNA, West^ . 

Aercea axina, "Westw. App. Oates's Matabele-land etc. p. 344. 
n. 33, pi. F. figs. 5, 6 (1881). 

The 10 examples of this small Acrcea, so closely allied to A. 

1 Two small males (e.vp. cd. 1 in. 9 lin.), taken by Mr. Selous on the Shashani 
River, Matabeleland, in 1883, differ from the Manica specimens in having 
narrower, more elongated fore wings ; a much clearer and brighter ochi-eous 
ground-colour ; a large terminal discocellular spot in fore wings, but all the 
other black markings smaller, and two (the 4th and 6th) of the spots of the 
submarginal series in the fore wings wanting. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 27 

doubledayi, are from five different localities, four specimens being 
from near the Vunduzi River. The males are rather worn, but 
agree with other Eastern individuals in their semi-transparency 
and freedom from basal fuscous clouding ; the three females are 
all dusky brownish above, but differ much as regards the subapical 
whitish bar in the fore wings, whicb in one case is unusually 
broad. 

18. ACEJEA CALDARENA, Hewits. 

Acrcea caldarena, Hewits. Ent. M. Mag. xiv. p. 52 (1877) ; 
Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 149. n. 42 (1887). 

The collection contains 19 specimens of this well-marked form, 
12 from Christmas Pass and 7 from the Mineni Valley. The 
species was first described from examples taken on Lake Nyassa ; 
it ranges westward to Damaraland and southward to the northern 
Transvaal. One of the females taken in the Mineni Valley is 
remarkable for the different ground-colour on the upperside, which 
is a dingy creamy-yellow without any tinge of the ordinary warm 
ochreous -fulvous ; the fore wings are paler, while the fuscous 
basal suffusion is extended over two-thirds of the hind wings. 

19. ACRJEA AGLAONICE, Westw. 

Acrcea aglaonice, Westw. App. Oates's Matabele-land etc. p. 346. 
n. 35, pi. F. figs. 9, 10 (1881); Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 151. 
n. 43, pi. iii. fig. 3 (1877). 

The four males and two females, from the Mineni Valley (three 
males and a female), Lopodzi River (male), and Lower Pungvve 
River (female), constitute rather a striking variety in the direction 
of A. natalica, Boisd. In this form the male has much more 
fuscous basal clouding and wider apical fuscous in the fore wings, 
where also the peculiar subapical transparent spots are obsolete 
or entirely wanting ; while in the hind wings the fuscous hind- 
marginal border is very much broader and partly radiant on the 
nervules along its inner edge. The Mineni Valley female nearly 
resembles that from Delagoa Bay described by me {op. cit.), but 
has the transparent spots of the fore wings obsolescent ; while the 
Pungwe River female, though having this marking well expressed, 
is very much duller in ground-colour, and also presents the 
peculiarity to which so many female Acrcea are liable, viz., a 
conspicuous white cloud on the middle disk of the hind wings. 
I have an exactly similar female to this, which was taken in 
Zululand (Etshowe) by Capt. A. M. Goodrich in 1887. 

As regards the male, the South-African Museum possesses one 
agreeing with Mr. Selous's examples which was taken in the 
Lydenburg district of the Transvaal by Mr. T. Ayres, and I have 
examined two others, one taken at Etshowe by Mr. C. N. Barker, 
and the other at Extcourt, Natal, by Mr. C. W. Morrison. 

The three males recorded by me {op. cit. p. 152) as taken by 
Mr. Selous on the Marico and Upper Limpopo are intermediate 



28 MR. R. TRIMEN ON 13FTTERFLIES FROM rJan.lH, 

between typical A. aglaonice and the variety now under notice, 
having the transparent spots and basal fuscous moderately 
developed in the fore wings ; but the two females differ from the 
Mineni Valley female only in the much clearer transparent spots. 

20. ACR-EA NATALICA, Boisd. 

Acrcea natalica, Boisd. App. Vo}\ Deleg. dans l'Afr. Aust. 
p. 590. n. 57 (1847). 

This species is numerous over a wide stretch of Eastern and 
South-eastern Africa. Mr. Selous's collection contains 36 speci- 
mens, 29 of which were captured in Christmas Pass. 

21. Acr^ea ant.mosa, Hewits. 

Acrcea anemosa, Hewits. Exot. Butt. iii. pi. 8. figs. 14, 15 
(1865). 

The only examples are an unusually small male, captured at the 
Sikuva Biver on 4th March, and an ordinary female taken in 
Christmas Pass on the 16th February. 

In ' South-African Butterflies ' (i. p. 158) I have described an 
" Aherration — ? $ ," from Damaraland, in the Hewitson Col- 
lection, in which on the upperside there is white clouding about 
the extremities of the nervules in the fore wings, and a large 
white cloud in the hind wiugs replacing nearly all the reddish 
ochre-yellow of the central band. Mr. Selous in 1889 sent me a 
male presenting the same peculiarities, and also the distinction of 
the fore wings being salmon-pink without any tinge of the usual 
yellow-ochreous ; this very striking example was captured a little 
south of the junction of the Chobe and Zambesi. 

22. Acrjea acrita, Hewits. (Plate IV. fig. 4, var., 3 .) 

Acrcea acrita, Hewits. Exot. Butt. iii. pi. 8. fig. 18 (1865); 
Trimen, op. cit. iii. App. i. p. 381. n. 381 (1889). 

There are 19 examples of this fine Acrcea from Christmas Pass, 
1 from Sikuva Biver, 3 from Mineni Valley, 1 from Vunduzi 
Biver, and 2 (of a larger variety) from Revue* Biver. "With the 
exception of the two last-named, all may be regarded as belonging 
to the typical form ; the males expand from 2 in. 2 lin. to 2 in. 
bh lin., the females the same. Both .sexes show a good deal of 
variation as regards the width of the apical fuscous border in the 
fore wings, and in the numbers (7 or < s ) and relative sizes of the 
rounded discal spots in the hind wings ; the subbasal black spot 
in the fore wings is much reduced in several males and females, 
and is wholly wanting in two of the latter. The males also 
exhibit on the upperside much instability in respect of the width 
of the hind-marginal border of the hind wings and the distinctness 
of its enclosed spots, the border being usually more or less 
extended internally in a different manner between the third median 
uervule and the anal angle, and the enclosed spots giving every 
grade from perfect development to (in one example) complete 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 29 

obsolescence. This last-mentioned male has some other black 
markings of the upperside considerably enlarged, and the middle 
spot of the oblique median row of three in the fore wings is out of 
line, being nearer to base than usual. Variation in the female 
lies chiefly in ground-colour, -which in most examples is much 
obscured with brownish-fuscous clouding from the bases to beyond 
middle, but which exhibits much gradation, especially as regards 
the red of the hind wings, which in one specimen is almost as 
bright as in the male. The hind-marginal border on the upperside 
is more or less diffused internally, and its enclosed spots quite 
obsolescent in all the females. 

The two specimens (male and female) from the Revue Eiver are 
a good deal larger (exp. 2 in. 8 lin.), with more elongated fore 
wings ; their colouring is brighter and clearer, and all the black 
markings, except the few spots on the fore wings, are reduced, 
especially the spots and hind-marginal border of the hind wings, 
which latter has no diffusion internally and all the ground-colour 
spots it encloses quite distinct. On the underside of the hind 
wings the dull lake-red colouring is much reduced, forming 
internervular rays ; and on the back of the thorax and abdomen 
the paired creamy and whitish spots are much larger and more 
conspicuous. 

Mr. Selous was disposed to think that these larger brighter 
individuals just mentioned belonged to a species distinct from 
A. acrita, especially as they were found flying in forest tracts 
among lofty trees, whereas the numerous examples of typical 
acrita frequented open grassy hill-sides. But after very careful 
examination it seems to me more probable that they represent a 
seasonal (winter) form, having been captured in June, whereas all 
the ordinary specimens of A. acrita were captured between Feb- 
ruary 12th and March 18th. The male taken by Mr. Selous in 
Mashunaland in 1883 (exact date not recorded), mentioned by me 
loc. cit., belongs to this form, but is a little smaller. 

23. AcBjEA acara, Hewits. 

Acrcea acara, Hewits. Exot. Butt. iii. pi. 8. figs. 19, 20 (1865). 
Six specimens of this species, from Christmas Pass, exhibit no 
difference in either sex from typical Natalian examples \ 

24. Acr.ea encedon (Linn.). 

Papilio encedon, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. Reg. p. 244. n. 63 
(1764). 

There are only two examples of this widely-spread Ethiopian 

1 I described (P. Z. S. 1891, p. 72) a single female taken in Bhanda, near 
the Upper Cunene River, presenting the aberration of a wide suffusion and 
coalescence of the black markings of the fore wings. This was the only example 
of A. acara in Mr. Eriksson's first colled ion from S.W. Tropical Africa; but 
in a second collection, made in the same region between the 15th November, 
1890, and the 1st March, 1891, out of a series of eight males and three females 
captured in three localities between the Cunene and the Ondonga Road, five 



30 MR. E. TEIMEX ON BUTTEBFLIES FEOM [JaU. 16, 

species, both of the typical brownish-rufous form. They were 
taken on the Pungwe Biver. 

25. Acejea eaiiiba, Boisd. 

Acrcea rahira, Boisd. Faune Ent. de Madag. etc. p. 33, pi. 5. 
figs. 4, 5 (1833). 

A male from Umtali and another from the Vunduzi, both of the 
typical South-African form, but with the black spots considerably 
reduced in the latter specimen. 

26. ACB^A BUXTONI, Butl. 

Acrcea buxtoni, Butl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, xvi. p. 395 
(1875). 

Twenty-seven examples taken in Christmas Pass, and six others 
from different localities, agree with Natalian specimens, the 
females varying in the same manner. One male, however, from 
Christmas Pass, exhibits a peculiarity on the underside of the 
hind wings, where in the discal series the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th spots, 
and also the 5th and 6th spots, are united, so that each group 
forms a narrow streak. 

27. ACB.EA CABIEA, Hopff. 

Acrcea cabira, Hopff. Monatsb. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. 1855, 
p. 640. n. 7. 

Twelve specimens from Christmas Pass do not differ from those 
found farther southward. 

Genus Planema, Doubl. 

28. Planema johnstoni (G-odm.). 

S . Acrcea johnstoni, Godm. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1885, p. 537. 

$ . Acrcea (Planema) johnstoni, Butl. op. cit. 1888, p. 91. 

This species was founded on a single male collected by Mr. H. 
H. Johnston on Kilima-njaro at an elevation of 5500 ft. The 
female was noted by Mr. Butler (loc. cit.) from two examples, one 
of them taken in the same locality as the female, the other in the 
hills of Terta. So very dissimilar are the sexes (the male having 
the fore wings ochre-red from base up to and including the two 
obliquely disposed pairs of discal spots, and the female having the 



males and all the females exhibit the same strong melanic marking, and even 
the remaining three males show a slight tendency in the same direction. 

Although A. acara, as noted in my S.-African Butt. i. p. 160, varies much in 
the development of the black markings, I have not seen any other examples 
that approach the very heavily black-clouded condition of Mr. Eriksson's 
specimens. 

It should be noted that this variation is not at all in the direction of the 
allied A. zetes (L.), which is recorded from Angola and as far north on the 
West Coast as Sierra Leone, as in that species it is the entire ground of the 
fore wings that is suffused with greyish fuscous, the bla^k markings themselves 
not being enlarged or confluent. 



1S94.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 31 

entire fore wings black with the discal spots conspicuously white), 
that, having only the descriptions to refer to, I was inclined to 
think that the female received by Mr. Butler had been erroneously 
associated with Mr. Godman's female. But on consulting Mr. 
Butler 1 , he most kindly sent me figures and notes which leave no 
doubt of the specific identity of these widely differing sexes. 

There are only two examples of this curious Planema in 
Mr. Selous's collection, one captured at Umtali, and the other (on 
February 24th) in Christmas Pass. The former is so much 
smaller, and has the hind margin of the fore wings so much more 
hollowed, than the latter, that I took it for a male although 
entirely of the female coloration ; but closer examination has 
shown it to be a female. Mr. Butler, however, informs me that 
during 1892 he had seen both males and females in a collection 
from Kiliraa-njaro, and that one or two of the males were less 
unlike the female than the rest, the ochre-red covering the basal 
half only of the fore wings 1 . 

The resemblance borne by the female to Amauris echeria (var. 
albimaculata, Butl.) is very stroug, but I hesitate to adopt 
Mr. Butler's conclusion that the former is evidently modified in 
imitation of the Amauris, because, firstly, both Amauris and 
Planema are equally protected genera and extensively mimicked by 
Butterflies of other groups, and, secondly, P. johnstoni female does 
not either in pattern or colouring diverge much from its congeners, 
coming near P. hjcoa, Fabr. 

Mr. Selous notes that he saw only a few of this Butterfly ; they 
flew on the border of a stream and settled very frequently. 

Subfamily NYMPHALiNiE. 
Genus Atella, E. Doubl. 
29. Atella phalantha (Dru.). 

Papilio jmalantha, Dru. 111. Nat. Hist. i. pi. 21. figs. 1, 2 (1770). 
Of this most widely ranging species there are five specimens 
from Christmas Pass and one from the Mineni Valley. 

1 Acrosa proteiua, 0. Oberth. (Etudes d'Ent. xvii. p. 25, pi. i. fig. 4 ; pi. ii. 
figs. 14, 19, 21 ; pi. iii. fig. 29), is apparently synonymous with P. johnstoni, 
the specimens recorded and figured being from Urogaro and Usambara in East 
Africa. Mr. Selous's two examples agree pretty nearly with M. Oberthur's 
fig. 14 on pi. ii., but one of them is considerably larger and with the median 
space in the hind wings of a much deeper tint of yellow. The species appears 
to be highly variable, M. Oberthiir figuring (pi. i. fig. 4) a small male agreeing 
with the ordinary female except that the spots of the fore wings are pale yellow 
instead of white ; (pi. iii. fig. 29) a female in which the hind wings on both 
surfaces, and the hind-marginal area of the fore wings on the underside, are 
deeply tinged with roddish-ochreous ; and (pi. ii. figs. 19 and 21) a male of the 
typical (johnstoni) "colouring, and a female in which the reddish-ochreous is 
strongly prevalent disoally on both surfaces of both fore and hind wings. It 
will probably be found that in this species of Planema, as in P. csebria (see 
S.-Afr. Butt. i. pp. 177-78), the varieties are resolvable into two or three in 
which (he sexes more or less agree in coloration. 



32 MR. R. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM Man. 16, 

Genus Ptrameis, E. Doubl. 

30. Pyrameis cardui (Linn.). 
Two examples from Christmas Pass. 

Genus Junonia, E. Doubl. 

31. Junonia cebrene, Trim. 

Junonia cebrene, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1870, p. 353. 
One specimen from Umtali, one from Christmas Pass, and two 
from Mineni Valley. 

32. Junonia clelia (Cram.). 

Papilio clelia, Cram. Pap. Exot. i. t. xxi. figs. E, F (1775). 
Two specimens from the Mineni Valley. 

33. Junonia boopis, Trim. 

Junonia boopis, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1879, p. 331. 

The four examples (one from Umtali, one from Sikuva Eiver, 
and two from Mineni Valley) agree with the typical Transvaal 
specimens. 

Genus Precis, E. Doubl. 

34. Precis cloantha (Cram.) l . 

Papilio cloantha, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. t. cccxxxviii. figs. A, B 
(1782). 

Eighteen examples (seventeen from the Mineni Valley) are 
highly variable in the tint of the underside, five beiug of an 
unusually dark brown. 

35. Precis ceryne (Boisd.). 

Salamis ceryne, Boisd. App. Voy. de Deleg. p. 592. n. 68 (1847). 
Twelve specimens from the Mineni Valley and one from Lusika 
Eiver are in all respects like typical examples from Natal. 

1 In my notes on this species (S.-Afr. Butt. i. pp. 220 and 223) I pointed 
out the exceptionally robust structure, gradually clavate antennae, and thick 
hairy wings of this Butterfly, in comparison with the other species of Precis. 
Mr. Cecil N. Barker has recently reared P. cloantha from a larva found at 
Malvern, Natal ; and, from the drawings and description he has kindly sent 
me, it is apparent that the larva presents the peculiarity of having the two 
rather long cephalic horns clubbed at the tip, while the pupa is much thickened 
about the middle and is singularly smooth, wanting all the prominent pointed 
tubercles so conspicuous dorsally and laterally in the pupae of P. octavia and 
P. sesamus. The larva is described as golden yellow, each segment having a 
median transverse purplish-black bar interrupted both subdorsally and on the 
spiracular line ; the bristled spines spring from these bars ; head dull orange, 
with an inverted V of purplish black frontally ; legs dark plum-colour with a 
black ring about middle. The pupa is figured as greenish yellow, with a few 
dull-purplish spots on underside of head, sides of thorax, and bases and hind 
margins of wing-covers; abdomen with seven rows (longitudinal) of dull- 
purplish dots. The larva was found on October 23rd, 1892 ; it began pupa- 
tion on the 27th ; and a male imago emerged on November 11th. The food- 
plant is not specified by name, but was a " bush herb with lilac-blue flowers." 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 33 

36. Precis tukuoa (Wallengr.). 

Salamis tukuoa, Wallengr. K. Sv. Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1857 — Lep. 
lihop. Caffr. p. 25. u. 6. 

Three specimens from the Mineni Valley do not differ from 
more southern examples. 

37. Precis cuama (Hewits.). 

Junonia cuama, Hewits. Exot. Butt. iii. p. 25, pi. 13. figs. 4, 5 
(1864). 

Precis cuama, Trim. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 74. n. 20. 

Six examples from the Mineni Valley and two from Vunduzi 
Paver. Most of the specimens agree with those from Ehanda and 
the Okavango River noted by me (loc. cit.) as much yellower than 
the figure of the type, and as wanting (on both surfaces) the 
conspicuous white centre of the second and third fuscous spots in 
the discal row of the fore wings, and (on the upperside) the paler 
cloud in the middle of the hind wings ; but two of the Mineni 
males are intermediate in these respects, approaching the type in 
tint, having the pale cloud faintly shown in the hind wings, and 
presenting the two white spots in the fore wings on both surfaces. 
The underside is most variable in colouring — only one of the two 
last-mentioned individuals agreeing fairly with the figure of the 
type, the other being dull and with little trace of rufous, but with 
all the markings faint, and a strong bronzy surface-gloss ; while 
the yellower examples exhibit beneath different admixtures of 
ochre-yellow and ferruginous brown, with the markings ashy grey 
and fuscous, in some cases faintly glossed with violaceous. 

This Butterfly is noted as frequenting the shade of the forest, 
and when settled to be scarcely distinguishable from faded leaves. 

38. Precis simia, Wallengr. (Plate IV. fig. 5, J .) 

Precis simia, Wallengr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 — Lep. 
Ehop. Caffr. p. 26. n. 2 ; Trimen, S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 227. n.'70 
(1887). 

Of this very rare species — of which the only examples hitherto 
known to me were the type (collected by Wahlberg) in the 
Stockholm Museum and a very worn male taken by Col. Bowker 
at Durban — there are four male examples, three from the Mineni 
Valley and one from Cluustmas Pass. The three former are 
typical, agreeing well with the careful figure of the type (a $ , 
judging from the want of the anal-angular projection in the hind 
wings), except in having all the fuscous markings larger ; but the 
fourth has on the upperside a yellowish-white median discal cloud 
in the hind wings, and a similar smaller lower discal cloud in the 
fore wings, and all the black spots of the discal series in the fore 
wings smaller ; while on the underside the basal fuscous in both 
wings is much effaced by the enlargement (and in the hind wings 
actual confluence at many points) of the enclosed markings of the 
ground-colour, and there is also a streak of the ground-colour, 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. III. 3 



34 MR. R. TR1MEJJ ON BUTTERFLIES EROii [Jan. 16, 

interrupted by internervular black spots, along the hind-marginal 
edge of the hind wings. 

Mr. Selous met with this species flying about the bed of a small 
ravine, and settling on the overhanging bushes. The three Mineni 
Valley specimens were captured on 6th March, the variety from 
Christmas Pass on 27th February. 

39. Precis octayia (Cram.). 

Papilio octavia, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii. t. cxxxv. figs. B, C (1777). 

All the thirteen specimens — 11 from Christmas Pass and 2 
from the Mineni Valley — belong to the larger, more brightly 
coloured southern form, which Staudinger has figured (Exot. 
Schmett. pi. 38, 1885) as " var. natalemis.'' 

40. Precis sesamus, Trim. 

Precis sesamus, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1883, p. 347 ; 
S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 231, pi. 4. fig. 3 (1887).) 

Eight examples from Mineni Valley and one from the Pungwe 
River present no material variation from more southern specimens. 

41. Precis archesia (Cram.). 

Papilio archesia, Cram. Pap. Exot. hi. t. ccxix. figs. D, E (1782). 

In the only two specimens, both male, from the Mineni Valley, 
the common dull-red band is throughout much narrower than in 
the typical form and submacular, in this respect resembling the 
Angolan form P. staudingerii, Dewitz (Xov. Act. Acad. Leop.- 
Carol. xli. p. 193, t. xxv. n. 15, 1879). 

42. Precis pelasgis (Grodt.). 

Vanessa pelasgis, Grodt. Enc. Meth. ix. Suppl. p. 820. n. 38-39 
(1819). 

Out of 14 examples collected, 5 of the males (3 from Chi'istmas 
Pa'ss and 2 from Mineni Valley) and 1 female exhibit a variation 
in the direction of the Zambesian form P. chapuwja (Hewits.). 
having the common creamy-rufous band much narrowed on the 
upperside, and the corresponding creamy-white band on the 
underside somewhat narrowed. 

43. Precis natalica, Feld. 

Precis natalica, Feld. AVien. ent. Monatsch. iv. p. 106 (1860). 
Five specimens from Christmas Pass and thirteen from the Mineni 
Valley present the usual variation in the tints of the underside. 

44. Precis elgiva (Hewits.). 

Junonia elgiva, Hewits. Exot. Butt. iii. p. 25, pi. 13. fig. 1 
(1864). 

Here also the customary variation of the underside colouring is 
observable in the 9 examples collected — 8 from Mineni Valley and 
1 from Vunduzi River. 



1894.] MANTCA, SOUTH-EAST AFEICA. 35 

45. Precis aetaxia (Hewits.). 

Junonia arta.via, Hewits. op. cit. iii. p. 26, pi. 13. fig. 6 (1864). 
Precis artaxia, Trim. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 75. n. 24 
Of this very striking and singularly-coloured Precis there is a 
fine series of 41 examples, of which 37 were taken in the Mineni 
Valley from 6th to 26th March, 3 in Christmas Pass in the first 
half of February, and 1 on the Lusika River early in April. The 
sexes scarcely differ in colouring, the female being somewhat paler 
occasionally. Hewitson figures an example in which the smaller 
lower ocellus ou the upperside of the hind wings is wanting, and 
in his description omits all mention of this marking, although it 
was present in two out of the three Zambesian specimens which I 
examined in his collection in the year 1867, and, although varying 
in size, is very rarely obsolete or even indistinct. The small 
ocellus in a corresponding position in the fore wings is, on the 
contrary, often obsolescent and never very distinct. The under- 
side varies considerably in colour, presenting several shades in 
which brown or grey predominate, and being in some cases glossed 
with bronzy greenish or with pale dull violaceous. The markings 
on this surface vary in distinctness, especially the nearly straight 
ochre-yellow streak, outwardly bordered with dark brown, which 
crosses the middle of the hind wings. There is a tendency to the 
ocellate form in most of the very small indistinct spots of the 
common discal series, and two of these, considerably larger than 
the rest, represent respectively the upperside ocelli in the fore 
wings and the superior portion of the hind wings. 

Mr. Selous notes that P. artaxia is usually numerous in the shady 
forests to which it is restricted. During its very short and 
hurried flight the large many-coloured ocelli of the hind wings are 
conspicuous, but it settles again almost immediately on the ground 
at the foot of trees, where the dead-leaf-like underside effectually 
conceals it. Although indisposed to take wing ordinarily, it 
becomes wary when alarmed by pursuit. 

Genus Salamis, Boisd. 

46. Salamis ajtacaedii (Linn.). 

Papilio anacardii, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 236. n. 55 (1764). 

The specimens taken (5 at Christmas Pass, 1 at Revue River, 
and 6 on the Pungwe River) are like those from Natal, having 
a clearer paler colour, "with a less intense rosy-violet gloss, than 
the tropical West- African examples. 

47. Salamis nebulosa, Trim. 

Salamis nebulosa, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1881, p. 441 ; 
S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 246. n. 79, pi. iv. fig. 6 (1887). 

The only example, taken on the Pungwe River, about 15 miles 
above Sarmento, is a female, larger {exp. al. 3 in. 2| lin.) and 
with considerably broader fuscous upperside marking than the Zulu- 

3* 



36 ME. E. IEI3IEX OX EL'TTEEFLIES PROM [Jan. 16, 

laud female figured by me (ojj. cit.). I have a similar but rather 
smaller female, captured by Mr. H. M. Barber in the Lydenburg 
District, Eastern Transvaal, which presents the peculiarity of 
having the superior discal ocellus on the upperside of the hind 
wings as distinct and as brightly coloured as the constant inferior 
one. 

Mr. Selous's specimen was captured on 21st September, settled 
on the leaf of a tree ; other specimens were seen flying about the 
same spot, but were much worn. 

Genus Ceenis, Boisd. 

48. Ceenis boibduvau, Wallengr. 

Crenis boisduvali, Wallengr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857. — 
Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 30. n. 2; Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 252. 
n. 81, pi. v. figs. 2, 2 a (1887). 

Nineteen examples (12 from Christmas Pass and 7 from the 
Mineni Valley) agree in all respects with Natalian specimens. 

Genus Eueytela, Boisd. 

49. ElJEYTELA HIAEBAS (Dru.). 

Papilio hiarbas, Dru. HI. Nat. Hist. iii. pi. xiv. figs. 1, 2 (1782). 
A single example from Christmas Pass. 

50. Eueytela deyope (Cram.). 

Papilio dryope, Cram. Pap. Exot. t. lxxviii. figs. E, E (1779). 

Three specimens from Christmas Pass and one from the Lopodzi 
River. In a female from the former locality the discal ochre-yellow 
band is broader than usual. 

Genus Hypanis, Boisd. 

51. Hypaxis ilithyia (Dru.). 

Papilio ilithifia, Dru. 111. Nat. Hist. ii. pi. xvii. figs. 1, 2 (1773). 

The eleven examples taken (8 at Christmas Pass and 3 in the 
Mineni Valley) belong to the var. acheloia, AVallengr., which 
appears to be the prevalent Coast-district form in several parts 
of Africa, and specially so in Natal. All have the underside 
colouring pale ; and in one male on the upperside the spots of 
ground-colour in the hind marginal black border of the hind wings 
are very much reduced. 

Genus Neptis, Fabr. 

52. Neptis agatha (Cram.). 

Papilio agatha, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. t. cccxxvii. figs. A, B (1780). 

The six examples (4 from Christmas Pass and 2 from the 
Mineni Valley) vary a little as to the width of the white trans- 
verse bands. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 37 

53. Neptis harpessa, Hopff. 

Neptis marpeesa, Hopff. Mouatsb. Akad. Wissensch. Berl. 1855, 
p. 640. n. 8. 

Four specimens taken at Christmas Pass agree thoroughly 
with those found in Natal and other more south era tracts. 

54. Neptis goochii, Trim. 

Neptis goochii, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1879, p. 336 : 
S.-Afr. Butt. i. p. 273. n. 89, pi. v. fig. 6 (1887). 

Of this rare little Neptis, hitherto only known to me as inhabit- 
ing the Durban district of Natal, there is a single example, 
captured at Christmas Pass on 13th February. 

Genus Diadema, Boisd. 

55. Diadema misippus (L.) . 

One specimen from Christmas Pass and another from the 
Mineni Valley. 

G-enus Euphjedra, Hiibn. 

56. Euph^edra neophron (Hopff.). 

Bomaleosoma neophron, Hopff. Monatsb. Akad. "Wiss. Berl. 1855, 
p. 640. n. 9. 

There are two examples of this very distinct Buphoedra, taken 
on the Pungwe Biver 15 miles above Sarmento on September 19th. 
This species appears to be the solitary representative of its genus 
in Eastern and South-eastern Africa. 

Genus Hamanumida, Hiibn. 

57. Hamanttmida d^edalus (Fabr.). 

Papilio dcedalus, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 482. n. 174 (1775). 

Four specimens from Christmas Pass (February 12th to 26th), 
one from the Mineni Valley (March 29th) and two from near Vun- 
duzi Eiver (April 5th), are all of the form in which the underside 
is warm reddish ochreous and spotted with white ; but in two 
specimens, dated respectively March 29th and April 5th, the white 
spots are rather duller than in the rest. 

I have for some time been disposed to think that the well- 
known variation in the underside of this widely-distributed African 
butterfly is seasonal, and these dated captures of Mr. Selous's tend 
to confirm this view. All the specimen taken by Mr. Eriksson at 
Omrora, tropical S.W. Africa, from 1st to 25th August, 1887, 
were (as I have recorded, P. Z. S. 1891 , p. 80) of the dull underside 
colouring, wanting the white spots and with the dark markings 
very faint, and the same is the case with a pair taken in copula 
near Delagoa Bay, on the 9th August, 1891, by the Eev. H. Junod. 
A series of dated captures throughout the year is wanting in the 



V 
38 MR. ■R.TRIMEtf ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

case of this species, as of so many others ; but the little material 
available favours the supposition that fas in the case of many 
Satyrince and Lyccenidce) the warmly-tinted conspicuously marked 
underside denotes the summer or wet-season brood (where con- 
cealment is of less importance among the herbage of that season), 
and the obscure underside almost devoid of markings the brood of 
the winter or dry season, when the open-ground vegetation is 
wanting or thoroughly withered. 

In connection with this point, however, the published observa- 
tions of Mr. D. G. Eutherford (Proc. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1878, 
p. xlii) and Mr. W. L. Distant (Nat. in the Transvaal, 1892, 
pp. 41, 42) — both of whom were acquainted with this species in 
life — should be considered. The former notes that this Butterfly 
always settles on the ground with closed wings, and that the 
underside colouring not only was eminently protective from its 
close resemblance to the colour of the soil, but was found in the 
various districts inhabited by the insect to vary in accordance 
with the particular tint of the soil characteristic of a district. 
Mr. Distant, on the contrary, though agreeing as to the insect's 
settling on open ground, states that he invariably found it resting 
with wings expanded, and " nearly always on greyish-coloured 
rocks or slaty-hued paths, with which the colour of the upper 
surface of the wings wonderfully assimilated." He adds that 
" large tracts of bare ground of a reddish-brown colour exist with 
which the under surface of the wings would be in perfect unison ; 
but though I watched for months to see a specimen thus situated, 
and with its wings vertically closed, I never succeeded in doing 
so." On reading Mr. Distant's letter to the above effect published 
in 'Nature' of 26th February, 1891, I wrote to him suggesting 
that (1) the differences in the underside might be seasonal, and 
(2) that possibly the upperside might be protective in the wet 
and the underside in the dry season : I also intimated that all 
analogy pointed to the underside being protective when the insect 
is really cct rest, not merely settling at intervals. To this latter 
view I adhere ; but as regards the second of my suggestions, 
Mr. Distant's observation that the habits of H. dcedalus were " uni- 
form in the Transvaal in both the dry and wet seasons " would 
indicate that even during the winter the underside colouring 
would not in that country be protective. Mr. Distant does not 
mention whether the underside differs seasonally in the Transvaal, 
but two examples ( rf and 5 ) taken by Mr. W. Morant near Pretoria 
in March 1872 are both of the brighter colouring with moderately 
developed white spots, as is also a solitary example taken near 
Durban, Natal, in February 1883 by Col. Bowker. 

Genus Charaxes, Ochs. 
58. Charaxes zoolina (Westw.). 

Nymphalis zoolina, Westw. Gen. D. Lep. pi. liii. fig. 1 (1850). 
The two specimens (rfnnd?) were taken at Christmas Pass. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 39 

Both have the fuscous borders and markings strongly developed, 
the male indeed approaching in this respect the variety A from 
Zululand and Delagoa Bay described by me in S.-Afr. Butt. iii. 
p. 405 (1889) ; and the female having all the ground-colour spots 
in the border of the fore wings completely separated froin the 
discal field. 

Male examples as dark as the one here noted have been taken at 
Durban and sent to me by Mr. A. D. Millar. 

59. Charaxes varanes (Cram.). 

Papilio varanes, Cram. Pap. Exot. t. clx. figs. D, E (1779), and 
iv. t. ccclxxxviii. figs. A, B (1782). 

The two specimens received, taken in the Mineni Valley, agree 
with those from the Zambesi and Quilimane, and indeed with 
Tropical examples generally, in having the basal white much 
better developed (in both fore and hind wings) than in any 
individual from the extra-tropical area that I have examined. 

60. Charaxes lasti, H. G-. Smith. (Plate V. fig. 6, $ .) 

Charaxes lasti, H. Gr. Smith, Ann. & Mag. .Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol. iii. p. 131 (1889) ; and Ehop. Exot. p. 8, pi. (Char.) iv. figs. 4, 
5 [j] (1890). 

There are two examples ( c? and $ ) from the Mineni Valley, taken 
on the 18th and 14th March respectively, a male specimen from 
the Pungwe Valley taken on 1st September, and two ( S and £ ) 
captured on the Pungwe River, about 15 miles above Sarmento, 
on 19th September. 

I have not seen the types of this Charaxes, but, judging from 
the description and figures above cited, I do not think Mr. Selous's 
specimens can be held distinct from it ; although all three males 
differ in some respects from the figures, they also differ from one 
another. All three agree in having the transverse irregular series 
of fuscous markings on the disk disconnected (except near the 
costa) from the hind-marginal fuscus border, and extended by an 
additional sagittiform mark below 2nd median nervule, and also in 
having the lowest and largest fulvous hind-marginal spot completely 
enclosed in the border ; in these features differing from the figure 
of the upperside. The Mineni and Pungwe Valley males further 
diverge from the same figure in presenting a well-developed sub- 
marginal fuscous band in the hind wing from the costa to the 1st 
median nervule ; and even in the male from above Sarmento, iu 
which all the fuscous markings of the upperside are greatly 
reduced, there are traces of this long band. On the underside, 
again, all are paler and yellower than in fig. 5, and only the 
Mineni Valley male has the silvery-white median stripe across the 
hind wings (which is, however, much broader than in the figure). 
The two Pungwe males have all the underside markings much 
attenuated, and in the example from above Sarmento they are 
almost obsolete; and both they and the Mineni male have more or 



40 ira. e. trimen o>' butterflies from [Jan. 16, 

less indistinct whitish lunnles (not small spots) forming a sub- 
marginal series in the hind wings. 

The two females agree with their respective mates, the specimen 
from above Sarmento having the submarginal fuscous on the upper- 
side of both wings completely broken up into spots, and the under- 
side more reddish and much less distinctly marked than in the 
one from Mineni Valley. 

The South-African Museum has for many years been in posses- 
sion of a single imperfect male of this species, received with a few 
other Butterflies collected on the Zambesi by (T was informed) the 
Rev. H. Waller. It agrees pretty closely with the Mineni Valley 
male above noted, but has the silvery-white stripe on the under- 
side of the hind wings still broader. 

The male expands 2 in. 9-11 lin. ; the female 3 in. 4 lin. 

C. lasti is the Eastern representative of G. cynthia, Butl. ( $ 
C. lysianassa, Westw.), a widely distributed West-African species 
recorded from Ashanti. Cameroons, and Angola. It is distinguished 
by its smaller size, by the great expansion of the fulvous and the 
consequent reduction of the fuscous colouring on the upperside, 
and by the great attenuation and partial obliteration of the mark- 
ings of the underside. 

Mr. Last discovered this Butterfly at Mombasa, and it is 
interesting to find it extending so far to the south as the Manica 
Country. 

Mr. Selous notes that both the first and second of \he males 
above mentioned were captured while drinking at the edge of 
water, while the female in the Mineni Valley was settled, with 
wings expanded, on the leaves of a thorn-tree. 

61. Charaxes azota, Hewits. 

$ . Fhilognoma azota, Hewits. Ent. M. Mag. xiv. p. 82 (1877). 

cJ . Charaxes azota, Hewits. op. cit. p. 181 (1878). 

2 • Charaxes azota, R. Monteiro, Delagoa Bay, &c. frontisp. 
fig. 1 (1891). 

A fine female of this handsome species is noted as being the 
only one seen ; it was taken at the Lusika River on 13th April, 
frequenting the same tree on which specimens of C. castor were 
found. 

Since the publication of my notes on this species (S.-Afr. Butt. 
iii. p. 388, 1889), 0. azota has been found in some numbers near 
Delagoa Bay by the Rev. H. Junod, and a series of eight males 
and three females has been acquired from him for the South- 
African Museum. In the male the " tails *' of the hind wings are 
represented only by two short acute dentations ; but in the female 
not only is the dentation on the 1st median nervule considerably 
more produced, but there is a distinct tail on the 3rd median 
nervule. This tail varies both in length and form, being pointed 
at the tip in two specimens and rounded in two others ; in one of 
the latter (Mr. Selous's example) it is even inclined to a spatulate 
form. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 41 

62. Chaeaxes sattjrjStus, Butl. 

Charaxes saturnus, Butl. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 624, pi. 36. 
fig.l. 

Of this common South-Tropical species there are one example 
from Umtali, seven from the Mineni Valley, and four from the 
Lusika Biver. Of the two females from the last-named locality, 
one expands a little over 4 inches and the other 3| inches. 

63. Charaxes castor (Cram.). 

Papilio castor, Cram. Pap. Exot. i. t. xxxvii. figs. C, D (1775). 

Mr. Selous notes that C. castor was rare ; he took but three 
specimens, all on the stem of the same thorn-tree {Acacia sp.) at 
Lusika Biver on which the female 0. azota was captured, and on 
the same date, the 13th April. 

64. Charaxes pollux (Cram.). 

Papilio pollux, Cram. Pap. Exot. i. t. xxxviii. figs. E, E (1775). 

Papilio camulus, Dru. 111. Nat. Hist. iii. pi. 30 (1782). 

A female from Christmas Pass, taken on 27th February, and a 
male from the Mineni Valley, taken on 16th March, are the only 
examples in the collection. These are both distinguished from the 
"West-African specimens that I have seen in possessing not only 
considerably larger ochre-yellow hind-marginal spots in the fore 
wings, but also a complete and conspicuous series of ochre-yellow 
lunules along the hind margin of the hind wings ; they further 
both want on the upperside of the fore wings the lowermost 
black spot (between 2nd and 1st median nervules). In the female 
not only are the tails on the hind wings considerably longer and 
wider than in the male, but the intermediate dentation on the 2nd 
median nervule is also prolonged into a short tail. 

The male was captured sucking at exudations on the branches 
of the same tree that was frequented by C. boliemani (see below), 
the female fluttering among grass. 

Manica is by far the most southern station recorded for this 
Butterfly, and indeed, as far as I can ascertain, the only East- 
African one near the coast ; but C. pollux is common at Sierra Leone 
and extends to Cameroons and Chinchoxo (4° 22' S.) along the 
"West Coast, while Mr. Butler has also recorded it as amoug 
Emiu Pasha's captures in Monbuttu, Central Africa, about 4° N. 

65. Charaxes achjemetstes, Eeld. (Plate V. fig. 7, $ .) 

<$ 2 • Charaxes achcmnenes, Eeld. Beise Novara, Lep. iii. p. 446, 
pi. lix. figs. 6, 7 [ c? "J (1867). 

One specimen from Umtali, one from Christmas Pass, five 
specimens from Mineni Valley, and five from the Lusika Biver ; 
three of these are females. 

Although the upperside of the male and the underside of both 
sexes are so completely unlike to the pattern and colouring of 



42 MB. B. TEIME>" ON* BUTTEBELIES FBOM [JiUl. 16, 

C. saturnus, yet the upperside of the female is so remarkably 
similar to that of C. satumus as to be with difficulty distinguished 
from the latter without close comparison. 

Mr. Selous notes that nearly all his specimens of this species 
were taken drinking at the edge of water, but two or three at 
Lusika Eiver were settled on the branches of a tree. 

66. Chabaxes gfdebia^a (Dewitz). (Plate V. fig. 8, $ .) 

S . Nymphalis r/uderiana, Dewitz, Nov. Act. Leop. -Carol. Akad. 
Xaturf. xli. p. 200, t. xxvi. fig. 18 (1879). 

This species was founded on three males captured in Angola by 
Dr. Pogge, and I have noticed (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 81) the 
receipt of a male from Mashunaland and of sixteen males from 
the Ambuella Country not far from 10 S. lat. Mr. Selous collected 
1 example at Umtali, no fewer than 30 at Mineni Valley, and 
8 at Lusika Elver, and of these 5 each from the second and third 
localities were females ; nearly all were taken in March, but one 
on February 28th and eight between April 1st and 25th. 

As guderiana is unquestionably a member of the ephyra and 
ethalion group of Charaxes, it is very unexpected to find the female, 
as in the case of C. aehcBmen.es just mentioned, on the upperside 
closely resembling C. gafurntu, and so differing widely from the 
aspect of her nearest congeners. 

$ . Strikinglv different from male. Exp. al. 2 in. 8 bin. to 
3 in. 2 lin. 

Fuscous, with a cowman ochre-yellow discal band (in fore wing 
moderately broad but macular and mure or less deeply cleft by down- 
ward traversing bar of ground-colour, in hind wing continuous, short, 
and much narrower inferiorly) • bases dull ferruginous-ochreous. 
Fore wing : terminal discocellular spot ochre-yellow instead of 
white ; commencement of inner series of spots forming ochre- 
yellow discal band represents the conspicuous outer costal white 
spot in male ; six spots of incurved outer series of discal band 
represent the submarginal series of small bluish-white spots in 
male — in one example only, the lowest spot of this outer series is 
confluent, between 2nd and 3rd median nervules, with a large spot 
of the inner series ; hind-marginal series of spots ferruginous- 
ochreous instead of white (the lowest and largest spot, however, 
more or less whitish internally), enlarged, often confluent into a 
submacular border. Hind wing: discal band simple, whitish 
yellow on costa and on inner edge, much indented by ground- 
colour on both sides inferiorly, where it is also more or less tinged 
and edged with metallic bluish or greenish scales; submargina] 
series of white, on both sides metallic-bluish or greenish bordered, 
lunules, much like that in male ; upper four lunules of hind- 
marginal series ochre-yellow instead of white, the remainder to 
anal angle metallic greenish or bluish with ochre-yellow centres as 
in male ; tails much longer and broad, especially that at end of 3rd 
median nervule, which is subspatulate instead of acute. Undee- 
stde. — Rather paler, but pattern and coloration according with 



1894.] MATTCCA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 43 

those of male, except that the common discal band of the upper- 
side is represented in white (rath er vaguely denned externally), and 
that its outer series of ochreous spots in the fore wing is faintly 
reproduced. 

The pattern and coloration of both sexes on the underside 
exhibit the closest agreement with those shown in C. ethalion, Boisd., 
only differing in the greater thickness and (in parts) brighter 
tints of the markings, and, in the male only, by the reproduction 
of the costal, outer discal, and hind-marginal white spots of the 
fore wings. On the upperside the disparity between the female 
C. guderiana and the female C. ethalion, and the great likeness to 
C. satumus in the former, are due to the ferruginous colour of the 
basal areas and the narrowness and decided ochre-yellow tint of the 
discal band. 

Mr. Selous notes the interesting circumstance that while all the 
more numerous males were found drinking at the water's edge, the 
females were invariably met with sucking the exudations on a tree- 
stem or branches in company with the fine " Goliath " Cetoniid 
beetles, Rhamphorrhina petersiana, Eudicella trimeni, &c. 

67. Chaeaxes ephyea (Godt.). 

Nymphalis ephyra, Godt. Encycl. Meth. ix. p. 355 (1819). 

Nine males from the Mineni Valley. Six of these present on 
the upperside of the hind wings the series of dull-greenish lunules 
before the submarginal bluish ones mentioned by Godart (loc. tit.) 
as occurring in a single specimen from the West Coast of Africa. 
The underside is darker, and with a more ferruginous tinge than 
usual. 

The males of this Butterfly are noted as always found drinking 
at the water's edge ; they were captured during March. 

68. Charaxes pHjEus, Hewits. 

Charaxes plums, Hewits. Ent. M. Mag. xiv. p. 82 (1877) ; B. 
Monteiro, Delagoa Bay, &c. frontisp. figs. 4, 5 (1891). 

The only example (a $ ) was taken on a tree at Lusika River 
on the 1st April. 

69. Charaxes manica, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 9, $ .) 

$ . Exp. al. 2 in. 10 lin. to 3 in. 2 lin. 

Allied to C. ephyra (Godt.), C. phceus, Hewits., &c. 

Submetallic pale blue, more or less tinged with greenish, with very 
broad fuscous ap>ical hind-marginal borders ; in fore iving a rather 
broad obliquely transverse white band outwardly bordering the blue 
as in female C. bohemani, Feld. Fore wing : blue dull for some 
distance from base, thence brighter ; white band commences 
widely on costa, encroaching internally a little on discoidal cell at 
extremity, and is of about even width as far as 1st median nervule 
beyond middle, but below this is bent inwardly from the general 
oblique direction, and much narrowed by diffusion of the blue as 
far as submedian nervure, below which it does not extend ; apical 



44 JIB. R. TR1MEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

area very broadly fuscous, as in female boliemani ; two indistinct 
subapical whitish spots placed obliquely close to costa; beneath 
these, in one specimen, faint traces of three other spots, the whole 
indicating an elbowed series of five as in female pha&us. Hind 
wing : blue forms a large discal space, brighter than the dull basal 
part which fills discoidal cell, extending from 2nd subcostal nervule 
to below 1st median ; a rather wide costal, apical, and hind- 
marginal fuscous border ; the usual continuous hind-marginal 
series of dull-red lunules as far as 3rd median nervule followed by 
bronzy-green lunules thence to anal angle, preceded by a sub- 
marginal series of thin, rather indistinct, whitish violet- tinged 
lunules, quite as in female ethalion, Boisd., and female phaus : 
inner-marginal border brownish-grey ; tails as in the congeners 
mentioned. Underside. — General colouring and pattern very close 
to those slioivn by ethalion and phseus, but decidedly darker and 
more ferruginous in tint, without the strong silvery gloss, and possess- 
ing in its fore wing the same conspimous oblique white band as on 
the iqjperside. 

It is not without hesitation that I propose a new species-name 
for the three females of Charades here described, because their 
underside, not only in marking but also in its ferruginous tint, 
bears so close a resemblance to that of the males of C. ephyra above 
noticed, that, were not the female of this species known, I should 
assign these Manica females to it. The males in question seem quite 
inseparable from C. ephyra, while the females under notice have 
the upperside totally different from that of the recognized female of 
C. ephyra, and so closely resembling that of the much larger female 
of C. boliemani, that they might well pass for dwarf specimens of 
the latter species. Only further material collected in Manica can 
determine whether the male of this aberrant female resembles it in 
the same way as in the case of the allied C. plums, or whether we 
have here a dimorphic female of G. ephyra. 

One example was taken in the Mineni Valley on 29th March, 
" on the same individual tree on which so many C. boliemani were 
captured," and the two others on a thorn-tree at Lusika Eiver on 
1st April. 

70. Charaxes bohemani, Feld. 

6* . Charaxes boliemani, Feld. Wien. ent. Monatschr. iii. p. 321, 
t. 6. fig. 3 (1859) ; Butl. Lep. Exot. p. 28, pi. x. fig. 3 [ $ ] (1869). 

Of this very fine Charaxes twenty-eight specimens were taken in 
Mineni Valley from the 11th to the 18th March, and eight at Lusika 
Eiver from the 1st to the 13th April. Of the entire thirty-six, 
nineteen are males and seventeen females ; eleven are absolutely 
fresh perfect examples, twelve in fair condition, and thirteen more or 
less worn and broken. In expanse of wings the male varies from 
3 in. 3 lin. to 3 in. 8 lin., and the female from 3 in. 9 lin. to 4 in. 
The tails of the hind wings are considerably longer and less acumi- 
nate in the female than in the male. There is but little variation as 
regards the upperside in either sex, except that the blue has in some 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 45 

specimens more of a greenish tinge than usual ; in one male there 
is in the fore wings a small separate spot of blue just beyond the 
extremity of the discoidal cell. The underside is also very constant, 
but in the male exhibits some variation in the size and brightness 
of the yellow lunules which form a common sinuated submarginal 
series. 

Mr. Selous informs me that he always found both sexes of 
this species sucking at exudations^ on the branches of a tree of 
moderate size ; during flight the blue field of the upperside is 
conspicuous. Though not uncommon and rather widely distributed 
over Mashunaland, Mr. Selous was not able to secure specimens 
of it before visiting Manica. 

71. Charaxes cith^ron, Feld. 

Charaxes cithceron, Feld. Wien. ent. Monatschr. hi. p. 398, t. 8. 
figs. 2, 3 (1859). 

The only example is a much- worn female taken at Christmas 
Pass on the 29th February. It differs from the typical form so 
prevalent on the Natal coast, and approaches the female G. xiphares 
(Cram.), on the upperside of the fore wings by the more macular 
white median band, and by the two subapical white spots being 
succeeded inferiorly by a sinuated series of five whitish spots 
growing fainter downwards, and on the underside of the hind 
wings by the more pronounced markings throughout, and espe- 
cially by the presence of a narrow white bar externally bounding 
the highly irregular median dark-blue transverse streak. On the 
upperside, however, the median band of the hind wings is not 
broad and ochre-yellow as in G. xiphares, but pale violaceous-blue 
and white as in cithceron and narrower than usual in the latter. 
The tails of the hind wings are very much shorter than in cithceron, 
shorter and narrower than in G. xiphares $ > being in fact as short 
and acute as in G. xiphares J . 

72. Charaxes selottsi, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 10, J .) 

c? . Exp. al. 2 in. 1 lin. 

Black, with submetallic pale violaceous-blue white-clouded sub- 
marginal marking, developed in hind wing into a broad cliscal 
space. Fore wing : a sinuated submarginal series of eight blue 
and white spots, of which only the three lowest, between 2nd 
median nervule and inner margin, are enlarged and conspicuous, 
forming a short transverse band widening to inner marginal edge ; 
the other five spots all small and very indistinct, except the 2nd 
and 3rd, which lie between 5th subcostal and lower radial nervules 
and are more white than blue. Hind wing : violaceous space 
extending over disk from costa to below 1st median nervule, and 
from extremity of discoidal cell to a little distance from hind 
margin — traversed by a whitish ray and with its inner edge 
white; just within biud-marginal edge a lunulated bluish-scaled 
streak, dull red as far as 3rd median nervule, but below that 



46 MR. B. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

greenish yellow ; just before this streak a series of seven small 
but very distinct and well-separated lunulate white spots, of 
which the two next anal angle internally edge two small blue 
spots ; tails rather narrow but not very acuminate, of moderate 
and about equal length. Underside. — Very glossy ; before middle, 
pale olivaceous-ochreous, with an irregular transverse blue-black 
white-edged streak; beyond middle, pale brownish-ochreous, tra- 
versed by a sinuated fascia whitish in fore wing, ferruginous-red in 
hind wing : a median blue-black line quite across both wings, 
bounded externally by a white stripe. Fore iving : three blue-black 
white-edged spots in discoidal cell, one transversely elongate, 
close to base, the others subbasal, round, one above the other ; 
transverse streak white-edged internally, interrupted on 1st median 
nervule ; median transverse line almost straight, slightly inter- 
rupted on 2nd median nervule ; discal fascia strongly sinuated 
superiorly, thinly fuscous-edged internally, traversed by a very 
faint indication of a series of pale rufous spots corresponding to 
the upperside series — the lowest spot being enlarged, geminate, 
and fuscous ; apex whitish. Hind iving : in discoidal cell a sub- 
basal blue-black, externally white-edged line ; continuation of 
transverse streak of fore wing interrupted on subcostal nervure, 
and extending to just below median nervure ; median transverse 
line continuous from costal to inner marginal edge ; red discal 
fascia irregular, continuously black-edged internally, but only 
imperfectly so externally ; white spots of hind-marginal series all 
larger than those on upperside and subocellate with blue and 
black ; streak along hind-margin not bluish-scaled, ferruginous-red 
as far as 1st median nervule. 

This very distinct species combines to some extent the colouring 
and pattern of the very much larger C. violetta, H. G. Smith, with 
those characteristic of the ephyra group of the genus, especially 
as regards the underside, but it is on the whole much nearer to 
the latter. Unfortunately the female remains unknown. 

The only example was taken in the Mineni Valley, on 7th March ; 
it was drinking at the water's edge, and the brightly-marked 
underside attracted Mr. Selous's notice, notwithstanding its small 
size as compared with its congeners. 

I dedicate this Charades to Mr. F. C. Selous, a naturalist and 
geographical explorer distinguished no less for his high personal 
qualities than for his services in opening up tropical South Africa. 

Family ErycinidjE. 
Subfamily Libythein,e. 
Genus Libythea, Eabr. 
73. Libythea laius, Trim. 

Libythea laius, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1879, p. 337; S.-Afr. 
Butt. ii. p. 5. n. 118, pi. vii. fig. 3 

Eour specimens — a male from Christmas Pass, two males from 



1894. J MANIOA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 47 

Mineui Biver, and a female from Vunduzi liiver — resemble those 
brought from Natal, but are smaller than usual. 

This species was found settling on leaves in shady places ; it 
flew with moderate speed and was easily caught. These four 
specimens were the only ones observed; they were taken on 15th 
February, 8th March, and 5th April. 



Family Licjnidj. 

G-enus Lyc/eka., Fabr. 

74. Lyc^na asopus, Hopff. 

d $ . Lyccnaa asopus, Hopff. Monatsb. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 
Berl. 1855, p. 642. n. 21. 

Two specimens from Christmas Pass. 

75. LyCjEna parsimon (Fabr.). 

d . Papilio parsimon, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 526. n. 349 (1775). 
Two males from Christmas Pass. 

76. LyOjENA. exclusa, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 11, d 1 .) 

Exp. al. ( c? ) 1 in. 6| lin. ; ( $ ) 1 in. 8-9 lin. 

3 . Very like L. parsimon (Fabr.), c? , on upperside. Dull 
brownish-grey ; a fuscous hind-marginal edging line ; cilia brownish- 
grey basally, ivhitish externally ; pattern of underside indistinctly 
shown, the most apparent marking being the darker terminal disco- 
cellular striola in both wings. Hind wing : close to hind margin 
the usual fuscous spot, between 1st and 2nd median nervules, 
rather small and ill-defined, externally whitish-edged ; below 1st 
median neiwule the trace of a second similar spot ; no tail. 
Underside. — Dull creamy -ivhitish, with conspicuous black spots 
faintly white-edged. Fore wing : discocellular terminal striola 
thick and black ; discal series of six spots — the upper three 
forming a regular continuous transverse streak between 4th 
subcostal and 3rd median nervules, but the other three all separate 
and before the upper three, the 5th spot (between 2nd and 1st 
median nervules) being nearer to base than the 4th and 6th spots ; 
a submarginal ochreous-brown streak, widening downward, parallel 
to and not very far before hind-marginal edge, which is bounded 
by a black fine. Mind wing : a subbasal series of three rounded 
spots, the middle one in discoidal cell ; terminal cellular striola 
thick, black, curved ; discal series of eight spots (all separate) 
strongly bisinuated — the 1st and 8th spots before, the 2nd and 
5th about, and the remainder beyond middle ; the 7th spot strongly 
crescentic ; a black hind-marginal edging line as in fore wing, and 
a faint indication of a submarginal ochreous-brown line, which 
below second median nervule widens into two very diffuse ochre- 
yellow lunulate marks; immediately beyond the latter are a rounded 
superior and elongate inferior black spot, the upper profusely, the 



48 MR. It. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM ! .Tan. 16, 

lower slightly scaled with metallic blue. Cilia as on upperside, 
but with darker base. 

2 • Discal area in both wings whitish, with a pale-blue scaling 
from base over cell and along inner-marginal area. Fore iving: 
terminal discocellular marking very much broader than in male, 
reniform. Hind wing : 3rd and 4th spots of discal series of 
underside reproduced, fuscous ; hind margin more or less whitish- 
bordered throughout ; fuscous spots near anal angle much en- 
larged. Underside as in male. 

The male and the two females above described were all taken 
at Christmas Pass on 11th February ; the male is in good condition, 
but the females are greatly worn and faded. Only these three 
examples were seen, they were flying slowly on an open hill-side. 

The large and very irregularly disposed deep black discal spots 
of the underside readily distinguish this Lyccena from all its 
congeners known to me, with the exception of one very near ally 
discovered in the adjacent district of Mashunaland by Mr. Selous, 
which is described below l . 

77. Lycena cissus (Godt.). 

Polyomniatus cissus, Godt. Encycl. Meth. ix. p. 683. n. 210 
(1823). 

One specimen from Umtali, five from Christmas Pass, and one 
from the Mineni Valley. 

78. Lycjena mahallokoosna, Wallengr. 

Lyccena mahallolcocena, Wallengr. K. 8v. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 
1857-Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 41. n. 16. 

Two examples from Christmas Pass, and one from the Mineni 
Y r alley. Until the receipt of these Manica specimens, the most 

1 IiYCiENA MASHUNA, n. Sp. 

Exp. al.(3)l in. 5-6 lin. ; ($) 1 in. 6-8 lin. 

Nearly allied to L. exclusa. 

c? . Very pale violaceous-blue, shot with pink ; neuration distinctly blackish ; 
a stronyly-marked hind-maryinal black edging streak ; discal spots of underside 
faintly showing through ; terminal discocellular mark distinct, slender, and 
angulated in both wings. Fore winy : immediately before hind-marginal black 
edging a very faint tinge of ocbry-yellow, preceded by a very faint diffuse 
greyish fascia. Hindwiny: anextremelyfaintdiff'usegreyishborderimmediately 
before hind-marginal edging ; a rather small and faint blackish spot close to 
bind margin, between 1st and 2nd median nervules, immediately preceded by 
some very faint ochry-yellowish scaling; no tail. Underside. — Ochre-yellow, 
with conspicuous black, very thinly white-edyed discal spots arranged just as in 
L. exclusa / two series of very faint submaryiual white lunules. Fore wing : 
field of wing much paler than costal and hind-marginal border ; 5th spot of 
discal series greatly reduced and but little before 4th, and (jth spot wanting. 
Hind wing : hind-marginal black spot darker than on upperside, ochre-yellow 
immediately preceding it darker than ground-colour. 

$. Pale-blue field much more limited than in male, the costal, apical, and 
hind-maryinal border being in both winys broadly brownish yrey ; ochry-yellowish 
hind-maryinal stain much more developed, and in fore winy usually co?ispicuous 
between 2nd median nervule and posterior angle, while in some specimens it is 
also dijfi'sedh/ present in hind wing. Fore iviny : discocellular terminal 



1894.] MANIC A, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 49 

northern locality on the eastern side, known to me as a habitat 
of this curious species, was Pretoria ; although further inland it 
had been found in the Bamangwato Country. 

79. Lyc^ena gaika, Trim. 

Lyccena gaika, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 3rd ser. i. p. 403 
(1862). 

Two specimens from Christmas Pass. 

"When I described this species thirty years ago, I little imagined 
that so exceptionally fragile and slow-flying a Butterfly — one of 
the smallest of its genus — would be found to range over not only 
a great part of Africa, but also from Aden over all the Oriental 
Region to Java, and even into the Western Pacific (Solomon 
Islands). 

80. Lyccena bostica (Linn.). 

Four examples from the Mineni Valley. 

81. Lyoena sichela, Wallengr. 

Lyccena sichela, Wallengr. loc. cit. 1857, p. 37. n. 4. 

Seven specimens from Christinas Pass. With the exception of 
a male captured at Tati, South Matabeleland, in 1887, by the 
late Mr. J. L. Fry, these are the first examples known to me from 
tropical S.E. Africa, but I have recorded (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, 
p. 82) the occurrence of the species in the tropical S.W. area. 

82. Lyoena telicanus (Lang). 

Two specimens from Christmas Pass, and three from the 
Mineni Valley. 

There can be no doubt that the widely-spread Lyccena generally 

marking darker and broader. Hind wing : 3rd and 4th spots (rarely also 5th 
and 7th spots) of discal series of underside reproduced, fuscous ; a whitish 
line, preceded by traces of dark spots, just before hind-marginal edge; blackish 
spot larger, the yellow preceding it usually taking the ordinary lunulate form ; 
a yellowish space at anal angle. Underside. — As in male, but black spots 
larger, and discal series usually complete, the 5th spot only reduced in one 
example, and four others having all six as in L. exclusa, but with the lower 
three less irregularly disposed. 

This species is readily distinguished from L. exclusa by the blue instead of 
brownish-grey upperside of the male, and in both sexes by the ochre-yellow 
instead of creamy-whitish underside ; another peculiar feature, most apparent 
in the female, is the development of more or less ochry-yellowish along the 
hind-marginal border. The intense blackness of the terminal discocellular and 
discal spots of the underside is the same in both species, and obtains, as far as 
I know, in no other species of this group of Lyccena. The anal angular spot 
on the underside of L. exclusa is wanting in that of L. mashuna. The relation 
between these two species corresponds very near to that between L. parsrmon 
and L. patricia, Trim. 

The examples collected by Mr. Selous are two ( J and £ ) from the 
Hanyani River, not far south of Fort Salisbury, received in 1886 ; two ( £ ) 
from Motoko's Country, East Mashunaland, captured in November 1890 ; and 
six (2 cS , 4 5)> without special locality, received in 1891. All had suffered 
some injuries from rough transit by post. 

Pfioc Zool. Soc— 1894, No. IV. 4 



50 MB.. R. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jail. 16, 

known as L. plinius, Fabr., is identical with L. telicanus, and that 
accordingly the range of the latter species must be extended from 
Aden eastward over all the Oriental Region to Formosa, and also 
to the Solomon Islands. The distribution of this Butterfly over 
the Old World is thus rendered almost coextensive with that 
of L. bcetica. 

83. Lyc.ena lingeus (Cram.). 

Papilio lingeus, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. t. ccclxxix. figs. F, G 

(1782). 

Three examples from Christmas Pass. 

84. LYCiENA antinorii, berth. 

Lyecena antinorii, Oberth. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, xviii. p. 731, 
t, ix. fig. 3 (1883). 

The only individual captured is a male, met with in Christmas 
Pass on 6th March. This specimen differs in one point from 
Oberthiir's figure of the type, viz. the two series of submarginal 
brownish-fuscous lunules are much less regular, especially in the 
fore wings, and are interrupted in two or three places. 

It is interesting to find this little-known Lyecena, which was 
discovered in Shoa, Abyssinia, by the late Marquis Antinori, in 
1879, occurring so far to the south as Manica. The female appears 
to be still unknown. From the pattern of the underside, this 
species is clearly related to the group of L. juba, Fabr., but the 
violaceous tint of the upperside is most like that of the male 
L. lingeus. 

85. Lyc^ena poggei (Dewitz). 

S . Plebeius poggei, Dewitz, Nov. Act. Leop.-Carol. Akad. 
Naturf. xli. p. 205, pi. xxvi. fig. 7 (1879). 

Of this remarkable species, founded on a single male discovered 
by Dr. Pogge in Angola, there are four males in the collection, all 
taken at Christmas Pass, on the 6th March, drinking at the edge 
of water. 

The ochraceous pink-shot upperside, with the very strongly 
marked discal series of seven unequal longitudinal black streaks 
between the nervules of the fore wings, renders this species easily 
recognizable ; the underside nearly resembles that of L. antinorii, 
but is more heavily marked. A near ally is L. artemenes, Mabille, 
from Madagascar, which, judging from the figures (3 and 4) on 
pi. xxvii. of the " Lepidoptures " volume of Graudidier's 'Histoire 
Physique etc. de Madagascar,' has the black streaks much thinner 
and longer, and the cilia very feebly fuscous-varied in the fore 
wings, while the dark markings of the underside are mostly white- 
centred instead of uniform brownish grey. Mr. A. G. Butler 
notes (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, v. p.' 337 (1880)) that in the 
nature of the internervular black streaks the Madagascar species 
agrees with the West-African L. juba, Fabr. 



1894.] MAKTCA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 51 

Genus Lyc.exesthes, Moore. 

86. Lyclenesthes larydas (Cram.). 

Papilio larydas, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. t. cclxxxii. fig. II (1782). 
Three examples taken at Christmas Pass. 

87. Lycenesthes modes, Hewits. 

Lycamesthes Ixodes, Hewits. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1874, 
p. 349. 

One specimen from Christmas Pass, and another from the 
JMineni Valley. 

88. Lycenesthes neglecta, Trim. 

$ . Li/ccenesthes neglecta, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1891, 
p. 175 ; and ( $ ) 1893, p. 132, pi. viii. figs. 7, 8 ( J & $ ). 

The only specimen, a female, was captured in the Mineni 
Valley, on the 7th March ; it agrees with the Natalian female 
figured by me in the paper cited above. 

89. Lycexesthes ltjnulata, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 12, J .) 

Exp. al. 1 in. 2\ lin. 

S . Metallic violaceous, bordered with fuscous. Fore wing : apical 
border very broad, but costal border to beyond middle and hind- 
marginal border below 2nd median nervule narrow. Hind wing : 
costal border of moderate width and only a little broader apically ; 
hind-marginal border linear below 2nd subcostal nervule, but 
closely preceded by a fuscous lunulate line, the line separating 
the two being whitish towards anal angle ; ordinary hind-marginal 
spot between 1st and 2ndmedian nervules small but black internally, 
bounded and half encircled by a broad and very conspicuous 
orange lunule. Cilia whitish-grey, in hind wing whiter towards 
anal angle and traversed by a dark line. Underside. — Brownish- 
grey ; ordinary markings of the ground-colour btit with exceedingly 
fine darker outlines, their white edgings on both sides slender but 
sharply defined. Fore wing : discal series of incomplete touching 
annulets only slightly irregular, except that its lowest and largest 
marking is oblique and before the others. Hind iving : discal 
series of annulets rather strongly bisinuated, the costal annulet 
filled with black ; two subbasal, small, round, black, white-ringed 
spots, one near costa and the other on inner margin ; hind- 
marginal black spot and orange lunule as on upperside, except 
that the spot is marked externally with greenish-silvery ; at anal 
angle a similar spot and lunule. 

This species belongs to the sylvanus group of Lyccenesthes, its 
underside agreeing more with those of that species and of L. liodes, 
while the upperside more resembles that of L. otacilia, Trim., but 
is of a much deeper and more glittering violaceous. It appears to 
stand very close to the otacilia of Hewitson (Illustr. Diurn. Lep. 
pi. 92. figs. 35-37), which, as I have pointed out in my S.-Afr. Butt. 

4* 



52 ME. R. TRIMEX OX BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jail. 16, 

ii. p. 103, is distinct from L. otacilia, mihi ; and, though larger and 
darker than Hewitson's figure of the male, may prove on comparison 
with Hewitson's specimens to belong to the same species. The 
examples in the Hewitson Collection bore the localities of Sierra 
Leone and Angola. 

The two males in Mr. Selous's collection were taken at Umtali 
and in the Mineni A' alley, respectively, on the 28th February and 
7th March. 

Genus Deudorix, Hewits. 

90. Deudorix antalus (Hopff.) l . 

Dipsas antalus, Hopff. Monatsb. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 
1855, p. 641. n. 15. 

Two specimens from Christmas Pass and two from the Mineni 
Valley. 

1 Mr. A. E. Hunt, lately of Durban and now of Newcastle, Natal, has 
reared this Butterfly from larvae found in the seed-pods of Crotalaria capensis 
at Pinetown and near Durban, and has sent me descriptions and drawings of 
the larva and pupa, from which the following diagnoses are framed. 

Larva. — Above greenish grey, spotted with black (in some specimens a tinge 
of purplish) ; first and second thoracic segments chrome-yellow, the first bearing 
a median black mark like a broad arrow reversed, the second with two trans- 
verse rows of three black spots each ; a transverse row of five black spots on 
the third thoracic segment and on each of the six following abdominal segments ; 
spiracles black ; head black ; underside and legs dull yellowish. Last three 
abdominal segments obliquely flattened and sloping posteriorly, hollowed and 
wrinkled superiorly. Entire upper surface densely set with short black bristles ; 
also a lateral edging of short white hairs. Length 7£ lines. 

Pupa. — Thorax and wing-covers dark glossy blackish brown ; abdomen dull 
reddish yellow thickly sprinkled with black atoms, and with a narrow dorsal 
median stripe of black ; head reddish yellow above, shining black beneath, with 
a fringe of fine white hairs along the front. Entire upper surface sprinkled 
with very short white hairs; under surface smooth and glossy. Humped 
dorsally, being markedly constricted at junction of thorax and abdomen ; 
flattened inferiorly. Attached by the tail and by a silken girth. 

It will be seen that the early stages much resemble those of a near congener, 
D. isoerates (Fabr.), common in India and Ceylon, the larva of which has long 
been celebrated for its singular habit not only of feeding in the interior of 
pomegranate, and other fruits but also of finding its way out shortly before the 
change to pupa and "spinning a strong web over the basal portion of the fruit 
and over some considerable length of the attaching stem, so that should the 
fruit be separated from the stem it will not fall to the ground " (de Niceville, 
Indian Museum Notes, vol. i. no. 4, p. 194, 1890 ; and Butt. India, iii. p. 478, 
1890). But the larva of D. antalus does not appear to share the very re- 
markable habit in question (first brought to notice by the late Prof. Westwood 
as loDg ago as 1835), as Mr. Hunt notes nothing of the kind. He writes, 
however, that the first pupa found was attached to the inside of a pod of Crota- 
laria which had a round hole at the tip, while the larvae subsequently found 
by him were in pods without holes, and in every case left the pod after it had 
once been opened. He believes the latter course to he traceable to the pod's 
twisting as it dried and so squeezing the larva. One or two full-grown larva; 
which were placed in a pod ate their way out and fastened themselves under 
the nest of a mason-wasp that was in the same box. The pupal state, in June 
and July, lasted from 18 to 21 days. Mr. Hunt adds that the pupa, on being 
touched or disturbed, gives a very distinct squeak, although he could not trace 
any movement of the insect accompnnying it. 



1S94.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 53 

91. Deudorix c^erulea, H. H. Druce. 

<3 2 - Deudorix ccerulea, H. H. Druce, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 6, vol. v. p. 28 (1890). 

S . Deudorix obscurata, Trim. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 84. 
n. 61, pi. ix. fig. 13. 

A single male, captured in the Mineni Valley on the 11th March, 
and a female on the 13th. 

Mr. Druce pointed out the identity of my D. obscurata with his 
previously described D. ccerulea in Ent. M. Mag, 1892, p. 65, and 
reference to his description shows him to be right. His specimens 
were from Lagos, Western Africa, while the type of my D. obscurata 
was from Omrora on the border of North Ovampoland. 

Genus Hypolyclena, Feld. 

92. HYPOLYCiENA CECULUS (Hopff.). 

lolaus cceeulus, Hopff. Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1855, p. 642. 
n. 17. 

Four males and three females from the Mineui Valley, taken from 
March 7th to 21st. These are the largest specimens that I have 
seen, the male expanding 1 in. 4^-5| lin., and the female 1 in. 6- 
6| lin. "While the males do not incline to the more violaceous 
tint of the upperside so noticeable in the examples recorded by 
me from North Ovampoland (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 85), yet 
both sexes resemble the latter, and differ from the usual East- 
African specimens, in the much redder and decidedly broader 
transverse streaks of the underside, though none has these markings 
so strongly developed as in the supposed seasonal form figured by 
me he. cit. (pi. ix. fig. 14). It would thus appear probable that 
on the eastern side the seasonal forms differ less widely than they 
do on the western. 

93. Hypolyc^ena philippus (Eabr.). 

Hesperia philippus, Eabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 283. n. 87 (1793). 
Three specimens from Christmas Pass, and four from the 
Miueni Valley. 

Genus Iolacts, Hiibn. 

94. Iolaus sidus, Trim. 

lolaus sidus, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 3rd ser. ii. p. 176 
(1864). 

A single example of each sex from Christmas Pass. The female 
is one of the largest I have seen, expanding 1 in. 5| lin., and has 
the red stripes of the underside much broader than in any other 
specimen that has come under my notice. It was captured on 
22nd February, settled on the same bush as the 1. aphna aides 
mentioned below. 



54 MB. It. TEIMEH ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

95. Iolaus bowkem, Trhn. 

Iolaus bowlceri, Trim. loc. cit. p. 176 (1864). 
Two examples from Christmas Pass and three from the Mineni 
Valley. 

96. Iolaus aphn.eoides, Trim. 

Iolaus aplincvoides, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1873, p. 110; 
Hewits. 111. D. Lep., Suppl. pi. iva. figs. 50, 51 (1878). 

One male captured at Christmas Pass on 22nd February. Of 
this very rare though somewhat widely distributed species I have 
seen only seven examples, viz. : the types (male and female) taken 
near Graham stown, Cape Colony ; a male from the Trans-Keian 
territory ; a female from Panda-ma-Tenka, near the Victoria Palls 
of the Zambesi ; two females from Lake Nyassa (Hewitson 
Collection) ; and the male now under notice l . Mr. Selous's 
example was taken at the edge of a ravine ; it settled repeatedly 
on the same bush. 

Genus Mteina, Pabr. 

97. Mybjna ficedtjla, Trim. 

Myrina ficedxda, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1879, p. 324. 
Two females from Christmas Pass, agreeing with ordinary 
South-African specimens. 

Genus Aphn.eus, Hiibn. 

98. Aphnjeus masilikazi (Wallengr.). 

Spindasis masilikazi, Wallengr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 — 
Lep. Eh op. Caffr. p. 45. 

Three specimens (2 males and a female) from the Mineni Valley, 
and three (females) from near Vunduzi River. These were taken 
on blue flowers at the side of the road. 

99. APHNJttJS homeyeei, Dewitz. 

Aplmous liomeyeri, Dewitz, Deutsch. ent. Zeitschr. xxx. p. 429, 
pi. ii. figs. 5, 5a, 5 b, be (1887); Trim. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1891, p. 88. n. 70. 

A female from Sikuva River (March 4th), and two males and 

1 A description with very carefully executed coloured figures of a very closely 
allied form (found near Durban, Natal, in March 1893) have been sent me by 
Mr. A. E. Hunt. In this example the orange-yellow stripes and borders of the 
underside are reduced to almost linear form, the basal stripe indeed being 
wanting except for its lower inner-marginal portion in the hind wing, and the 
subbasal one represented by a discocellular short streak in each wing. The 
common submarginal series of black spots, and the hind-marginal black spots 
of the hind wing, are quite as in I. aphnceoides ; but the costa of the fore wing 
has an orange linear edging, and the inner margin of the hind wing bears a 
small subbasal orange spot. It seems possible tliat this may prove to be a 
seasonal variation of I. aphiueoicks, but at present I am inclined to regard it as 
a sporf of that species. 



1S94.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 55 

three females from, near Vunduzi Eiver (April 6th and 12th). 
Mr. Selous notes that this Aphnceus was seen, five or six together, 
on the same blue flowers that were frequented by A. masilikazi. 

All six examples agree with the summer specimeus taken at 
Omrora, S.W. Africa, by Mr. Eriksson (see P. Z. S. 1891, p. 89), 
in their strongly marked and brightly tinted underside. 

Genus Chrysorychia, Wallengr. 

100. Chrysorychia harp ax (Fabr.). 

Papilio harpax, Fabr. Ent. Syst. App. p. 829. nn. 327-328 
(1775). 

Two ( c? 2 ) from Christmas Pass, nine (5 <$ , 4 $ ) from Mineni 
Valley, one ( <3 ) from Lusika Eiver, and one ( <S ) from near 
Vunduzi Eiver. 

These examples altogether agree best with Hopffer's descriptions 
and figures (Peters's Eeise nach Mossamb., Ins. pi. xxvi. figs. 1-3, 
p. 403), but the males are of a darker red on the upperside, like 
more southern examples, and exhibit much variation in the width 
of the fuscous border of the fore wing — most, however, having 
that border very broad indeed in apical area. 

101. Chrysorychia amanga (Westw.). 

Zeritis amanga, Westw., Oates's Matabele-land etc. p. 351. n. 62 
(1881). 

Chrysorychia amanga, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. ii. p. 165. n. 201, 
pi. ix. fig. l[tf](1887). 

Pour (3 males and a female) from the Mineni Valley, and one 
(male) from Vunduzi Eiver. The latter male has the discal red on 
the upperside of the fore wings reduced to a triangular patch not 
extending (except by an obsolescent spot) above 1st median ner- 
vule ; and the female exhibits on the underside much of the lilacine- 
whitish clouding characteristic of the male, and well developed in 
these Manica examples. In both sexes, but especially in the male, 
the discal small metallic spots of the underside are better marked 
than usual. 

102. Chrysorychia cruenta, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 13, <$ .) 

Exp. al, ( S ) 1 in. 2-2± lin. 

c? . Allied to O. amanga (Westw.). Fuscous, ivith a very dark 
red discal patch in each iving. Fore wing : dark-red patch inferior, 
lying between 2nd median nervule and inner margin, narrow 
superiorly but widening inferiorly so as to occupy inner mai'ginal 
edge from rather before middle to a little before posterior angle ; 
costa from base to before middle rather broadly bordered with dull 
fulvous. Hind wing : dark-red patch larger than in fore wing, 
widest superiorly (where it is bounded by the radial nervule) and 
extending to hind-marginal edge, over anal angular lobe, and to 
inner margin for some little distance before lobe ; tail long and 
rather wide, of the same dark red ; inner-marginal border broadly 



.56 -MK. a. XBIMSN o.N BUTTBBFLLB8 FBOM [Jan. 16, 

hoary to a little beyond middle ; lobe \a ith a narrow silvery edging 
interrupted by base of tail. Cilia in fore wing white from apex to 
lower radial nervule, below that fuscous ; in hind wing dark red 
with a fine basal line of fuscous. Uxdeeside. — Deep ferruginous 
red, with numerous thin, silvery, dark-edged spots, arranged as in 
C. harpax (Fabr.), but much more attenuated, and in hind wing form- 
ing more continuous, less macular, transverse series. Fore wiwj : 
a broad basicostal creamy border for about one-third of length of 
wing; a rather indistinct lilacine cloud over upper part of disk; 
below median nervure a conspicuous, slender, elongate fuscous- 
edged white marking, curved upward at its inner extremity and 
lying longitudinally ; a similar but much longer marking, bent 
downward at its outer extremity, between 1st median nervule and 
submedian nervure : these two markings represent the much 
thicker, more transverse ones in harpax ; inner-marginal border 
only narrowly and faintly pale fulvous ; apical silvery spot only 
of submarginal series well-marked, elongate, oblique. Hind 
wing : disk with a faint but extended lilacine cloud ; discal series 
of silvery markings forming an almost continuous irregular streak 
angulated interiorly ; submarginal series of small spots very indis- 
tinct, scarcely darker than ground-colour, except at angulation 
immediately before anal angular lobe, where two are silvery, sub- 
linear, and dark-edged. 

Front of head, palpi, first and second pairs of legs (the first 
being very densely hairy almost to end of tarsus), and under edge 
of third pair all of the same creamy tint as the basicostal border of 
the fore wings. Antenna? without white bar beneath at base of club. 
The distinguishing characters of this species of Chrygorychia 
are : — on the upperside, the extremely dark red (in some lights with 
a faint purplish gloss) of the discal patches, and the limitation of the 
hind-wing patch (whereas in ft amanga and ft harpax the red 
extends over the whole surface except a small basal portion) ; and, 
on the underside, the very deep red ground-colour, the thinness and 
regularity of the silvery markings, the very peculiar elongation 
and whiteness of the two longitudinal streaks below the median 
nervure and its first nervule in the fore wings, and the creamy 
(not silvery-white as in ft amanga) colour of the basicostal border 
in the fore wings. The very dense creamy hair, like wool, clothing 
the first pair of legs, and the absence of the inferior white bar 
at the base of the antennal club, are also peculiar features of 
ft cruenta, although the former is, to a much smaller extent, 
exhibited also by C. amanga. 

Only two males of this handsome Chrysorychia were taken by 
Mr. Selous — one in the Mineni Valley on 6th March, the other at 
the Lopodzi Kiver on 2nd April. 

Genus Pentila, Westw. 

I do not concur with Scudder (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci. 
x. pp. 244 & 284, 1875), Butler (Ent. M. Mag. xxii. p. ui), Aug. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 57 

1S85), and Smith and Kirby (Ehop. Exot. i. Afr. Lye. pi. ii. pp. 2 & 4, 
1887) in recognizing the MS. genus Tingra, Boisd., with T. tropi- 
calis, Boisd., as type, or in taking the same author's MS. species 
Pentila undularis as the type of Pentila, a genus first defined by 
Westwood (Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 503) in 1851. Although West- 
wood undoubtedly places P. undularis first on the list of species 
included under Pentila, it is equally certain, on studying his dia- 
gnosis of the genus, that the characters he gives are not those 
presented by undularis, but are (out of the four species he names) 
solely applicable to the second species, viz. P. abraxas, ^Wesiw., which 
should therefore be held as the type of Pentila. With P. abraxas, 
P. tropicalis is unquestionably congeneric, and the MS. genus Tinyra 
should consequently be abandoned, Westwood defines Pentila as 
having "labial palpi very minute ; " in the fore wings, "upper 
discocellular arising from the postcostal at about the same distance 
beyond the second branch as the space between the first and second 
branches ; it is also about equal in length to the same space and 
oblique ; middle discocellular short, less oblique ;" and in the hind 
wiugs, " lower discocellular nearly transverse and very slender, 
&c." P. abraxas presents these important characters, as well as all 
the others described by Westwood, whereas P. undularis has rather 
long, slender, and porrect palpi ; the upper discocellular nervule of 
the fore wings so exceedingly short as to be scarcely distinguish- 
able, and the middle one very short and quite transverse ; and in 
the hind wings an open discoidal cell, the lower discocellular ner- 
vule being wanting altogether. The different arrangement of the 
discocellular neuration of the fore wings gives P. abraxas a long 
discoidal cell and P. undularis a short one. Butler (I. c. p. 60) 
recognizes that P. undularis " differs considerably both in neuration 
and palpi from the other species associated with it," and also that, 
if no longer held as type of Pentila, a new genus would have to be 
founded for it. 

103. Pentila teopicalis (Boisd.). 

c5 . Tingra tropicalis, Boisd. App. V T ov. Deleg. dans l'Afr. Aust. 
p. 589. n. 46 (1847). 

r? . Pentila tropicalis, Hewits. Exot. Butt. iii. pi. 60. fig. 2 
(1866). 

2 . Tingra tropicalis, Smith & Kirby, Ehop. Exot. i. p. 3, Lycaen. 
Afr. pi. ii. figs. 9, 10 (1887). 

The examples collected by Mr. Selous (three from the Mineni 
Valley, one at the Lopodzi Eiver, and three near the Vunduzi 
Eiver) resemble the variation from Mombasa, named lasti by 
Messrs. Smith and Kirby (op. cit. Lycaen. Afr. pi. viii. figs. 1-4,1889), 
in the better development of the upperside fuscous border and 
discocellular spots in the fore wings of both sexes, but want on 
the upperside the common discal series of small spots (reproducing 
that always present on the underside) described and figured in the 
Mombasa examples. As regards the macular hind-marginal border 
on the upperside of the hind wings of the male, it is observable 



58 MR. B. TRIMEN OJf BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jail. 16, 

that, of Mr. Selous's five specimens, two have this feature more 
developed than in the figure of T. lasli, one has it about the same, 
one has it considerably less, and iu the last (in which the fore-wing 
border is abnormally broad) its only trace is some sparse black 
scales. As pointed out in my description of this species (S.-Afr. 
Butt. ii. pp. 211-212), the fuscous markings of the upperside are 
variable in the Natalian typical form, and this tendency seems 
more marked farther to the north-east. 

104. Pentila peucetia, Hewits. 

Pentila peucetia, Hewits. Exot. Butt. hi. p. 119, pi. 60. fig. 3 
(1866). 

Four examples from the Mineni Valley and ten from the Vunduzi 
Biver. Noted as always found in shady forest, flying very slowly, 
and towards sunset settling very often. 

The locality of the type is given by Hewitson as the Zambesi, but 
in Mr. Kirby's Catalogue of the Hewitson Collection (1879, p. 180) 
the three specimens recorded are respectively from " Gaboon, 
Calabar, and Lake Nyassa," showing a very wide range for the 
species. An example received from the Bev. H. Junod was taken 
at Morakwen, Delagoa Bay, on 30th March, 1891 ; it is the only 
one known to me from an extra-tropical locality. 

There is little or no variation observable among Mr. Selous's 
specimens, and the sexes differ only in size. 

I find this Butterfly, as well as its close ally P. peuceda (H. G. 
Smith), from Mombasa, and P. muhata, Dewitz, from Mukenge and 
Cameroons, inseparable generically from P. abraxas and P. tropicalis, 
and do not see on what grounds Messrs. Kirby and Smith (op. cit. 
Lycaen. Afr. pis. ii. & ix. pp. 3 & 37) have placed them in 
Butlers genus Larinopoda (Trans. Ent. Soc. Loncl. 1871, p. 172), 
the type of which presents a wide difference from them both in 
palpi and neuration. 

Genus Durbania, Trim. 

105. Dttrbania hildegarda (Kirby). 

d" . Teriomima (?) hildegarda, Kirby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 5, xix. p. 367 (1887) ; and Smith & Kirbv, Ehop. Exot. i. 
Lycam. Afr. p. 16, pi. iv. figs. 7, 8 (1888) \ 

Eifteen specimens were taken in the Mineni Valley from the 9th 
to 27th March, and two at the Lusika Biver on 1st April ; four from 
the former and one from the latter locality are females. Mr. 
Selous notes that this Butterfly was of very slow flight, and congre- 
gated in numbers on the stems of a tall herbaceous plant with blue 
flowers. 

The males agree fairly with the figure above cited,which represents 
an example from Ashanti, but on the upperside are of a slightly 

1 In op. cit. p. 4fi (1890) Messrs. Smith and Kirby note that T. (?) hildegarda 
may be included in the genus Lurbania. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 59 

deeper ochre-yellow and have the discocellular fuscous markings 
and extracellular costal bar heavier and more confluent, while the 
common fuscous hind-marginal border varies a good deal in width, 
being in some specimens narrower than shown in the figure. 

The females T are distinguished from the males by their much 
narrower fuscous markings on the upperside ; although these 
markings vary in development, they are at their widest narrower 
than in the most lightly marked male. The underside is alike in 
the two sexes. 

This is a very close ally of D. aslauga, Trim., but separated by 
its paler ground-colour (without any tinge of orange) and well- 
defined fuscous hind-marginal border on the upperside — the latter 
character being specially noticeable in the hind wings, where in 
D. aslauga it is wanting. On the underside the markings agree with 
those of aslauga, but all the rufous spots are much more conspi- 
cuous, being larger and paler, especially those of the hind-marginal 
and submarginal series. D. aslauga inhabits the Natal coast, and 
has also been brought from Zanzibar. 

106. Durbania pttellaris, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig- 14, $ .) 

Closely allied to D. puella (Kirby) 2 . 

Exp. al. ( J ) 1 in. 3 lin. ; ( $ ) i in. 3^ lin. 

d . Ochre-yellow ; fore wing ivitli fuscous border at apex. Fore 
iving : fuscous border broad on costal edge, beginning at extremity 
of 2nd subcostal nervule, and thence narrowing to a point on 
hind-mai'ginal edge at extremity of 3rd median nervule, whence 
runs a linear prolongation to extremity of 2nd median nervule ; 
inner edge of this border showing marked indentation on each 
nervule, the deepest being on upper radial nervule, where the 
border abruptly narrows ; costa bordered for a little distance from 
base with blackish, and beyond this a small blackish spot. Under- 
side. — Paler ; hind wing and apex of fore wing creamy-yelloiv. 
Foreiuing: costal edge with 5 small black spots, of which the 1st 
and 2nd are subbasal and strongly marked ; the 3rd faint, very 
thin, just above extremity of discoidal cell ; the 4th like the 3rd. 
and about as far beyond it as the 3rd is from the 2nd ; and the 
5th is largest, elongate, rather faint, extending to below subcostal 
nervure, and corresponding in position to the inner edge of the 
apical border of the upperside ; a very fine black line interrupted 
on nervules along hind-marginal edge from apex to lower radial 
nervule. Hind wing : 5 well-marked but rather small round 
black spots, viz., one in the discoidal cell just before origin of 1st 
median nervule ; one below cell, a little beyond the same point ; 
and three discal, one being subapical between the subcostal nervules, 
and the other two between 3rd and 1st median nervules ; on hind- 

1 D. otlanga, Smith and Kirby (op. tit. p. 46, pi. xi. figs. 9, 10), is suggested as 
" possibly the female of D. hildegarda," but is widely different as regards both 
colour of upperside and pattern of underside. 

2 Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, ser. 5, xix. p. 365 (18S7) ; Smith and Kirby, Ehop. 
Exot. i.Lyoam. Afr. p. 12, pi. iii. figs. 9, 10 (188S) — 1'criomima puella. 



GO MR. R. TRIMEN O^ BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

marginal edge, from 1st median uervule to anal angle, an extremely 
fine black line. 

$ . Like male, but with the black markings throughout rather 
larger. Fore wing : apical border broader costally, more deeply 
indented on upper radial nervule, its inferior linear prolongation in 
two examples extending below 2nd median nervule. Underside. — 
Fore wing : two additional subapical black spots, one on costa a 
little beyond large fifth spot, and the other (larger) below and 
beyond the same spot and between the radial nervules ; hind-mar- 
ginal black line well-marked, continuous from apex to 2nd median 
nervule. Hind wing : an additional small black diseal spot, below 
1st median nervule ; in one specimen the trace of another, close 
to costa, near extremity of costal nervure. 

Head and its appendages black ; a ring round eyes, the base 
and tip of palpi, and a ring round the base of each shaft-joint of 
antennae, white. Thorax and abdomen pale ochre-yellow. Legs 
black, conspicuously white-ringed. 

One female has the underside concolorous, the hind wings and 
apex of the fore wings being no paler than the field of the fore 
wings. 

Described from one male and three female specimens. 

This form is distinguishable from Mr. Kirby's description and 
figure of D. puella, a native of the Gaboon territory, by its larger 
size, and on the upperside of the fore wings by its want of costal 
spots beyond the middle, and costally broader internally deeply 
indented apical border ; while on the underside it wants two of 
the black spots present in the hind wings of D. puella, viz. one 
close to costa about middle, and the other median, just beyond the 
extremity of the discoidal cell. 

In all structural characters D. pucllaris cannot be separated from 
D. aslauga and D. hildegarda ; and most probably, therefore, its 
close ally D. puella should be withdrawn from the genus Teriomima, 
Kirby, and transferred to Durbania. 

Mr. Selous's four specimens were all taken at the Vunduzi 
Kiver, on the 5th April ; he found them towards sundown settling 
on the same stems of a blue-flowered plant that was frequented by 
D. hildegarda and Pentilatropicalis. 

Genus Alpena, Boisd. 

107. AL.ENA AMAZOELA, Boisd. 

Alalia amazoula, Boisd. App. Voy. de Deleg. dans I'Afr. Aust- 
p. 591. n. 60 (1847). 

The only example, a male, was captured in the Mineni Valley 
on the 7th March. It differs from all of the same sex that I have 
seen in the great enlargement of the ochre-yellow markings, and 
proportionate reduction of the fuscous clouding in the basi-median 
area of both fore and hind wings, in this respect resembling the 
female. A male taken bv Mr. Selous in 1884 on the Umfuli 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 61 

Eiver in Mashunaland exhibits the same peculiarity in the hind 
wings, but in the fore wings is almost as much clouded with 
fuscous as usual, and I have two quite similar males captured by 
Mr. H. M. Barber on the Tenda Eiver, N.E. Transvaal, in 1888. 

108. Aljena kyassa, Hewits. (Plate VI. fig. 15, $ .) 
Alcena nyassa, Hewits. Ent. M. Mag. xiv. p. 6(1877). 

Two females of this strikingly-marked Alcena — one taken in 
Mineni Valley on the 7th March, and the other in the Pungwe 
Valley on 1st September. 

This species was founded on four examples sent from Lake 
Nyassa by Mr. Simons. Hewitson's description was evidently 
made from a male, as he notes the costal portion of the curved 
white bar of the fore wings as consisting of three " minute " 
divisions,while in the female (where the curved white bar, as well as 
the corresponding bar in the hind wings, is much broader and of a 
purer white) that part is of considerable size \ The female is 
much larger than the male, expanding 1| inches, and her wings 
are much broader and more rounded hind-marginally. 

A male taken at the Shashina Eiver, Matabeleland, by Mr. 
Selous in 1883, has the transverse black markings of the hind 
wings exceedingly reduced, the submarginal streak between radial 
nervule and inner margin being indeed quite obsolete. 

Genus Lachnocnema, Trim. 

109. Lachnoctema bibulus (Pabr.). 

S . Papilio bibulus, Pabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 307. n. 163 (1793). 

$ . Papilio laches, Pabr. op. cit. p. 317. n. 199. 

One male and three females taken at Christmas Pass during 
February. The females are all different on the upperside — one 
being exceptionally dingy owing to the almost obsolete condition 
of the usual whitish or white discal marking, another with small 
but distinct white marking, and the third with a wide development 
of faint bluish-grey extending from near base over lower discal 
area in both fore and hind wings 2 . 

Mr. Selous notes that he found this Butterfly drinking at the 
water's edge in company with other Lycsenidae. 

1 In another Mashunaland female captured " between Makoni's and the 
Odzi " in 1891, by Mr. Selons, the white bar in the fore wings is a little 
narrower throughout, but the white subapical spot, sometimes found on the 
upperside between the subcostal nervure and the upper radial nervule, is elon- 
gated and conspicuous. 

2 The South- African Museum has lately received from the Rev. Dr. Holland 
four female specimens of Lavh.vocnema taken in the Ogove Valley, Gaboon 
Territory, in West Africa, which, except in size, cannot be distinguished from 
L. bibulus. They expand 1 in. 2^-3^ lin., while the range of expanse in South- 
African female L. bibulus is 10£ lin. to 1 in. 2 Jin. One of these Ogove examples 
has only the faintest indication on the upperside of the usual pale discal mark- 
ings, and in the others those markings are limited and rather ill-defined. 



62 MB. R. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 1 6, 

110. Lacitxocnema durbani, Trim. 

Lachnocnema d'urbani, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. ii. p. 236. u. 238 
(1887). 

1 refer to this species two specimens captured at Christmas 
Pass (a male on 1st March and a female on 16th February), finding 
in them no difference from the more southern specimens except 
their much larger size — the male expanding 1 in. 3|- lin. and the 
female 1 in. 4| lin. 

Family Papilionid.e. 
Subfamily Pierijsle. 
Genus Pontia, Boisd. 

111. Pontia alcesta (Cram.). 

Papilio alcesta, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. ccclxxix. fig. A (1782). 

Pontia alcesta, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. hi. p. 8, pi. 10. fig. 1 
(1889). 

Eight specimens from Pimgwe River, agreeing with those found 
in Natal. 

Genus Terias, Swains. 

112. Terias zoe, Hopff. 

c? . Eurema puchella, Geyer [nee Boisd.], Forts. Hiibn. Zutr. 
Exot. Schmett. p. 8, figs. 815, 816 (1837). 

2 . Terias zoe, Hopff. Monatsb. Acad. Wissensch. Berl. 1855, 
p. 640 ; and Peters's Beise nach Mossamb., Ins. p. 369, pi. xxiii. 
figs. 10, 11 (1862). 

The only example of this common species is a male from Christ- 
mas Pass, in which the underside markings, especially the unusual 
subapical macular blackish ray of the fore wings, are strongly 
marked. 

113. Terias .ethiopica, Trim. 

$ . Eurema senegalensis, Geyer [nee Boisd.], op. cit. p. 41, figs. 
969, 970 (1837). 

6 2 . Terias cethiopica, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 21. n. 243 
(1889). 

A male from Christmas Pass and three males from Mineni 
Valley are larger (exp. al. 1 in. 8-9 lin.) than usual, and the 
former has the subapical ferruginous markings on the underside 
of the fore wings much reduced. 

114. Terias butleri, Trim. 

6 2 - Terias butleri, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 23. n. 244 (1889). 
A single male (exp. al. 1 in. 9 lin.), taken at Christmas Pass on 
15th February. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 63 

115. Terias regularis, Butl. 

cJ . Terias regularis, Butl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 4th ser. 
xviii. p. 486 (1876) ; Trim. ( <J $ ) op. cit. p. 26. n. 246 (1889). 
Three males from Christmas Pass. 

In addition to the above there are three specimens of Terias 
that I am unable to assign satisfactorily to any of the species 
known to me. One is a male from Christmas Pass, which in the 
form and development of the hind-marginal border on the upper- 
side is intermediate between T. wthiopica and T. buileri, and on 
the underside, although with much more distinct markings 
than the latter, is much more faintly marked than the former and 
has only the faintest indication of the ferruginous blotch near the 
apex of the fore wings. The other two are females, from Christmas 
Pass find Mineni Valley respectively, and are of a very pale whitish 
yellow above, but of a rather yellower tint beneath ; on the 
upperside there is no trace of any hind-marginal border in the 
hind wings, and the border in the fore wings is of the width and 
shape of that presented by the South-African female T. floricola, 
Boisd., while the underside markings are extremely faint, without 
any trace of the subapical blotch, and in one example scarcely 
visible except as regards the terminal discocellular and (in hind 
wings) subbasal ones. These females approach the white and 
yellowish-white West-African examples which in collections are 
usually placed as female T. senegalensis, Boisd.; but I have never been 
able to identify this species, Boisduval (Sp. Gen. Lep. i. p. 672) 
describing with extreme brevity merely a yellow form from 
" Senegal," as very like T. hecabe (L.) but with the underside 
markings exceedingly faint, and giving no note whatever of the sexes 
or their differences. 

Genus Mtlothris, Butl. 

116. Mtlothris agathina (Cram.). 

(3 . Papilio agathina, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. ccxxxvii. figs. D, 
E (1779). 

Seven examples, from the Mineni Valley and the Lopodzi and 
Vunduzi Rivers. 

Genus Pieris, Schr. 

117. Pieris saba (Fabr.). 

2 . Papilio saba, Fabr. Sp. Ins. p. 46. n. 199 (1781). 

3 . Pieris orbona, Boisd. Faune Ent. Madag. etc. p. 18, pi. i. 
fig. 3 (1833). 

5 , and (as 3 ) var. $ , Pieris malatha, Boisd. loc. cit. figs. 4, 5. 

Two males and a female from Christmas Pass, taken on 22nd 
and 26th February. The males have the hincl-marginal black 
markings more developed than usual, and the female is of the 
typical heavily black-clouded form but with the hind-marginal 
border of the hind wings less broad. 



s 

64 MB. R. TRIMEX OX BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

In my S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 42, I noted the apparent absence 
of any female examples linking the var. flavida, Mab., with the 
typical female ; but 1 have since then received two intermediate 
gradations from Durban, Natal. In the first of these, taken by 
Mr. C. W. Morrison on the 16th May, 1890, the ground-colour is 
tinged with lemon-yellow, the hind-marginal border of the hind 
wings is very little broader than in the variety, but the basal 
blackish in the fore wings, instead of being merely a narrow costal 
border, fills all the discoidal cell except its lower edge, where it 
becomes a sparse irroration only. In the second, taken by Mr. A. 
D. Miller, there is more approach to the typical female, the hind- 
marginal border of the hind wings being broader, and the basal 
black in the fore wings tilling the cell, but not extending below it 
except in a very faint and narrow irroration at th^ base, while the 
only tinge of yellow on the white area is at the base of the hind 
wings. 

118. Pieris alba (Wallengr.). 

<$ . Pina copter t/.v alba, Wallengr. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 — 
Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 10. n. 7. 

cJ ? • Pieris alba, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 48. n. 253 (1889). 

A male and a female very much worn, taken at Sarmento, on 
the Pungwe River, on the 18th September, are apparently referable 
to this species. 

119. Pieris simajca, Hopff. 

cJ 5 • Pieris simana, Hopff. Monatsb. Akad. Wissensch. Berl. 
1855, p. 640. n. 13 ; and Peters's Eeise n. Mossamb., Ins. p. 354, 
t. xxiii. figs. 3, 4 (1862). 

The only specimen, a female taken at Christmas Pass, has the 
fuscous apical border in the fore wings widened so as to include 
the subapical costal streak, and the fuscous hind-marginal spots in 
the hind wings also larger than usual. 

120. Pieris severfna (Cram.). 

$ . Papilio severina, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 338. figs. G, H 
(1782). 

Fourteen specimens, 4 males, 10 females ; twelve from Christmas 
Pass, where the paired sexes were captured on 26th February. 
Though varying a good deal in depth of markings, all these ex- 
amples belong to the larger form with more brightly-tinted under- 
side, which I have shown (S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 72 & note) to be 
in Natal characteristic of the summer or wet season. 

Genus Herp.enia, Butl. 

121. Herpjenia eriphia (Godt.). 

Pieris eriphia, Godt. Encycl. Meth. ix. p. 157. n. 134(1819). 
The only example is a fine male, captured in Mineni Valley on 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AEBICA. 65 

28th March. It is of the typical form, proper to the wet season, 
without any trace of ochre-reddish colouring on the underside. 

Genus Tebacolus, Swains. 

122. Tebacolus eris (Klug). 

Pontia eris, Klug, Symb. Phys. t. vi. figs. 15, 16 (1829). 

One specimen only, taken in the Mineni Valley on 31st March. 
This is a perfect and very large male {exp. al. 2 in. 2 lin.), with the 
inner-marginal black band of the fore wings as broadly developed 
as in King's figure, but still marked externally between 2nd and 
3rd median nervules with a minute white spot. In the hind wings, 
however, the costal black band does not extend below the 2nd 
subcostal nervule, but the hind-marginal nervular black marks 
are decidedly larger than in Klug's figure. The underside is 
almost pure white, with the inferior submarginal black spots (3) 
very strongly marked ; and it also presents the peculiarity of 
blackish hind-marginal termination to the nervules, more pro- 
nounced in the fore wing than in the hind wing. 

123. Tebacolus ione (Godt.). 

d 1 . Pieris ione, Godt. Encycl. Meth. ix. p. 140. n. 74 (1819). 
S 2 • Teracolus ione, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 101. n. 269 

(1889). 

Five males, taken in the Mineni Valley from 6th to 26th March, 
agree thoroughly with those described by me (op. cit. p. 102) from 
Transvaal and Delagoa Bay ; the upperside presenting fine but 
complete black neuration of the hind wings, and the underside 
being almost uniformly white, with no markings beyond the ter- 
minal discocellular dots, a faint trace in the hind wings of the 
costal commencement of a discal ray, and (in one specimen only) 
dusky terminations of the nervules on hind margin. 

JNbrth Ovampoland must be added to the geographical range 
of this species, Eriksson having taken six males and three red- 
tipped females near Ovaquenyama in February and March 1891. 
The males are rather small (one, indeed, being dwarfish) and 
approximate the Var. A described by me in S.-Afr. Butt. iii. 
p. 103, but on the white underside the black neuration is very 
variable, being pretty well expressed (though very fine) in two 
examples only, at extremities alone in two others,, and wanting 
altogether in the remaining two ; while the discal streak in the 
hind wings is developed in but two examples, and imperfectly in 
one of those. The females, though heavily blackish-marked on the 
upperside, are less so than in Transvaal examples, especially as 
regards the borders of the apical patch in the fore wings and the 
hind-marginal border in the hind wings, the latter being macular 
instead of continuous. Their underside is very pale yellowish,, 
with the discal ray of the hind wings dull ferruginous and not 
strongly marked ; there is no black neuration except in one ex.- 

Pkoc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. V. 5 



66 MR. R. TRIMBN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

ample, where the fore wings exhibit it close to hind margin, and 
the hind wings on costal nervure and basal part of subcostal 
nervules. 

124. Tebacolus anax (H. G-. Smith). 

c? 2 • Callosune anax, H. G. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
ser. 6, iii. p. 125 (1889) ; and Rhop. Exot. i. Callosune, i. p. 2, pl.i. 
figs. 5, 6(d), 7, 8 ($) (1889). 

d . Anthopsyche ione, Walleugr. Sv. Yet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 — 
Lep. Rhop. Caffr. p. 15. 

3 2 AntJwcJiaris regina, Trim., var. tf and var. 5 , Trans. Ent. 
Soc. Lond. (3) i. p. 521 (1863). 

d $• Teracolus rerjina, var. A, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 112 
(1889). 

S $ . Teracolus eliza, E. M. Sharpe, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
v. p. 441 (1890). 

There are five specimens (all males) of this splendid Teracolus, 
captured in Mineni Valley from 9th to 27th March. These differ 
slightly from Mr. H. G-. Smith's figure, above cited, of a Mombasa 
male, having on the underside less irroration basally, a narrower 
inner black border to the violet apical patch in the fore wings, and 
smaller nervular hind-marginal black spots in the hind wings ; the 
last-named markings are also much reduced on the underside of 
the hind wings. The black spots of the discal series on the under- 
side of the hind wings vary a good deal in size and distinctness, 
one example having them just as in Mr. Smith's fig. 6, two others 
having all but the first and last larger, another wanting the second 
spot, and the last wanting both second and third spots ; the ground- 
colour is also variable, two examples presenting it creamy instead 
of pure white. 

As usual in the genus Teracolus, it is impossible to define exact 
limits between T. anax and T. regina. The Manica males here 
noticed link T. anax to the var. A of regina from Damaraland, and so 
do two others taken by Mr. A. W. Eriksson, in 1885, in the belt of 
country between Transvaal and Matabeleland ; while, as I have 
noted (op. tit. p. 113), another male from the latter tract is inter- 
mediate between the var. A and typical T. regina}. Of two females 
taken by Mr. Selous in 1882 on the Upper Limpopo, Transvaal 
boundary, one is typical T. regina, but the other is referable to var. 
A ; the latter is on the upperside very close to Mr. Smith's figure 
(7) of female T. anax, but has both the basal irroration of the fore 
wings and the hind-marginal large black spots considerably broader 
— the latter, indeed, are so enlarged as to meet and form a continuous 
border, while on the underside the corresponding spots are very 
much smaller than in the figure (8) of T. anax female 2 . Looking to 

1 This male closely agrees with the male of T. cliza, E. M. Sharpe, from near 
Mombasa, as figured by Waterhouse ('Aid,' pi. 189, 1890). 

2 This female, except for its stronger basal irroration, agrees well with the 
female of T. cliza, E. M. Sharpe, as shown on the plate of ' Aid ' above cited, 
fig. 6. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 67 

the evidence afforded by several species of the germs, I am inclined to 
think that the typical T. regina, with greatly-reduced dark markings 
and more or less reddish-tinged underside, and the large anacc form 
(including my T.regina, var. A), with strongly-developed dark mark- 
ings and white or creamy-white underside, will turn out to be 
respectively dry-season and wet-season broods of the same species. 

125. Teracoeus gavisa (Wallengr.). 

3 • Anthopsyche gavisa, "Wallengr. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 
1S57— Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 13. n. 6. 

Seven males and three females from Mineni Valley, and one 
female from Vunduzi River. The paired sexes were taken on 6th 
March. 

The males exhibit considerable variation in the development of 
the black markings on the upperside of the wings, especially in the 
longitudinal bars, which in two specimens are narrow and faint, 
and in another represented by sparse scaling only. One of those of 
normally strong black marking on the upperside is wanting alto- 
gether in the usual black neuration on the underside, in this respect 
approaching the very closely-allied T. achine (Cram.). A female 
also exhibits almost complete failure of the black neuration on the 
underside. 

126. Teracoltts celimene (Lucas). 

3 $ . Antliocharis celimene, Lucas, Rev. et Mag. Zool. (2) iv. 
p. 426 (1852). 

3 2 • Antliocharis amina, Hewits. Exot. Butt. iii. pi. 5. figs. 
1-3 (1866). 

A single male, in fine condition, taken on the Lower Pungwe 
River, on 26th September. Mr. Selous informs me that this was 
the only specimen he noticed ; it was settling on herbage. 

Genus Colias, Pabr. 

127. Colias electra (Linn.). 

Papilio electra, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 764. n. 101 (1767). 

Two large males (earp. al. 2 in. 2 lin.) from Christmas Pass. 

Dr. P. Karsch has noted (Ent. Nachr. xviii. p. 169, 1892) a 
single specimen collected by Dr. E. Zintgraff at Baliburg, interior 
of Cameroon. This station is stated to be at an elevation of 1250 
metres, and is the first locality for a Colias 1 have found recorded 
in Western North-Tropical Africa. 

Genus Eronia, Boisd. 

128. Eronia tiialassina (Boisd.). 

3 $ . Pieris tiialassina, Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. i. p. 443. n. 8 
(1836). 

3 2 • Eronia verulanus, Ward, Ent. M. Mag. viii. p. 59 

5* 



68 ME. B. TEIMEX ON BUTTEEFLIES FEOM [Jan. 16, 

(1871) ; and Afr. Lep. pt. i. p. 4, pi. iv. figs. 5 ( 6 ), 6, 7 ( 2 ) 
(1873). 

Two examples from Christmas Pass — a male captured on 1st 
March, and a female on 21st February. The latter has on the 
upperside the fore wings white and the hind wings pale yellow 
(rather deeper externally) ; and on the underside the glossy hind 
wings and apical hind-marginal border of the fore wings so slightly 
tinged with yellowish as to be almost as white as the disk of the 
fore wings. 

The female of this species evidently varies much in colouring, 
the example figured by Ward from Cameroon having the fore wing 
ochre-yellow on both surfaces while the hind wings are white ; while 
one from Zambesi in the Hewitson Collection had the upperside 
yellowish throughout. Just as the female E. argia (Fabr.) mimics 
Myloihris dgaihina (Cram.), so the female E. thalassina figured by 
"Ward is a manifest imitator of the female Myl. poppea (Cram.), var. 
spica, Moschl., with ochre-yellow fore wings, while theManica female 
of E. thalassina strongly resembles the female Myl. trimenia, Butl. 1 

Manica is the most southern station known to me for this 
species. Mr. Selous noticed a good many males coursing rapidly 
along a thickly-wooded hillside, but only captured one. 

Genus Callideyas, Boisd. 

129. Callideyas floeella (Fabr.). 

2 . Papilio florella, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 479. n. 159 (1775). 

Five males and five females from Christmas Pass and one 
female from Mineni Valley ; the last-named example was taken on 
16th March, but all the others from 12th to 24th February. All 
the males but one are strongly freckled on the underside, and all 
the females are of the yellow form. The male that differs from 
the rest has the underside not only more faintly freckled but also 
of a greener tint. 

Subfamily Papilioxin^e. 

Genus Papilio, Linn. 

130. Papilio leoxidas, Fabr. 

Papilio similis, Cram. Pap. Exot. i. pi. ix. figs. B, C (1779). 

Papilio leonidMS, Fabr. Ent. Syst. hi. 1, p. 35. n. 103 (1793). 

The only example is a male, taken in Mineni Valley on 12th 
March. It agrees pretty closely with ordinary West-Coast speci- 
mens except that the tint of the greenish spots is yellower, and 
that the basal red stain on the underside of both fore and hind 
wings is considerably brighter and more extended. This latter 
difference also appears in two other males taken by Mr. Selous — 
one in the desert country south of the Mababe Biver in August 

1 A close mimirker of 3/. trimenia is Picris ("Beknois")lasti,Tl. G. Smith, 
from Mombasa. M. poppea is similarly very ( exactly copied by Papilio rhodope, 
Fabr., and M. agathina by P. thysa, Hopff. 



1894.] MAKICA, SOUTH-EAST AFEICA. 69 

1884, and the other farther to the north-east, a little south of the 
junction of the Chobe and Zambesi Rivers, in 1889. This is not 
a variation in the direction of the closely-allied southern form, 
P. brasidas, Eeld., in which the basal red in question is usually much 
duller and sometimes obsolescent. 

131. Papilio cokestneus, Bertol. 

Papilio corinneus, Bertol. Mem. Acad. Sci. Bologna, 1849, p. 9, 
t. i. figs. 1-3 \ 

Five examples — a male from Umtali, two females from Christ- 
mas Pass, and a male and female from Mineni Valley. 

132. Papilio demoleus, Linn. 

Papilio demoleus, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. Reg. p. 214. n. 33 (1764). 

Eight specimens from Christmas Pass, and two from Mineni 
Valley. A rather worn female among the former has all the yellow 
spots deeper and duller in tint than usual, presenting some 
approach to the specimens sometimes met with in which these 
markings are of dull ochry-reddish. (See S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 227, 
footnote.) 

133. Papilio ophidicephalus, Oberth. 

Papilio ophidicephalus, Oberth. Etudes d'Ent. iii. p. 13 (1878). 

The solitary example of this fine Papilio is a female taken at 
Christmas Pass on 29th Eebruary. Unfortunately it is very much 
worn and broken, but it displays a remarkable aberration in the 
form of the common transverse yellow band, which in the fore wing 
is not only continuous and non-macular throughout but at its 
superior extremity is narrower than usual and farther from apex, 
its inner edge being immediately beyond (instead of some little 
distance from) the end of the discoidal cell 2 ; the oblique marking 
crossing the cell near its termination it also greatly enlarged and 
very broad inferiorly. In the hind wings the band is wider than 
usual in the left wing, and very much wider in the right one. 

Mr. Selous saw two specimens only. 

134. Papilio lt^us, Doubl. 

d . Papilio nireus, Cram, {nee Linn.) Pap. Exot, iv. pi. ccclxxviii. 
figs. E, G- (1782). 

Papilio lyceus, Doubl. "Ann. Nat. Hist. xvi. p. 178 (1845) " ; 
Gen. D. Lep. i. p. 13. n. 98 (1846). 

Eourteen males and two females from Christmas Pass, and two 

1 The pagination and number of the plate are those of the separate copies 
of the memoir ; but, from Butler's quotation of " p. 183, t. 9 " for Deilephila 
ranzani (a moth described and figured on p. 19, t. 1), these appear not to be 
those of the original publication. Butler also gives the date of publication as 
1850: the memoir is dated as read on " 25th January, 1849." 

2 It is noteworthy that this costal incurvation is characteristic of the closely 
allied P. menestheus, Drury, from West Africa, in which, however, the band is 
very narrow and composed of completely separated spots in the upper parts as 
well as in the rest. 



70 MR..R. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jail. 16, 

males from Miueni Valley. The latter and three others from 
Christmas Pass are the only males that exhibit to a slight extent 
the shiuing-greyish underside clouding, that characteristic feature 
of P. lyceus being absent in the rest. The other distinguishing 
features of P. lyceus, as distinct from the West-African P. nireus, 
are, however, well expressed. 

135. Papilio cenea, Stoll. 

§ . Papilio cenea, Stoll, Suppl. Cram. Pap. Exot. p. 134, pi. 
xxix. figs. 1,1a (1791). 

J . Papilio brutus, Godt. (pars) Encycl. Meth. ix. p. 69. n. 122 
(1819). 

c? . Papilio merope, Doubl. (pars) Gen. D. Lep. i. p. 13. n. 92 
(1846). 

2 . Papilio troplionius, Westw. "Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 38, 
(1842)"; and Arcan. Ent. i. pi. 39. figs. 1, 2 (1845). 

Twenty-four males and six females from Christmas Pass, all taken 
during February. The former without exception have a contin- 
uous broad or very broad discal black transverse band in the hind 
wings, but in four of them there is almost an interruption of the 
band between the 2nd subcostal and radial nervules. The tail 
of the hind wing is very variable in width and in the extent to 
which it is spatulate ; in most examples it is black for three-fourths 
of its length, but in others for about two-thirds and in one for 
barely half. One specimen presents the very unusual feature of 
two small spots of the ground-colour in the black border of the 
fore wings between the 1st radial and 3rd median nervules. This 
strongly marked form of the male has (with the black-and-white 
southern form of the female so near the female of P. metope, from 
West Africa named hippocoon by Eabricius) been named P. tibullus 
by Mr. Kirby. There is no doubt that it is characteristic of East 
and South-east Africa, prevailing along the coast from Natal to 
Zanzibar ; but it occurs along with other less heavily-banded males 
both in Trans-Kei territory and the eastern districts of Cape Colony. 

The females consist of two near the typical P. cenea, Stoll, but 
having the markings enlarged precisely as in the two examples 
from Delagoa Bay which I have recorded in S.-Afr. Butt. iii. 
p. 249, e ; and four of the black-and-white form near the hippocoon 
§ of P. merope above referred to. 

136. Papilio echerioides, Trim. 

Papilio echerioides, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1868, p. 72 
n. 2, pi. vi. figs. 1, 2. 

Two specimens from Christmas Pass, a male taken on 19th Febru- 
ary and a female on the 20th. The male differs from the southern 
type-form in having the common transverse band rather narrower 
and with the component spots more widely separated in the fore 
wings and narrower on costa in the hind wings ; this band is also 
almost pure white instead of decidedly yellowish white, as are be- 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 71 

sides the hind-marginal spots (smaller than in typical echerioides) 
of the hind wings. The female differs similarly from the typical 
female as regards the size of the spots just mentioned, and the 
large ochre-yellow marking on the upperside of the hind wings is 
less of a patch and more of a band, being slightly wider near costa 
and considerably wider on inner margin than in typical echerioides. 

The points of difference here noted in the male are in the direc- 
tion of the allied larger species P. zoroastres, Druce (Ent. M. Mag. 
xiv. p. 226, 1878, <3 ), from Fernando Po. I have not seen this 
Butterfly ; but from a comparison of Mr. Druce's description with 
that of P. jacksoni, E. M. Sharpe (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 188), 
and with the figure of the latter (op. cit. pi. xvii. fig. 1), I think 
there can be little doubt that the two are identical. P. jacksoni is 
recorded as a native of Kikuyu, British East Africa. 

The range of P. echerioides extends to Zanzibar, M. Ch. Oberthiir 
having figured (Etudes d'Ent. xiii. p. 10, pi. 2. fig. 6, 1890) a female 
from " JNgourou" in that territory, which differs from more 
southern examples only in having the discocellular spot and sub- 
marginal spots in the fore wings, and the hind-marginal spots in' 
the hind wings, all larger than usual. 

Family Hesperiid^;. 
Genus Cyclopides, Westw. 

137. Cyclopides metis, Linn. 

c? . Papilio metis, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 325. n. 143 (1764) ; 
and Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 792. n. 245 (1767). 

A single male from Christmas Pass. This is the most northern 
locality from which I have seen an example of this abundant South- 
African species, but Mr. Druce has recorded it from Angola, and 
Nyassa is given as the habitat of some specimens in the Hewitson 
Collection. 

138. Cyclopides willemi (Wallengr.). 

S . Heteropterus willemi, Wallengr. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 — 
Lep. Bhop. Caffr. p. 47. n. 2. 

Two males from Lusika River, captured on 1st April. One of 
these has the spots of the discal series in the fore wings much 
larger than usual on the upperside. 

The first female of this species that I have seen was taken by 
Mr. A. W. Eriksson between the Cunene River and Ovaquenyama 
Iron Mines in January-February, 1891. This example expands 
1 in. 3 lin., and differs from the male in having the spots of the 
fore wing on the upperside larger and of a clearer and more 
decided yellow, especially those of the discal series ; while on the 
underside the hind wing and apex of the fore wing are of a brighter 
unobscured pale yellow, with fine and more sharply-defined black 
neuration, and in the fore wing the spots of the discal series, 
though smaller, are as complete as on the upperside, the 4th and 



72 MB. E. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

5th spots being confluent with two of the hind-marginal series, 
but the 6th quite separate. Another distinctive character of the 
female is that the cilia are pale yellow, instead of dark brown, on 
both upperside and underside. 

139. Ctclopides mineni, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 16.) 

Exp. al. 1 in. 2| lin. 

Fuscous ; fore wing with two discocellular and a serpentine series 
of eight disced small but ivell-defined transparent spots. Fore wing : 
discocellular spots terminal, rounded, separate, placed transversely 
one above the other ; discal series of spots flexed inwardly just 
below costa, then strongly outwardly to near hind margin, and 
thence directed inwardly to below extremity of cell, so that the spots 
are most irregularly placed — the second being a little before the 
first, the third a little beyond both these, the fourth (between 
radial nervules) not far from hind margin, the fifth almost directly 
below the third, the sixth directly below the second, the seventh 
(rounder and rather larger than the rest) close to and only a little 
beyond the lower discocellular spot, and the eighth (just above 
submedian nervure) directly below the discocellular spots. Cilia 
white, with black nervular marks. Underside. — Hind wing, and 
basicostal area of fore wing including discoidal cell, dull pale yellow. 
Fore wing : spots as on upperside but all larger ; a slight yellowish 
irroration along hind-marginal border. Hind wing : a discal sei-ies 
of seven very conspicuous and irregularly disposed white spots in 
dull fuscous borders, of which the first and seventh are largest 
and before the rest, and the fifth is nearest to hind margin ; two 
moderate-sized fuscous spots — one near base between costal and 
subcostal nervures, the other at extremity of discoidal cell. Cilia 
as on upperside. 

It is with some doubt that I place this Butterfly in the genus 
Cyclopides, as the only specimen, taken in Mineni Valley on 
March 25th, is not in good condition, and its sex cannot be deter- 
mined. The antenna is rather longer and with a more elongate 
club than in C. metis (Linn.) and O. malgacha (Boisd.), but the 
first subcostal nervule in the fore wing runs free to the costal edge, 
and the tibia of the hind leg bears two pairs of spurs as usual. 
In general aspect and in the character of the markings this species 
reminds one of the West-African genus Geratrichia, and the 
arrangement of the transparent spots in the fore wing is almost 
exactly like that in Pamphila ophiusa (Hewits.), from Old Calabar 
and Gaboon, while the colouring and spotting of the underside of 
the hind wing somewhat resemble those features in P. callicles 
(Hewits.). 

Genus Pyrgus, Westw. 

140. Pyrgus vindex (Cram.). 

Papilio vindex, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. cccliii. figs. G, H 
(1781). 

The only specimen, a male from the Mineni Valley, is of the 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 73 

typical form, and not, as might have been anticipated, of the larger 
form (with paler, larger-spotted underside) prevalent throughout the 
greater part of Eastern South Africa. 

141. Pyrgus deomus, Plotz. 

Pyrgus dromus, Plotz, Mitt, naturw. Ver. Neu-Yorpomm. u. 
Eiigen, 1884, p. 6. n. 13. 

A male taken at Umtali on 8th March. 

142. Pyrgus elma, Trim. 1 

Pyrgus elma, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 3rd ser. i. p. 288 
(1862). 

One example, apparently a female, from Christinas Pass. 

Genus Thymelicus, Herr.-Schaff. 

143. Thymelicus wallengrenii, Trim. 

Thi/melicus wallengrenii, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1883, 
p. 361 ; and S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 304. n. 341, pi. xi. fig. 7 [ $ ] 
(1889). 

Three specimens from Mineni Valley, taken from 9th to 22nd 
March. This species was hitherto known to me from Natal and 
Zululand only. 

144. Thymelicus catenas (Hewits.). 

Gyclopides capenas, Hewits. Descr. New Sp. Hesp. ii. p. 43. 
n. 7 (1868) ; and Exot. Butt. v. p. Ill, pi. 59. tigs. 2, 3 [ tf ] (1874). 

Var. Gyclopides derbice, Hewits. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 
xx. p. 327 (1877). 

A male from Christmas Pass, taken on 6th February, and four 
males and a female from Mineni Valley, taken from 8th to 14th 
March. All these examples belong to the form without yellow 
neuration on apical half of the hind margin on the upperside, so 
agreeing with the description of C. derbice, Hewits. In one male 
the upperside spots are much reduced in size and of duller yellow. 
The female has the upperside of a less dark brown and its spots 
larger. 

This Butterfly was originally described from Zambesi specimens, 
and the var. derbice from examples taken on Lake Nyassa by Messrs. 
Thelwall and Simons. It is distinguishable from its near ally the 
South-African T. macomo, Trim., by its darker upperside, with 

1 The Butterfly from Togo] and, N. West-Tropical Africa, referred to 
P. elma by Karsch (Berl. ent. Zeitschr. xxxviii. p. 245, n. 177, 1893), appears 
from the figure (pi. vi. fig. 12) to be of a distinct species. This figure shows the 
upperside of a more uniform dark tint, with more inclination to a rufous tone ; 
the median vitreous spots in the fore wings are larger and whiter, and the 
median white bar of the hind wings is prolonged superiorly almost to the costa 
and is acuminate at its inferior extremity. On the underside the colouring is 
much darker and has a reddish tinge ; in the fore wings the submarginal whitish 
streak is wanting, and in the hind wings the median white stripe is more 
irregular and the inner murginal border is pale brown instead of whitish. 



74 MB. R. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

smaller (and in hind wings differently disposed) spots ; and on 
the underside by the greatly reduced and broken-up apical yellow 
in the fore wings, and larger and more numerous black spots and 
black (instead of yellow) inner-marginal fold in the hind wings. 

Genus Pamphila, Fabr. 

145. Pamphila morantii, Trim. 

§ . Pamphila morantii, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1873, 
p. 112 ; and d, S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 311, pi. 12. fig. 3 (1889). 

A single male, captured in Mineni Valley on 8th March, belongs 
to the variation P. ranoha, Westw., in which the underside colour- 
ing is yellow-ochreous, without ferruginous tinge. 

146. Pamphila harona, Westw. 

Pamphila harona, Westw., App. Oates's Matabele-land, p. 353. 
n. 75 (1881). 

The six males in the collection (two from Umtali Biver, 28th 
February, and four from Mineni Valley, 7th to 25th March) differ 
from Westwood's description (and from two examples agreeing 
with this w 7 hich were taken by Mr. Selous in 1883-84 in some 
part of the South-Tropical tract not recorded) in the following 
particulars, viz. : — larger size ; better development of the dark 
markings of its upperside (especially of the lower basal and disco- 
cellular markings of the fore wings, and the hind-marginal border 
of the hind wings), .the two Umtali specimens and one of those 
from the Mineni Valley having them more strongly developed 
than the rest ; and more or less reddish-tinged underside of the 
hind wings and apex of the fore wings, with a greater or less 
tendency to inter-nervular creamy longitudinal stripes. This pale 
striping is least apparent in a specimen from Mineni Valley which 
on the upperside is nearest to the type-form ; it is better indicated 
in those already mentioned as most strongly dark-marked on the 
upperside ; and in two Mineni Valley examples, which present 
intermediate upperside markings, it is strikingly pronounced. 

The specimens on which this species was founded are recorded 
(I. c.) as taken by the late Mr. F. Oates near the Victoria Falls of 
the Zambesi, in January. 

Mr. Selous notes this Butterfly as being rather numerous, very 
swift in flight, but frequently settling in bushes, or drinking at 
the water's edge. 

147. Pamphila zimbazo, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 17, $ .) 
Allied to P. harona and to P. morantii. 

Exp. al.(S) 1 in. 1-2 lin. ; (?) 1 in. 1^-2| lin. 
<5 . Blackish-brown, with in each wing an ochre-yellow transverse 
discal band, long and irregular in fore wing, short and regular in 
hind wing. Fore wing : basal half of costa broadly clouded with 
ochre-yellow ; discal band of moderate width, beginning well 
beyond middle just below costa, elbowed outwardly and narrowed 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 75 

on radial nervules, thence widening and slanting inwardly as far 
as submedian nervure ; at median nervure, on each side of its 
second nervule, a good-sized terminal discocellular ochre-yellow 
spot, subquadrate, is completely confluent with inner edge of discal 
band ; below submedian nervure a very pale yellowish longitudinal 
streak from base meets termination of discal band. Hind wing : 
discal band obliquely-transverse, broad, indented irregularly on 
both edges, beginning abruptly on 2nd subcostal nervule with its 
outer edge very near hind margin, and ending above submedian 
nervure not far beyond middle ; a longitudinal yellowish ray from 
base to hind margin, below submedian nervure, set with yellowish 
hairs ; in discoidal cell a sparse clothing of yellowish hairs. Cilia 
broad, ochre-yellow, tinged with ferruginous in fore wing. 
Underside. — Hind wing and apical hind-marginal border of fore 
wing dull pale ochre-yellow ivith a tinge of olivaceous brown ; the 
former with a submargiual series of more or less reddish spots with 
dark edges. Fore wing : ground-colour pale ochre-yellow, fading 
into dull creamy towards inner margin ; from base a broad black 
longitudinal stripe, traversed by median nervure and a small part of 
its first nervule, abruptly truncate before middle ; at a little distance 
beyond termination of this stripe, and immediately beyond extre- 
mity of discoidal cell, an equally conspicuous wedge-shaped black 
marking narrowed outwardly, between first radial and 3rd median 
nervules ; upper part of discal band of upperside indicated by thin 
interrupted fuscous edging lines, of which the long outer series 
defines the inner edge of the hind-marginal border as far as the 
2nd median nervule, beneath which it abruptly expands into a 
broad fuscous or black marking extending to hind margin and 
(diffusedly) to posterior angle. Hind iving : submarginai series 
consisting of five spots, of which the first, between costal nervure 
and 1st subcostal nervule, is remote from the rest, which lie con- 
tiguously in an almost straight line between 2nd subcostal nervule 
and submedian nervure ; these spots vary in their distinctness of 
tint from that of the ground-colour, are elongate-ovate, and are 
fuscous-edged both internally and externally without being com- 
pletely ringed ; a similar spot at extremity of cell, a less distinct 
one immediately below it, and a small subbasal fuscous spot 
between costal and subcostal nervures ; at extremity of inner mar- 
ginal fold, close to anal angle, a darker cloud, faint in two examples, 
but in the other two fuscous and conspicuous. 

2 • Like male, but with the discal bands broader. Underside. — 
Rather paler, with the black markings of the fore wing not so 
strongly developed. 

This species most resembles P. morantii, Trim., on the upperside, 
but on the underside of the fore wings exhibits a remarkable like- 
ness to the darker examples of P. harona, Westw., in the black 
markings ; while the underside of the hind wings is altogether 
different from that of either of those species. The only palpus 
(that of a female) remaining shows the 3rd joint to be as in 
P. harona, long, slender, and erect. 



76 MR. R. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES PROM [Jan. 16, 

The four males and four females described were taken in the 
Mineni Valley, from the 7th to the 25th March, settling on bushes 
in a wooded ravine. 

148. Pamphila zeno, Trim. 

$ . Pamphila zeno, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) ii. p. 179 
(1864) ; and S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 313. n. 345, pi. 12. fig. 2 (1889). 
Two males, from Christmas Pass and Revue River respectively. 

149. Pamphila chirala, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 18, $ .) 

Exp. al. 1 in. 4 lin. 

$ . Dull brown ; fore iving with a few transparent ivhitish sp>ots 
and one semitransparent yellow spot, hind wing with a suffusion of 
ochre-yellow from base to a little beyond middle ; cilia uniform dull 
whitish-brown. Fore wing : six transparent spots, viz. : two small 
ones in discoidal cell, near its extremity, disposed transversely one 
immediately above the other ; two a little beyond and beneath 
these, only separated from each other by the 2nd median nervule, 
of which the upper is small and triangular and the lower large and 
quadrate ; and two near costa, midway between discocellular spots 
and apex, only separated from each other by the 5th subcostal 
nervule, of which the upper is minute and subquadrate and the 
lower small and wedge-shaped ; immediately above submedian 
nervure, about middle, a pale dull-yellow wedge-shaped spot, 
smaller than the largest of the transparent spots, with its narrow 
end baseward ; from base to before middle a faint suffusion of 
ochre-yellow. Hind iving : without markings ; ochre-yellow suffu- 
sion from base fading away beyond middle and not extending to 
costa. Underside. — Hind wing and apical area of fore wing rather 
bright yellow, varied with dull ferruginous. Fore wing : transparent 
spots with a fuscous edging ; field of wing fuscous-grey ; costa 
narrowly and hind margin more widely bordered with pale dull 
reddish ; a large subapical costal patch of yellow, beginning at 
extremity of discoidal cell and outwardly bounded by an oblique 
ferruginous streak from apex to 3rd median nervule ; a hind- 
marginal series of small indistinct internervular brown spots ; 
inner margin dingy-whitish. Hind wing : from apex to submedian 
nervure an oblique ferruginous band, narrowed on 3rd median 
nervule ; hind margin evenly bordered by an even rather narrow 
dull-reddish band, externally brown-spotted as in fore wing, but 
internally edged with ferruginous ; costa diffusedly edged with 
ferruginous ; a minute subbasal ferruginous spot between costal 
and subcostal nervules ; an ill-expressed transverse series of three 
very small similar spots before middle ; and a small ring-spot 
rather beyond middle, between subcostal nervules. 

Antennae dark brown, with thin whitish rings marking the joints, 
and with outer third of club white. Palpi (except terminal joint) 
clothed with brown hair above and very densely with yellow hair 
beneath. 

This Hesperid, though of small size, resembles in structure the 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 77 

group of large species represented by P. erinm/s and P. dysmephila, 
Trim., especially in its robust body, rather slender legs, and long 
antennae with elongate but thick club (the tip of which is acute 
and curved but not hooked) ; the terminal joint of the palpi is 
short, very slender, acuminate, and pilose. 

As regards colouring and marking, P. chirala on the upperside 
resembles P. malchus and P. gillias (Mab.), from Madagascar, but 
has an entirely different underside, much recalling that of the 
North-American group represented by P. zabulon, Boisd. & Le C, 
P. peclcius, Kirb., and P. mystic (Scudd.), though unlike in the 
oblique disposition of the ferruginous stripes. 

The only example was taken in Mineni Valley on 13th March. 

150. Pamphila moritili (Wallengr.). 

5 . Hesperia moritili, Wallengr. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 — 
Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 49. n. 4. 

S 2 • Pamphila moritili, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 319. n. 349, 
pi. 12. fig. 4 [d] (1889). 

Three examples captured in the Mineui Valley, during March — 
two males and a female. 

151. Pamphila borbonica (Boisd.). 

Hesperia borbonica, Boisd. Paune Ent. Madag. etc. p. 65. n. 3, 
pi. 9. figs. 5, 6 (1833). 

Pamphila borbonica, Mab. in Grandid. Madag. etc., Lepid. i. 
p. 360, pi. lv. figs. 6, 6 a (1885-86). 

The only example, a male from Christmas Pass, agrees with Natal 
specimens in possessing a small subterminal vitreous spot in the 
discoidal cell which is wanting in the type-form. 

152. Pamphila inconspicua (Bertol.). 

cf . Hesperia inconspicua, Bertol. Mem. Acad. Sci. Bologna, 
1849-50 (sep. cop.), p. 15, pi. i. figs. 4, 5. 

2 . Hesperia mohopaani, Wallengr. 1. c. p. 48 (1857). 

rf 2 • Pamphila micipsa, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) i. 
p. 290 (1862). 

£ 2 . Pamphila mohopaani, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Aust. ii. p. 304. 
n. 198 (1866); and S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 324. n. 353 (1889). 

Bertoloni's description and figures are from a single male from 
Inhambane ; there can be no doubt that his species is identical 
with H. mohopaani, Wallengr. 

A single male from Christmas Pass is somewhat greyer (less 
greenish yellow) in tint on the underside, and has six spots in the 
discal series of the underside of the hind wings 1 . 

1 A male Pamphila from Khasia Hills, Assam, received as " Chapra pro- 
mincns" from Mr. de Niceville in 1889, is inseparable from the male P. incon- 
spicua. I have already (S.-Afr. Butt., iii. p. 325) expressed the opinion that 
mohopaani (= inconspicua) will eventually be recognized as merely a larger 
form of the Oriental P. mathias (Fabr.). 



78 MB. E. TRIMEN ON BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

153. Pamphila ronctlgonis (Plotz). 

Hesperia roncilr/onis, Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. 1882, pp. 450-51. 

$ 2 . Pamphila roncilgonis, Trim. Trans. Eut. Soc. Lond. 
1893, p. 139, pi. viii. fig. 11 [ 6 ]• 

Fourteen examples, three only of which are females, from 
Umtali (1), Christmas Pass (1), Mineni Valley (4), Lopodzi River 
(1), and Vunduzi River (7). All these specimens are more or less 
worn, the best being from the last-named locality (5th to 12th 
April). 

The females differ from the Delagoa Bay example described by 
me (I.e. pp. 140-41) in wanting the minute additional transparent 
spot in the fore wings between the 5th subcostal and upper radial 
nervules ; and the largest and freshest of them also is nearer to the 
male in the fulvous-ochreous violaceous-glossed hind wings and 
apex of fore wings on the underside. 

Mr. Selous notes this species as chiefly observed on flowers — 
especially on the tall spikes of blue flowers above mentioned as 
attracting so many Lyccmidce. One specimen was captured while 
drinking at the water's edge. 

154. Pamphila hottentota (Latr.). 

3. Hesperia Jwttentota, Latr. Encycl. Meth. ix. p. 777. n. 133 
(1822). 

3 2 . Hesperia zettersfedti, Wallengr. 1. c. p. 49. n. 3 (1857). 

3 9 • Pamphila Jwttentota, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. hi. p. 314. 
n. 346, pi. 11. figs. 8, 8 a (1889). 

Two specimens from Christmas Pass, two from the Mineni Valley, 
and one specimen from the Vunduzi River, all (3 males, 2 females) 
belonging to the var. zetterstedti, so widely spread over all Eastern 
South Africa. 

Genus Ancyloxypha, Eeld. 

155. Ancyloxypha mackenii (Trim.). 

3 . Pamphila 1 ? mackenii, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1868, 
p. 95, pi. vi. fig. 8. 

3 2 • Ancyloxypha rnackenii, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. hi. p. 331. 
n. 357 (1889). 

Three males from Christmas Pass (16th to 23rd February), and 
a male and a female from the Mineni Valley (6th and 8th March). 

156. Ancyloxypha philanber (Hopff.). 

3 . Pamphila philander, Hopff. " Monatsb. Akad. Wissensch. 
Berl. 1855, p. 643 " ; and Peters' Reise n. Mossamb., Ins. p. 416, 
t. xxvii. figs. 1, 2 (1862). 

o* 2 • Aneyloxi/pha philander, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 333. 
n. 358 (1889). 

Five specimens : 2 males and 2 females from the Mineni Valley (6th 
and 7th March) and a female from the Vunduzi River (5th April). 
All have the lowest spot of the discal series of the fore wing on 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 79 

the uppersicle smaller and much more widely apart from the spot 
immediately above it than in Hopffer's figure of the male from 
Querimbe; both the males have the white median bar on the 
upperside of the hind wings considerably narrower, but this marking 
is in the females about as wide as Hopffer figures it in the male. 
On the underside the dark anal angular and lower discal patch is 
larger in both sexes, extending to hind-marginal edge except just 
about extremity of submedian nervure. 

Two females from Delagoa Bay, collected by the Rev. H. Junod 
in 1891, present this last-named character, and agree in other 
respects with the single example from the same locality noted by 
me loc. cit. p. 333 \ 

Mr. Selous notes this Butterfly as very rapid in flight, but 
frequently settling in bushes in shady spots. 

Genus Ptebygospidea, Wallengr. 

157. Pterygospidea tumiljelje, "Wallengr. 

S . Pte-rygospidea djcelcelce, Wallengr. 1. c. p. 54. n, 5 (1857). 

(S 2 • Pterygospidea djcelcelce, Trim. S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 354. 
n. 368, pi. xii. fig. 7 [ $ ] (1889). 

Eight specimens, two of which are females, from the Mineni 
Yalley (5th to 16th March) agree with the Transvaal male noted 
by me, I. c. p. 355, in their larger size and darker underside colouring, 
only the females having the rufous tolerably developed. 

158. Pterygospidea motozi, "Wallengr. 2 

Pterygospidea motozi, "Wallengr. 1. c. p. 53 (1857). 

Nisoniades motozi, Trim. Bhop. Afr. Aust. ii. p. 313. n. 206, 
pi. 6. fig. 3 (1866). 

Pour males and a female from the Mineni Valley (7th to 12th 
March), and a male from Vunduzi River (12th April). 

When I described this species in S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 357, I 
had noted females only of the typical pattern, and associated with 
them males taken in the same locality which differed chiefly in 
the much smaller vitreous spots of the fore wings, the want of the 
discocellular vitreous spot in the hind wings, and the possession 
of a more or less well-defined darker fascia in the fore wings. I 
have since obtained both sexes of both forms, and can rectify 

1 Specimens from the Ogove Valley, Equatorial West Africa, are considerably 
smaller ; the spots on the upperside of the fore wings are reduced in size — the 
lowest spot especially being very small and sublinear ; the median bar on the 
upperside of the hind wings is, on the contrary, much broader in its upper 
portion ;. while on the underside of the hind wings the dark lower-discal patch 
is more reduced than in the figure of the Querimbe type and stops short at some 
little distance before the hind margin. 

2 The Butterfly from Bismarckburg, Togoland, figured by Karsch (Berl. 
ent. Zeitschr. xxxviii. pi. vi. fig. 11, 1893) as doubtfully the male of P. motozi, 
appears to be quite distinct, being very much smaller, with differently-shaped 
transparent spots (and 5 or 6 minute additional ones) in the fore wings, and 
having the underside of the hind wings brown with fuscous markings and 
without any of the characteristic yellow colouring. 



80 MB. E. TRIMEN OK BUTTERFLIES FROM [Jan. 16, 

the mistake as regards motozi by stating that the male differs 
scarcely at all from the female except in being darker on the upper- 
side, and having smaller and more separate yellow markings on the 
underside. 

159. Pterygospidea galenus (Fabr.). 

Hesperia galenas, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 350. n. 332 (1793); 
Latr. Encycl. Me'th. ix. p. 773. n. 124 (1623). 

Plesioneura galenus, Staud. Exot. Schmett. i. t. 100 (1888) *. 

Three examples from Christmas Pass, captured respectively on 
15th, 17th, and 27th February. They are rather larger than the 
West-African specimens that I have seen, expanding 1 in. 6| to 
Ik lin., and the discocellular fulvous-yellow spot on the upperside 
of the hind wings is absent in two of the specimens and only just 
indicated in the third; on the underside this spot is faintly marked, 
and the other yellow spots (apart from the large discal hind- 
marginal patch) are also very much reduced and in two examples 
obsolescent. On both surfaces the large fulvous-yellow patch of 
the hind wings differs in each specimen both as to shape and size. 

1 have found this species recorded from numerous localities 
along the West Coast, from Assinie (in about 5° N. lat., and 3° 
W. long.) as far to the south as Angola ; but Mr. Selous's 
captures give the first instance known to me of its occurrence in 
East Africa — unless Shoa in Abyssinia be one (see C. Oberthiir, 
Ann. Mus. Civ. (xenova, xv. p. 733, 1883). Mr. Selous describes 
the Butterfly as scarce : he found it settling on low bushes in 
shady places and so alert as to be caught with difficulty. 

160. Pterygospidea flesf/s (Fabr.) 2 . 

Papilio flesus, Fabr. " Sp. Ins. ii. p. 135. n. 621 " (1781) ; Ent. 
Syst. iii. 1, p. 328. n. 286 (1793). 

Papilio ophion, Drury, 111. Nat. Hist. iii. pi. xvii. figs. 1, 2 
(1782). 

The eight examples from Christmas Pass and one of the two 
examples from the Mineni Valley are remarkable for the complete 
and unvarying development of the entire discal series of black or 
brownish-black spots on the underside of the hind wings, — a series 
so variable in Natal specimens that it is by no means uncommon 

1 Pardaleodes fuJgcns, Mabille (Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, p. 236), from 
the detailed description given, does not seem to be separable from Pt. galenus. 

2 In S.-Afr. Butt. iii. p. 365, I explained how from M. Mabille's description 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5) vi. p. 272. n. 21, 1876) I was disposed to consider that 
Tagiades insularis, Mab., from Madagascar, was probably not separable as a 
species from P. flesus. Having since been favoured by M. Mabille with two 
males of his T. insularis, I have, however, come to the conclusion that the 
Malagasy Butterfly may be held distinct from the Continental species, as 
besides the smaller size and the straighter hind margin of the hind wings 
(which M. Mabille points out in vol. i. p. or>4 of the Lepidoptera in Grandi- 
dier's 'Madagascar, &c.'), I find that on the underside of the hind wings 
there is a very much broader and complete hind -marginal brown border from 
the radial norvule as far as the submedian nervure. 



1894.] MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. 81 

to find two, three, four, or all five spots wanting or but faintly 
indicated. In the exception from the Mineni Valley, four of these 
spots are reduced to mere dots and the fifth is wanting altogether. 

Genus Hesperia, Fabr. 

161. Hesperia eorestan (Cram.). 

Papilio forestan, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. t. cccxci. figs. E, F (1782). 
One specimen from Christmas Pass (27th February) and another 
from the Mineni Valley (27th March). 

162. Hesperia toticolor (Mab.). 

Ismene miicolor, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5) vii. p. xxxix. n. 47 
(1887); Bull. Soc. Zool. Er. 1877, p. 230. 

Two examples : a male, in good order, captured at Christmas 
Pass on the 20th February, and an apparent female, very much 
damaged, near the Vunduzi River on 12th April. 

The few specimens of this singularly dull-tinted species that 
have come under my notice were from Delagoa Bay and from 
Durban, Natal. Mabille's descriptions were from Congo examples. 

Genus Abantis, Hopff. 

163. Abantis zambesina (Westw.). 

S . Hesperia (Oceynetra) zambesina, Westw. Thes. Ent. Oxon. 
p. 183, pi. xxxiv. fig. 9 (1874). 

Eight males : seven from Mineni Valley (13th to 29th March), 
and one from Vunduzi River (6th April). 

This beautiful Hesperid is noted as not numerous, and always 
in open country ; it was mostly captured while drinking at the 
water's edge, but some were found on the tall spikes of blue 
flowers already mentioned as the haunt of several Lycamiclce and 
Hesperiidce. 

I have not yet seen the female of this species, which is still rare 
in collections. 

In addition to the species above mentioned, there are two forms 
of Mycalesis which I cannot with certainty refer to any described 
species without comparison with the types, but which I believe to 
be assignable to the species hereunder named. 

164. ? Mycalesis campa, Karsch. 

<$ . Mycalesis campa, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. xxxi. p. 206, 
t, v. fig. 4 (1893). 

This species belongs to the safitza group, but is distinguished 
by the rather acute angulation of the common pale postmedian 
transverse streak of the underside in both fore and hind wings on 
the 3rd median nervule. 

Two examples taken by Mr. Selous in Christmas Pass on 16th 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. VI. 6 



Si 

82 ON BUTTERFLIES FROM MANICA, SOUTH-EAST AFRICA. [Jan. 16, 

February agree very well with Karsch's description o£ the male 
from Bismarckburg, Togoland, in Northern West-Tropical Africa, 
but have the angulation in question less pronounced (in one 
example very much less pronounced in the fore wing than is 
shown in the figure quoted), and also present a considerable acute 
dentation throughout, in both fore and hind wings, of the inner 
submarginal dark line. In these characters the Manica examples 
are nearer to ill. safitza, but differ more than the figure of M. 
campa does from the same species in having the 4th ocellus of the 
series in the hind wings very much smaller than (instead of nearly 
as large as) the fifth \ 

165. ? Mycalesis ena, He wits. 

Mycalesis ena, Hewits. Eut. M. Mag. xiv. p. 107 (1877). 

A single male from Christmas Pass, captured on 20th February, 
appears to me to agree with Hewitson's description of this Lake 
JNyassa species, the postmedian common transverse streak having 
the "undulated" form specified as far as the hind wings are 
concerned ; but the brief diagnosis is too vague and of too general 
an application to enable any satisfactory identification to be 
arrived at. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Physceeneura pione, God in., <$ , p. 2(J. 

2. Mi/an if is libya, Diet., tf, p. 22. 

3, 3 a. Acrcea asema, Hewits., $ $, p. 24. 

4. Acrcea acrita, Hewits., cS va*., p. 28. 

5. Precis simia, WaUengr., rS , p. 33. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 6. Charaxes lasfi, H. G. Smith. $, p. 39. 

7. Charaxes achesmenes, Feld., §, p. 41. 

8. Charaxes gudcriana, Dewitz, £ , p. 42. 

Plate VI. 

Pig. 9. Charaxes manica, n. sp., §, p. 43. 

10. Charaxes selousi, n. sp., <$, p. 45. 

11. Lyccena cxclnsa, n. sp., J, p. 47. 

12. Lycmiesthes lumdata, n. sp., tf , p. 51. 

13. Chrysoryehia cruenta, n. sp., cS, p. 55. 

14. Durbania puellaris, n. sp., $, p. 59. 

15. Altena nyassa, Hewits., J, P- 61. 

16. Cyclopides mineni, n. sp., p. 72. 

17. Pamphila zimbazo, n. sp., §, p. 74. 
IS. Pamphila chirala, n. sp., 5> P- 76. 



1 I have a note referring to a Zambesi specimen in the Oxford University 
Museum in 1867, which seems to agree with the Manica examples hero recorded. 



P.Z.S.1894 PI .VII. 







CERCOPITHECUS WOLF I 



1894.] DR. A. B. METER ON AN AFRICAN MONKEY. 83 

3. Remarks on au African Monkey, Cercopithecus loolfi. 
By A. B. Meyer. 

[Keceived November 21, 1893.] 

(Plate VII.) 

In 'Notes from the Leyden Museum' (vol. xiii. pp. 63-64, 
December 1890) I gave a preliminary description of this new 
Monkey from Inner Africa (though the exact locality is not known), 
after a living specimen in the Dresden Zoological Garden. At 
the same time I expressed my intention of giving fuller particulars 
after the animal's death, since it is impossible to be perfect in 
details win n noting down the characters of a living Monkey 
constantly leaping from one end of its cage to the other. The 
animal hav.ng died in October 1891, I now offer the subjoined 
description, illustrated by a figure, of this remarkably fine species, 
and add som 3 notes on its skeleton. In the valuable and complete 
list of the ge us Gercopiihecus recently published by Dr. P. L. Sclater 
(P. Z, S. 1893, pp. 243 & 441), the 31 kuown species are divided 
into 6 sections, and if one does not wish to create a new section 
for C. ivolfi, it could be placed in Section C (Erythronoti : above 
rufous, beneath white), or in Section E (Auriculati: ears with long 
tufts), though it does not exactly agree with either. 

The following is a description of the specimen : — General colour 
of the upper surface dark slate-grey, passing into blue-grey on the 
sides, each hair with two or three pale rings and tipped with black ; 
the hair-rings from the crown downwards form a dorsal stripe 
4 cm. broad, tapering off to a point towards the tail, olive-yellowish 
from the crown to the middle of the back, most vivid on the crown, 
brown-yellow towards the tail; the hair-rings on the sides are 
pearl-grey, on the basal half of tail above ash-grey, the tips of 
the hairs black, on basal half of tail below whitish ; the lengthened 
hairs of the sides of the body orange-yellow ; nose and bare skin 
of face blackish grey; upper lip as far as nose and bare parts of 
under-lip flesh-colour ; iris red-brown ; the diadem-like stripe 
across forehead, extending more narrowly to the ears, yellowish 
white, each hair black at the tip ; eyebrows black ; the hairs of 
the ears bright red-brown ; temples and space in front of ears 
black, the loug hair i of the whiskers washed with the same colour ; 
the hair -rings of the whiskers, which tend to a lemon-yellow colour, 
are very broad in f i ont, so that these hairs appear almost uniform 
yellow; chin, sides of neck, inner sides of arms, breast, belly, and 
inner sides of legs white, the hairs of the belly with faint orange- 
yellow tips ; shoulders and upper arms black, with pearl-grey 
hair-rings; outer sic 1 e of lower arms uniform glossy deep black, 
between this and th i white iuner side a narrow ochre-coloured 
stripe running down o the underside of the hands ; hairs on hands 
and feet above black becoming thinner on the fingers ; skin of 
hands and feet blackit i grey; outer side of legs bright red-brown, 



84 UK. .\. &&BTHE& OX J1EPTILES ANO [Jail. 16, 

passing into orange towards the white inner side (the difference 
between the red-brown and the orange being due to the circum- 
stance that in the former case the bases of the hairs are ash-grey, 
in the latter white). The colour of the legs after Ridgway 
(Xomencl. Col.; is tawny (pi. v. fig. 1) with a wash of Chineseorange 
(pi. vii. fig. 15). 

Length of body 46 cm., tail ea. 60, height at shoulder ca. 32, 
height at hip ca. 35 cm. 

The appearance of the cranial sutures, the teeth, and the bones 
prove that the animal is not an old one, though it appears to have 
attained its full size. As it was brought over from Africa in the 
year 1887 and died in 1891, it was at least five years old. 

Skull. — Line from root of nose to upper jaw rather straight in 
profile, basis only of the nasal opening elevated ; angle with the 
fine of forehead about 30 degrees. Xasal opening elongated 
(7 X 16 mm.). Orbits round, projecting at their inner upper angle. 

Greatest length (gnathion to occiput) 94 mm. ; basal length 
(basion to gnathion) 64-2; greatest (zygomatic) breadth 61-2; 
breadth of orbit 20-7 ; height of orbit -22-'3 ; interorbital breadth 4-4; 
intertemporal constriction 42-2: brain-case — length 70*4, breadth 
53*1, height (basilar suture to bregma) 43*9; combined length of 
upper premolars and molars 22-4, of molars only 15*8 ; length of 
palate 33*9, breadth at inside of m' J 17*1 ; free length of canine 
15-7. 

Length of pelvis 106, breadth (il.) 61 ; length of vertebral 
column ca. 290; length of tail ca. 540; humerus 116, ulna 125, 
radius 135, manus 96, femur 145, tibia 150, fibula 143, pes 140. 



4. Report on the Collection of Reptiles and Fishes made by 
Dr. J. W. Gregory during his Expedition to Mount 
Kenia. By Ur. A. Gunther, Keeper of the Zoological 
Department, British Museum. 

[Received January 12, 1894] 

(Plates V1II.-XI.) 

Considering the difficulties Dr. Gregory had to overcome in 
attending unaided to the various duties of a scientific tra\ 
and the fact that the formation of zoological collections was but 
a secondary object of his expedition, we may be very well satisfied 
with the series of Reptiles and Fishes which he was able to bring 
home. 

The Reptiles are referable to :j^> species, the majority being well- 
known forms of the Central East- African Fauna, but they never- 
theless form a valuable contribution to our knowledge of the range 
of the several species, inasmuch as the collector took great care in 
noting the localities where the specimens were obtained, and 



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1894.] FISHES FROM B. AFRICA. 85 

these will be fully explained in his forthcoming itinerary of his 
expedition \ Besides, he discovered two new forms, one of the 
polytypic genus Agama, and the other a singular new genus of 
Geckoids. Several of the species had been previously known from 
one or two other localities only : the Egyptian Dipsas obtusa has 
been discovered by him to extend southwards to tbe Equator, and 
the West-African Hemidactyhis brooJcii proves to be one of those 
which extend right across the Continent. This is also the case 
with Dermophis thomensis, one of the seven Batrachians collected 
by Dr. Gregory. 

So far as we know at present, some of the genera of Fishes 
inhabiting Tropical Africa, like Chromis and Barbus, preponderate 
over the others as regards the number of species. Not only are 
the various fresh waters inhabited by distinct local forms of the 
genera mentioned, but almost every piece of fresh water harbours 
several species of the same genus. Six out of the thirteen species 
of which specimens have been collected by Dr. Gregory are new, 
and my examination of them has been greatly facilitated by the large 
size of the specimens and the excellent state of their preservation. 

REPTILES. 

1. Testudo pardalis. On the Kikuyu escarpment south of 
Lake Naivasha. 

2. Cestyxis belliaka, Gray. East of Taro, west of Witu. 

3. Sternotbjertts sinuatus, Smith. Upper Athi B. 

4. Pelomebusa galeata, Schoepff. Kapte Plains, Ukambani, 
alt. 3300 ft. 

5. Hemibactylus mabuia, Moreau. Ngatana. 

6. Hemibactylus brookii, Gray. Kibibi Basin. 
Hitherto known from various localities on the "West Coast. 

Bunocjstemis, g. n. Geckot. 

Body and tail covered with small, smooth, imbricate scales. 
Digits aud toes free, with the terminal phalanges short and 
clawed, those of the digits being much shorter than those of the 
toes. The lamellae on the lower side of the fingers and toes are 
mostly undivided, though many have a more or less shallow notch 
in their anterior margin. A complete division takes place only in 
the lamellae of the outer toe and in the penultimate lamella of the 
other toes. The hinder part of the legs with large tubercles. 
Praeanal pores. Pupil vertical. 

7. Buntjcxemis modestus, sp. n. (Plate VIII.) 

Snout rather depressed, moderately long, longer than the 
1 Geogr. Journ. vol. iii. (1894). 



86 DR. A. Gti> T THER ON REPTILES AND [Jan. 16, 

distance between eye and ear-opening and twice as long as the 
eye ; ear-opening small. Lepidosis of the head granular. Rostral 
quadrangular, with a median cleft above, and with a pair of small 
shields behind ; nostril pierced between the rostral, post-rostral, 
first labial, and two small granular shields ; eight upper and seven 
lower labials; mental large, pentagonal, with two large chin-shields 
behind. The scales surrounding the body are nearly of the same 
size; about eighty- six longitudinal series may be counted round 
the middle of the body. Tail conical, with a median series of 
larger scutes below. The fore part of the hind limbs is covered with 
small imbricate scales like the body, wdiilst the posterior part is 
granular with large subcorneal tubercles. Similar tubercles, but 
fewer in number and flatter, are seen on the hinder side of the fore- 
arm. Fifteen pores in the praeanal series, which extends for some 
distance on the thigh. Thumb with six lamellae, of which the 
penultimate is deeply notched ; seven lamellae under the second, 
eight under the third, and seven under the foui"th fingers. Inner 
toe with three lamellae, of which the middle is notched : second 
toe with four lamellae, the penultimate being divided ; fourth toe 
with six lamellec, the penultimate being divided ; fifth toe with six- 
lamella?, all of which are more or less notched. 
Upper parts uniform brownish, lower whitish. 

Total length 78 millim. 

Head 11 „ 

Width of head 8 „ 

Distance of snout from vent 45 „ 

Tail, partly reproducpd 33 „ 

Fore limb 11 „ 

Hind limb 15 „ 

A single specimen was obtained at Ngatana. 

8. Lygodacxylus pictueatus, Etrs. Ngatana, Tzavo. 

9. Agama dorle, Blgr. Fuladoya (Aug. 16). 

10. Agama gregorii, sp. n. 

Allied to Agama cyamogaster. 

Xostril lateral, not tubular, and below the canthus rostralis. 
The anterior of the upper scutes of the head are smooth, but 
the posterior surmounted by a small spine ; occipital not enlarged ; 
small, conical spinous scales on the sides of the throat, about the 
ear, and on the neck ; ear larger than the eye-opening. A deep 
fold across the throat, but no gular pouch. Body depressed, 
without fold on the side of the back ; back with numerous larger 
scales mixed among the small ones, the largest forming a tolerably 
regular series on each side of the median line ; the two series 
passing into two rows of very large scutes which protect the 
median line of the tail. All the larger scales are keeled. Ventral 
scales smaller than the largest on the back, keeled, the keels 
terminating behind in a spine. 



1894.] FISHES EBOM E. AEBICA. 87 

Limbs moderately elongate, the scales in front and on the upper 
part of the hind limb imbricate and strongly keeled ; scales on 
the hinder side of the thigh small, with larger ones mixed. The 
tbird and fourth fingers nearly equal in length ; fourth toe very 
slightly longer than the third, fifth extending beyond the first. 
Tail longer than tbe body, its scales strongly keeled, with the 
margins denticulated and disposed in annuli. Male with a double 
row of anal pores. 

Upper parts bluish, with the largest scales yellow ; also the 
head and the basal portion of the tail are yellow ; throat blue ; a 
black band across the shoulder. 

inches. lines. 

Total length 11 6 

Head 1 5 

Distance between vent and snout .... 5 2 

Length of fore limb 2 6 

Length of hind limb 3 6 

One specimen was obtained at Mkonumbi, a grassy coast- 
district with salt-swamps. 

11. Monitob nilotices, L. Tzavo, east of "Witu. 

12. Monitor albogelabis, Daud. Taro plains. 

13. Mabeia jjacelilabris, Gray. Ngatana. 

14. Sepacontias modestes, Gthr. On the Athi plains, wood- 
less grass-steppes ; formerly known from Mpwapvva. 

15. Latastia bongicaedata, Eeuss. Fuladoya. 

16. Chameleon eopebi, Blgr. Taro plains, Ukambani. 

17. ChaM-SEEON BiTiEjS'iATES, Eisch.,= CJiamceleon Jioehnelii, 
Steind. Kibibi Basin, Elmeteita Basin, Gopo lal Maru (June 9), 
Guaso Laschau. 

18. Bhamphoeeon keestenii, Ptrs. Ndara, Teita Mountains, 
Matiliko (Aug. 3). 

19. Ttpheops penctates, Leach. Mkonumbi, Guaso Narok 
and Guaso Nairotia in Leikipia, Tzavo. 

20. Ttpheops ekit.exiates, Ptrs. Kibwezi. 

21. lTeiechis capexsis, Smith. Steppes south of Tzavo. 

22. Ahbeobhenes xotot.enia, Gthr. Eastern Ukikuyu. 

23. Cobonelea oLivACEA, var. demerilii, Gthr. Ngatana. 

24. Dasypelxis bcabba, L. Eastern Ukikuyu. 

25. Bhagebehis tbit.eniata, Gthr. Kibibi Basin. 



88 BR. A. GtXTHER OX REPTILES AXD [Jan. 16, 

26. Ehagerrhis oxyrhyxchf/s, Knhrdt. Taro Plains. 

27. Psammophis sibllaxs, L. Coast-districts and Teita 
Mountains. 

28. Psammophis biseriatfs, Ptrs. Kurawa (coast -district). 

29. Ah^ttxla xeglecta, Ptrs. Mkonurabi. 

30. Ailetulla punctata, Ptrs. Mkonurnbi, Kurawa, Melindi. 

31. Boodox lixeatus, D. & B. Kapte Plain-. 

32. Lycophibium hoestockii, Schleg. Camp at Kariti, Mko- 
nurnbi, near Fuladoya. 

33. Leptodira rffescexs, 6m. Coast-districts. 

34. Dipsas obtusa, Eeuss. Xgatana. 

An Egyptian species, previously not known to extend so far 
southwards. 

35. Causus jacksoxii, Gthr. Xgatana, Mkonurnbi. 

36. Naja xigricolbls, Enhrdt. Leikipia. 

37. Dexbraspis polylepis, Gthr. Steppes south of the 
Kiboko Eiver; found to live in holes of the sides of deserted 
termite-hills. 

38. Clotho arietaxs, Merr. Valley of the Thika-thika. 

AMPHIBIANS. 

1. Bufo eegularis, Eeuss. Common everywhere. 

2. Eaxa mascabexiexsis, D. & B. Kibibi Basin, north of Ban- 
gatan Ndari, Lamu Island. 

3. Eaxa galamexsis. D. & B. Mkonurnbi. 
Previously known from Senegambia. 

4. Pyxicephalus delalaxdii, Tschudi. Kibwezi. 

5. Chibomaxtis petersii, Blgr. Taro Plains. 

6. Phrtxomaxtis bifasciata, Smith. Mkonurnbi. 

7. Eappia coxcolob, Hallow. Guaso Xvuki near Njemps, 
alt. 3400 ft. 

8. Megaxixalus forxasixi, Bianconi. Xgatana. 

9. Deemophis thomexsis, Bocage. Ngatana. 
Previously known from the West Coast. 



1894.] FISHES PROM E. AFRICA. 89 

FISHES. 

1. Protopterus annectens, Owen. Tidal creeks at Mko- 
numbi. 

2. Oreochromis nigee, sp. n. (Plate IX.) 

D. g. A. | . L. lat. 29. L. transv. j|. 

Teeth very small, indistinctly bicuspid, the inner cusp being 
much larger than the outer ; about 45 teeth on each side of the 
outer series of tbe upper jaw. Scales below the eye in two series. 
In a specimen eleven inches loug the diameter of the eye is less 
than the width of the praeorbital, one half of the width of the 
interorbital space, and equal to the depth of the scaly portion of 
the cheek. The height of the body is contained twice and a third 
in the total length (without caudal), the length of the head one 
third. Pectoral fin extending to the anal ; series of minute scales 
cover the rays of the caudal fin. Scales smooth. Greenish black ; 
vertical and ventral fins and a spot on the operculum deep black. 

Two specimens, of which the larger is 11 inches long, were 
obtained from pools on the Kibwezi River below its reappearance. 

One of these two specimens has distinctly three series of scales 
on the cheek, but on one side of the head only. 

Closely allied to Oreochromis hwnteri, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 70. 

3. Chromis spllurus, sp. n. (Plate X. fig. A.) 

D. Vt™. A. |. L. lat. 30. L. transv. ^ — K . 

10 8 8 + z small ones 

Teeth distinctly bicuspid, with the inner cusp broadest, brown 
at the tip, small, about thirty-six on each side of the outer series 
of the upper jaw. Scales smooth, those below the eye in two 
series. The diameter of the eye of a specimen 4| in. long is less 
than the width of the interorbital space, and more than the width 
of the praeorbital or than the depth of the scaly portion of the 
cheek. Interorbital space flat. The height of the body is some- 
what more than the length of the head, and contained twice and 
two-thirds or twice and a half in the total length (without caudal). 
The pectoral fin extends to or a little beyond the origin of the anal. 
Caudal nearly scaleless. Greenish, silvery on the sides ; a blackish 
spot on the end of the operculum, and another on the side of the 
caudal peduncle, just below the upper profile and close to the root of 
the fin. Dorsal and caudal fins with blackish spots arranged in rows. 

Several specimens were obtained from the Mwangaden River 
in N. Giriama ; the largest is 4^ inches long. 

4. Clarias lazeha, C. V. Ngatana. 
A Nilotic species. 

5. Eutropius depressieostris, Ptrs. Ngatana. 

6. Clarotes laticeps, Riipp. Ngatana. 
Known from the Nile and West Coast. 



90 DR. A. GtXTHER OX REPTILES OTD [JaU. 16, 

7. Syxodontis zaaibezexsis, Ptrs. Ngatana. 

8. Alestes affixis, sp. n. 
Allied to Alestes imberi. 

D. 11. A. 18-19. L. lat. 21. L. transv. |. 

The height of the body is one third of the total length (without 
caudal) ; the length of the head two sevenths. The origin of the 
dorsal fin is distinctly behind the base of the ventrals ; pectoral 
reaching the ventral. Sdvery, with an indistinct shining band along 
the side ; a blackish spot behind the shoulder and another at the 
root of the caudal. 

Three specimens, 3| inches long, were obtained at Merifano on 
the Tana River. 

9. Labeo gregorii, sp. n. (Plate X. fig. B.) 

D. 14. A. 7. L. lat. 37. L. transv. \. 

Mouth broad, crescent-shaped ; lower lip thick and fringed 
with an inner fold which is covered with horny substance. Snout 
thick, produced, obtuse in front, much projecting beyond the lower 
jaw, without lateral lobe ; maxillary barbel small, hidden in a deep 
lateral groove. Eye rather large, two sevenths of the length of 
the head, rather shorter than the snout, and somewhat nearer to 
the end of the snout than to the gill-opening. The length of the 
head is contained thrice and two thirds in the total length (without 
caudal), the depth of the body thrice and a half. Interorbital 
space broad, scarcely convex, its width being one half of the length 
of the head. There are four longitudinal series of scales between 
the lateral line and the root of the ventral fin. Upper margin of 
the dorsal fin oblique ; anal extending to the caudal, the pectoral 
to the ventral. Greenish above, silvery on the sides and below. 

One specimen, 5 inches long, was obtained at Merifano on the 
Tana River. 

10. Barbus taxexsis, sp. n. (Plate XT.) 

D. 12. A. 7 or 8. L. lat. 25. L. transv. % 

The osseous dorsal ray is strong, not serrated, its stiff portion 
being rather shorter than the head. There are one and a half 
longitudinal series of scales between the lateral line and the root 
of the ventral fin. Body compressed, its greatest depth contained 
twice and three fourths in the total length (without caudal). 
Head rather small, one fifth of the total length, measured to the 
end of the middle caudal rays. Snout of moderate length, with 
the upper jaw- overlapping the lower, and with four barbels, of 
which the posterior reaches to the angle of the prseopercuhun. 
The diameter of the eye is two ninths of the length of the head 
and two thirds of that of the snout. Origin of the dorsal fin 
opposite to the root of the ventral and nearly midway between the 
end of the snout and the root of the caudal. Caudal fin deeply 



1894.] EISHES FROM E. AERICA. 91 

forked : pectoral extending to or nearly to the root of the ventral. 
Coloration uniform. 

Numerous specimens were collected in the Thika-thika, in the 
Kibwezi River, below its reappearance, and in the Guaso el Narua. 
The largest specimens are fifteen inches long. 



11. Barbfs TAiTE:srsis, sp. n. 



D. 10. A. 8. L. lat. 31. L. transv. t 



The osseous dorsal ray is of moderate strength, finely serrated, 
and but little shorter than the head. There are two and a half 
longitudinal series of scales between the lateral line and the root of 
the ventral fin. Body compressed, its depth being equal to the 
length of the head and one fourth of the total length (witbout 
caudal). The diameter of the eye equals the length of the snout 
and is one fourth of the length of the head. The upper barbel is 
shorter than the lower, which is as long as the eye. Jaws of equal 
length. Interorbital space convex, wider than the eye. Dorsal 
fin about as high as the body, its origin being somewhat in advance 
of that of the ventral and equidistant from the end of the snout 
and from the root of the caudal. Fork of the caudal of moderate 
depth. Silvery, with a bluish band along the middle of the side, 
the baud terminating in a small black spot on the root of the 
caudal fin. 

I take this opportunity of describing this species here from two 
specimens which were collected at Teita by Mr. Wray, and of 
which the larger is only 3 inches long. 

12. Barbl t s ixteemeditjs, Eiipp. 

Previously known from Abyssinia. Adult specimens have the 
lower lip dilated into broad lobes, of which the median is divided 
from the lateral by a deep notch. 

Prom the Pavers el Narua, Nyuki, and Kiroruma. 

13. Akguilla bengalessis, Gray. 

Prom the Thika-thika, Athi, and Tana Eivers. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate VIII. 
Buiiocnemis modestus, oat. size. Fingers and toes enlarged. 

Plate IX. 
Oreoohrotms niger. 

Plate X. 

Fig. A. Chromis spilwrus. 
B. Labeo gregorii, 

Plate XT. 
Barbus tanensis. 



92 MR. P. L. SCLATER ON THE [Feb. 6, 

February 6, 1894. 

Sir W. H. Floweb, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions to the 
Society's Menagerie during the month of January 1894. 

The total number of registered additions to the Society's Mena- 
gerie during the month of January was 78, of which 30 were by 
presentation, 2 by birth, 34 by purchase, 4 by exchange, and 8 
were received on deposit. The total number of departures during 
the same period, by death and removals, was 10<>. 

Amongst these attention should be specially called to a young 
male Ounce, or Snow-Leopard (Felis undo), obtained by purchase 
from Mr. J. S. Mackay, of Dunbar House, Kullu, Punjab, beiDg 
the animal described in the letter from that gentleman read on the 
7th of December last (see P. Z. S. 1893, p. 692). 



Mr. Sclater called attention to a fine mounted specimen of the 
River-hog of Madagascar (PotamocJioerus edivarchi) from the Tring 
Museum, lent for exhibition by the Hon. W. Rothschild, F.Z.S., 
and remarked that three distinct species of this well-marked 
Ethiopian genus (see Scl. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 301) of Suidse were 
now known : — 

1. PotamocJioerus africanus, which is believed to range from the 
Cape throughout Eastern Africa up to Abyssinia, where it appears 
as Nyctochcerus Jiassama of Heuglin (Ant. u. Buff. Suppl. p. 7 ; et 
Fitz. Sitzungsb. Ak. Wiss. Wien, Bd. liv. Abth. i. p. 586). 

2. PotamocJioerus penicillatus of West Africa (well figured in 
Wolf and Sclater's Zoological Sketches, vol. i. pi. xxix.), which, as 
well as P. africanus, has been frequently exhibited alive in our 
Gardens (see List of Animals, 1883, p. 183). 

3. Potamochcerus edwardsi (see P. Z. S. 1875, p. 64, pi. xii.) from 
Madagascar (at once known by its black under surface), of which a 
specimen is now before us. 

Mr. J. T. Last, by whom the specimen exhibited had been ob- 
tained, had kindly furnished the following field-notes on this 
species : — 

" Of the Wild Boars in Madagascar there are two, perhaps three, 
species. The largest (PotamocJioerus edtvardsi) is said to inhabil 
the upland forest regions ; while a smaller species lives near the 
coast. I was told by Befanatriki, an Antinosi king, that there is 
also another species, much shorter in body than the two mentioned 
above and of a white colour. I suggested to him that it mighl 
be a white hog run wild, but he insisted that it is not a ' kiisu ' 
(domesticated pig) but a ' lambu,' 'lambunula' (a wild boar). I 
cannot vouch for the truth of his statement because I have not 
seen the animal, but the king evidently believed in the infor- 
mation he was giving me. 

" It is very difficult to say much about the habits and manners of 



1894.] KIVER-HOG OP MADAGASCAR. 93 

the wild boars, the fact being that they are seldom seen alive by 
persons who are competent to observe them. I was nearly five 
years in Madagascar, and only once did I meet, as it were by 
accident, with a boar on his rambles ; this was one morning 
about 7 o'clock, on some hills about 2000 feet or more above the sea- 
level, in the north part of Madagascar. Once again I met with it 
in South Central Madagascar, but this happened in the course of 
hunting. 

" It must not be concluded that because wild boars are so seldom 
■seen they are few in number — such is far from being the case. 
It is scarcely possible to go into any village, especially all along 
the west side of Madagascar, and not hear the natives complain of 
the havoc made by these animals. In the gardens, in the open 
country, and in the forest the wild boar makes himself busy, turning 
up the ground wherever he goes. 

" During my stay in the Mujanga district I paid a visit to Katsepi, 
about lat. 15° 45' S. I was here, travelling and roaming about 
all over the country, for several days — over bare hills, through 
dense forests, and across as rough a kind of country, full of holes 
and caves, as I have ever seen. The country everywhere showed 
that the wild boar existed there in great numbers — in fact, in no 
other part of Madagascar have I met with such abundant proofs of 
its prevalence ; and yet all the while I was roaming about in this dis- 
trict I did not see one. The reason for this is that the boar is never 
about in the daytime. He has but one enemy — that is, man — and 
he has sufficient instinct to know that his enemy may come upon 
him at any time or place if he roams about in the daytime. He 
therefore, very wisely, sleeps all day, and in the evening, when all 
is quiet, starts out on his feeding-expeditions, and probably to 
meet his friends. 

" Whilst out feeding there is but little that comes amiss to the 
wild boar ; he may be said to be almost omnivorous. If he enters 
a garden he makes the greatest havoc possible ; he can clear off 
any amount of young green rice and all sorts of garden-produce. 
The natives have the greatest difficulty in keeping him away. 
They make strong fences around their gardens, and often watch 
night after night to get a shot at their troublesome visitor ; but 
he is generally more cunning and more patient than the man. 
At last, perhaps, the man, for some reason or other, will absent 
himself from the gardens for one night ; he goes to look at them 
in the morning, but he is too late, the boar has had his revel and 
the gardens are spoilt. These remarks are simply the substance 
of a conversation I had with some men working for me, who live 
at Bara-mahamai, in about lat. 13° 40' S., and who had had their 
gardens destroyed in this manner. 

" The wild boar can generally find something to eat in what- 
ever kind of country he may be in. On the plains and open 
country (where there, are no gardens to attack) he will turn up 
the ground in all directions, searching for various kinds of tubers, 
and 1 daresay he disposes of all grubs, insects, and other forms of 



94 MR. P. L. SCLATER ON THE GREAT NORTHERN DIVER. [Feb. 6, 

animal-life which may happen to come in his way. In the forest 
he meets with an abundance of food — ripe fruit fallen from the 
trees, yam-like bulbs and tubers, the babu, vala, suza, and many 
others in plenty, just under the surface of the ground. In turning 
these out he may frequently come across the nests of mice, rats, 
or one of the many species of Tandrec. All these he is able 
to dispose of, and even snakes, it is said, do not come amiss to 
him. 

" The wild boar does not leave his lair during the day unless he 
is disturbed by hunters or their dogs, and even then he is not in 
a hurry to move until he is close pressed. When undisturbed, he 
passes the day in sleep and in the evening resumes his search for 
food again. 

" In almost every village of importance one or more of the natives 
know something of forestry. They keep a number of dogs, and 
with them spend a great part of their time in the bush. Here 
the dogs are trained in running down birds, especially the Crested 
Ibis {Lophotibis cristata) and the Striped Partridge (Margaroperdix 
striata), in treeing the Guinea-fowl (Nwmida tiarata), in searching 
the ground to find some of the various species of Tandrec, or, 
most important work of all, in hunting the wild boar. 

" I do not think the natives are in the habit of hunting the 
wild boar simply from love of sport, they are generally too lazy 
to go hunting for the pleasure it should give ; rather, when 
they do hunt, it is either for the sake of getting some animal 
food or else to rid themselves of a night visitor, which has been 
making a too-free use of the garden-produce. 

" In speaking of the range of the wild boar in Madagascar, 1 
think I am correct in saying that there is no part of the island 
where it is not to be met with in numbers more or less. What I 
have already said shows that it is to be found on the elevated 
inland country as well as on the low-lying plains ; that it makes its 
home in forest, bush, or holes, wherever it is convenient. 

" These few remarks which I have been able to give concerning 
the wild boar are, I believe, applicable to that animal in all parte 
of Madagascar; but I must state that my own personal obser- 
vations were confined to the west side and to the south central 
parts of the island." 



Mr. Sclater exhibited a stuffed specimen of the White-billed 
Great Northern Diver {Colymbus aclamsi) from Norway, fully 
adult, which had been forwarded to him by Prof. R. Collett, of 
Christiania, F.M.Z.S., in order to be figured in the ' Ibis,' and made 
remarks on the distribution of the species and on its interest as 
occasionally occurring on the British coast, as first recorded by him 
in 1859 (P. Z. S. 1859, p. 206) \ 



The following papers were read : — 

1 See also Seebohni, 'Zoologist,' 1885, p. 144; and Saunders, 'Manual of 
British Birds,' p. 695. 



P.Z.S.1894.PlaLteXII. 




G. SHevrtk EWo &. C .Stewart del. 
M.P Pai\k.ejr lith.. 



'Wesv/rTewnxaltinxp. 



Synostosis &, C\u?vature of the Spine in. Fishes 



1894.] PROF. HOWES ON SYNOSTOSIS IN FISHES. 95 

1. On Synostosis and Curvature of the Spine in Fishes, 
with especial reference to the Sole. By G. B. Howes, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., Assistant Professor of Zoology, R. Coll. 
Sci. Lond. 

[Keceived January 16, 1894.] 

(Plate XII.) 

A short time ago my pupil Mr. W. L. S. Loat placed in my 
hands for examination a backbone of the Sole (Plate XII. figs, la 
and 1 b) which presents the unique abnormality of a quinque- 
recurrent curvature, such as I believe has never before been recorded. 
On turning to that rich storehouse of teratological material, theEoyal 
College of Surgeons' Museum, for specimens which might throw 
light upon this extraordinary backbone, I have been so fortunate 
as to meet with facts which, while they show the Sole's vertebral 
column to be liable to a wide range of structural aberration, give us a 
clue to at any rate the determining cause of that form of curvature 
herein dealt with (cf. infra, p. 100) V By a fortunate coincidence, 
two malformed backbones of this fish (figs. 4 a and 5) had been 
quite recently presented to that Institution by Prof. Bland Sutton; 
and to that gentleman, together with the Council of the CoUege 
and ray ever willing friend Prof. Chas. Stewart, I tender my 
thanks for permission to examine and report upon their 
specimens. 

Mr. Loafs specimen was that of an old fish having an estimated 
length of from 9 to 10 inches, and 47 of its vertebrae were preserved, 
the terminal ones ("? 3 in number) having been lost. The backbone 
of the normal Sole is straight, except for a feeble arching of its 
anterior 14-16 vertebrae ~. In this example (fig. 1 a) it was, as 
already stated, thrown into a series of fixed sinuosities, five in 
number as reckoned by their vertices, a marked depression 
preceding the terminal one. All the vertebrae but the anterior 
3 or 4 and that lying at the base of the second dip were more or 
less displaced in the vertical plane, and the minor details of the 
disturbance may be more readily gleaned from the accompaning 
figure (which is an accurate copy of a photograph) than expressed 
in words. There can be no doubt that the aberration was con- 
genital, for the vertebral bodies (which were fully formed and 
independent throughout) conform in many cases to sections of a 
circle, owing to the adaptive modification of their articular faces. 

More interesting, perhaps, than this is the condition of the aixmes, 
as is at once evident from the fact of the practical absence of any 
marked sinuosity of the contour described by then free ends. To 

1 ''The causes producing congenital curvature of the spine are unknown,'' 
K. Coll. Surgeons' Descr. Cat. of the Teratological Series, 1893, p. 94. 

- Cf. Cunningham, ' A Treatise an the Common Sole.' Plymouth : Marine 
Biol. Assoc, 1890. 



v 



96 PROF. HOWES OK SYNOSTOSIS AND [Feb. 6, 

take for example the haemal ones, the 13th measures in total 
length 1 inch, the 18th f of an inch, and the 23rd ly 1 ^ inch. In 
the normal individual possessed of a straight backbone, the corre- 
sponding elements exhibit a progressive increase in length — here 
they have undergone an adaptive variation, whereby an approxi- 
mately normal and regular contour of the creature's body was 
unquestionably maintained; and the extent to which, as the 
result of pure adaptation, this had been carried is most significant 
in the flexion to the utmost of certain of the posterior haemals 
and neurals depicted in the sketch (a.h. 41-46, a.n. 35-39). 

On comparison of as much of this skeleton as is preserved with 
the corresponding parts of a normal individual, an increase in 
vertical diameter proportionate to diminution in length becomes at 
once apparent. The total length of the vertebral column as it lies 
flexed is 6 inches, its actual length measured along the curves 
7f inches, and its longest outstanding process, haemal or neural, 
does not exceed lg inch. 1 am in possession of one normal skeleton 
of identical proportions in which arches 25 to 28 are longer ; 
and it would appear therefore more than likely that skeletal 
growth in the vertical plane was under rather than over the 
average in this remarkable individual. 

Beyond this, the specimen bears no marked peculiarities not 
apparent in the accompanying figure. There was no co-ossification 
of parts, but the neural spines of vertebra? 7, 8, and 10 bear syn- 
ostotic enlargements (sy.) indicative of preceding fracture. There 
was no lateral displacement of either the vertebral bodies or their 
associated arches, beyond a feeble irregularity of certain of the 
haemal arches, not improbably due to shrinkage in drying. 

The nearest approach to a similar condition to this which I have 
been able to find is that of a Perch in the Hunterian Series of the 
Royal College of Surgeons (figs. 3 a and 3?)). That, however, 
shows but three marked sinuosities, and the third of these, in con- 
tradistinction to that of the Sole, is accompanied by a displacement 
of the tail to the animal's left side 1 . Salient points of agree- 
ment with the Sole are, however, forthcoming in the otherwise 
non-sinuous contour of the animal's body, and in the fact that the 
shallowest spinal sinuosity is most nearly median and the deepest 
one posterior in position. The full number of vertebrae (viz. 42) a 
are present, and the detailed differences between the curvature of 
this animal's backbone and that of the Sole are sufficiently ex- 
pressed in the accompanying illustrations (cf. figs. 1 b and 3 b). 

As with the Sole, the approximation of the ends of. the spinal 
column consequent on the curvature was accompanied by an 
increase in vertical diameter of the body, though to a greater extent 
than in that animal — for, while the greatest vertical diameter of a 
normal Perch (excluding its dorsal fin) is rather more than |th its 

1 There is in the College of Surgeons' collection an undissected Perch haviug 
a precisely similar curvature (No. 361 of tbe Catalogue cited). Cf. Postscript, 
p. 100. 

2 Cf. Giinther, Introd. to the Study of Fishes, p. do. 



J 894.] CUEYATUEE OF THE SPIKE IN FISHES. 97 

total length, in this specimen it is nearly grd of that \ The hsemal 
and neural arches of this specimen are normal, except for a marked 
flexion forwards of the neurals numbering 20 to 24. 

Another instance of curvature of the spine in the Sole, for 
which I am indebted to the Royal College of Surgeons, is that 
traced in fig. 2. This ease differs most conspicuously from both 
the foregoing in the acuteness of the first two sinuosities, and 
in the fact that at each vertex there is a slight displacement to 
the left side, which in all probability involved the body as a whole. 
Except for the first eight neurals, which are very aberrant, the 
arches had so adapted themselves to the situation as to have 
maintained the normal regularity of contour of their extremities ; 
and the only lesser detail worthy of remark here is the presence 
of synostotic enlargements 2 on the neural spines 9, 10, and 11. 

48 vertebra? in all are present. 

Synostosis of the vertebrae of fishes has been recorded by Erdl 
and Stannius 3 . While it is most generally regarded as confined to 
the opposite extremities of the spine, Owen has pointed out 4 that 
in Plewonectidce " a kind of sacrum is formed by such bony union 
of the bodies of the fii'st two of the caudal series." Examination 
of a series of Pleuronectid skeletons will easily convince anyone 
that this is an inconstant feature. 

The most important monograph on the subject is to be found 
among Hyrtl's classical contributions to the Vienna Denkschriften 5 . 
In a short preliminary communication which immediately pre- 
ceded the aforesaid monograph, Hyrtl remarked 6 that "the 
number of co-ossified vertebrae is 2 to 6," and that " this synostosis 
takes place more frequently in the tail than in the trunk " — while, 
commenting on the probable ill effects of the malformation, he 
naively points out that diminution in flexibility is, at any rate in 
some cases, " obviated by the fact that the confluent vertebrae are 
not larger than the non-confluent ones, their length being so much 
reduced that the five coalesced vertebrae are not longer than one 
and a slight fraction of a non-coalesced one." In his second 
monograph he has described certain conditions to which this 
fascinating argument will not apply, for example that of a Codfish 
in which the six co-ossified vertebrae occupy a greater area than the 
two which precede them. 

One of the aforementioned specimens which Prof. Sutton has 

1 Length 8| in., greatest vertical diameter 2| in. 

2 I have in no iustance observed these on the hsemal side. 

3 By Stannius in Amia (Handb. d. Zootomie, Aufl. 2, Th. i. p. 21). His 
record of the fusion of "intercalary with true vertebrae" becomes one of 
synostosis of vertebral bodies, from Schmidt's discovery (Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. 
lid. liv. p. 748) of the truly vertebral nature of the so-called inter-centra of 
this animal. 

4 Comp. Anat. of Vertebrates, vol. i. p. 42. 

5 " Ueb. Wirbelsynostosen und Wirbelsuturen bei Fischen," Wien. Denkschr. 
xx. 1862, pp. 95-110. 

6 Nat. Hist. Keview, vol. ii. 1862, pp. 103-104. 

Peoo. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. VII. 7 



98 PROF. HOWES ON SYNOSTOSIS AND [Feb. 6, 

recently deposited in the College of Surgeons' Museum is that of a 
Sole (of which vertebrae nos. 8 to 21 are unfortunately alone pre- 
served) in which the co-ossification of the five vertebrae numbering 
14 to 18 is closely approximate in condition to Hyrtl's first 
recorded examples. The co-ossified vertebrae (fig. 5) collectively 
occupy an area of less than two normal vertebra? ; and in corre- 
lation with the compression which the former have undergone, 
their related arches, being approximated at their bases, form a 
series of radiating outgrowths. Except that the 18th neural spine 
bears a conspicuous synostotic enlargement (sy.), with signs of 
previous dismemberment, the remaining parts are normal. 

More interesting than this specimen is that numbered 500 in 
the College of Surgeons' Catalogue (fig. 6). The vertebrae between 
and including the (ith and the Jibth are in this case preserved, and 
special interest centres in the 12 postanal, which number 23 
to 34 inclusive, and are very closely compressed although not 
co-ossified. 

Except for the co-ossification of the right half of the 14th 
ha?mal arch with the left half of the loth, and an accompanying 
absence of the right half of the latter and total independence of 
the two halves of the former, the remaining vertebrae are in every 
respect normal ; and as these correspond in detail with their 
numerical homologues in the normal column, there is little room for 
the supposition, which might at first present itself, that the com- 
pressed vertebra? are perhaps intercalary in nature. 

The twelve compressed vertebrae are very dense, and the area 
which they collectively occupy is equivalent to that of the seven 
immediately in front of them. As compared with the specimen 
last described, they are in a much less compressed condition ; and 
the feeble approximation of their arches amply testifies to this 
assertion. The most instructive feature of this specimen is the 
circumferential increase of the bodies of the compressed vertebrae 
over those of the rest of the column ; and, in adaptation to the 
conditions imposed, the faces of the vertebrae (nos. 22 and 35) that 
immediately abut against the compressed series are sympathetically 
modified. At first sight these compressed vertebra? would appear 
to be in a condition of retarded growth, and to consist, bulk 
for bulk, of less osseous matter than a corresponding number 
of normal ones. When placed in the scale, however, they were 
found to be the heavier of the two 1 . It is clear from this that 
mere compression of bony structures over a given bodily area need 
not necessarily be accompanied by a diminution in bone-forming 
activity ; and in the case under consideration the surplus material 
appears to have largely encroached upon the periosteal and inter- 
vertebral tissues. The arches remained free and did not parti- 
cipate in the excess. 

The remaining specimen to which I would direct attention is 

1 '660 grin, as compared with "575 for the twelve next in order of succession 
anteriorly. 



1894.] CTTRVATUEE OF THE SPINE IN FISHES. 99 

the second of the two furnished by Prof. Sutton. The entire 
column consists of 48 vertebrae, and its most noteworthy feature 
is a single flexion involving the 30th to the 35th of the series. 
These are so modified (fig. 4 a) as to form an arch, of which the 
33rd (c. 33) is the keystone. The ventral compression of the 
33rd -vertebra of this specimen is more marked than that of any 
similarly modified vertebra with which I am. familiar; and in 
accordance with this and the corresponding adaptive shelving of 
the anterior faces of the 34th and 35th, the succeeding vertebra? 
must in life have been disposed at a sharp angle to those in front 
of them. 

It is characteristic of the specimens which I have thus far de- 
scribed that where sinuosity occurs synostosis is uneffected, but 
inasmuch as in the example now under consideration vertebrae 
nos. 31 and 32 (cf. fig.) are partially united, that so far bridges 
over the gap between the sinuous and compressed types. This 
union is seen to be the outcome of an extension of the right 
base of the 31st haemal arch (a.h. 31), that structure, as it 
were, having welded together the two vertebrae. In cor- 
relation with this there have arisen a series of displacements 
involving only the right side, rendering it at first sight apparent 
that the 35th and 36th haemal arches are double. This is in reality 
not so, for detailed analysis shows that the right half of the 32nd 
haemal arch had become shifted back and confluent with the body 
of the 33rd vertebra, while the corresponding halves of the 33rd and 
34th arches had become similarly shifted and co-ossified with the 
vertebrae (34th and 35th) next in order of succession behind. 
The two halves of the 36th haemal had, in sympathy, but insignifi- 
cantly united beneath the haemal canal, and the right half of the 
35th had entirely disappeared. 

The arches of the remaining vertebrae of this specimen are normal; 
but those of the distorted region present, in addition to the features 
already described, an irregular lateral disposition, those of the 31st 
and 32nd especially being so modified as to conform in end view 
to the limbs of an S-shaped curve. 

There can be little doubt that the synostoses, compressions, and 
sinuations afore described are, as Hyrtl surmised for the first- 
named, congenital in origin. As remarked at the outset {ante, 
p. 95), it is generally the custom to regard the causes producing 
congenital curvature of the spine as unknown. This may be so for 
lateral curvature, but concerning the vertical variety herein dealt 
with a consideration arises. The facts which I have recorded 
appear to me to point towards the conclusion that divergent as the 
conditions of sinuationand compression with or without co-ossifica- 
tion appear, they are in reality the opposite effects of one and 
the same disturbing influence ; and, indeed, the indication of a 
sinuous arrangement in the compressed type (fig. 6) suggests that 
they are perhaps even more closely related. In both there results 
an approximation of the opposite spinal extremities, and, in relation 
to the vertebrae of each individually disturbed series, of the opposite 

7* 



100 PROF. HOWES OS SYNOSTOSIS Ef FISHES. [Feb. 6, 

faces of those which bound these. That the muscular rather than 
the skeletal system has been, as it were, at fault, is largely proved 
by the fact that there is no marked falling off in either the bulk 
or density of the latter where disturbance occurs ; and the most 
logical conception of the determining cause seems to me that of 
an inequality of development, either in bulk or elasticity (and pro- 
bably the latter), of certain muscles — those affected having either, 
as it were, lagged behind the skeleton or become fixed in a state of 
tonic contraction. If this be so, while approximation of the parts 
of the vertebral column stands out as the ultimate result of the 
disturbance, we may conveniently at least distinguish between the 
sinuous condition or approximation by plecospondyly ' (figs. 1 
and 3), and the compressed one or approximation by symjneso- 
spondyty a (figs. 5 and 6). 



The specimen last described is of interest in another connexion. 
Cunningham, in his monograph on the Sole (he. cit. p. 39), gives 
50 as the total number of vertebra? present, and points out that 
the first one " is rudimentary'* and possessed of " two small dorsal 
processes which he along the front edge of the base of the dorsal 
processes of the second vertebra, but do not unite to form a spine." 
There can be little doubt that these " dorsal processes " of the 
first vertebra are but a partially developed pair of neural arches — 
in the specimen under consideration they are reduced to absolute 
insignificance (fig. Ah). This greater simplification of the first 
vertebra is the more interesting, as but 48 instead of 50 vertebrae 
are present, and as the well-defined characters which diagnose the 
5th and 11th vertebra? of the normal spine are here realized bvthe 
4th 3 and 10th. 



P.S., March 1, ls94. — During the passage of these notes 
through the press, the College of Surgeons' Perch, Xo. 301 (ef. 
footnote, p. 90) has been dissected, thanks to the kindness of Prof. 
Stewart. The curvature of its backbone is, most interestingly, 
identical with that of figs. 2a and 3 6, but of greater amplitude, as 
is expressed externally by a marked elevation of the trunk cephalud 
of the first dorsal fin. The vertebra? which mark its vertices 
number 7-8, 18, and 30. But 39 free vertebra? are present, and 
the displacement to the left side involves those numbering 20 to 35. 
Except for a feeble depression of the mid-dorsal region, the contour 
of the body is regular, and the arches, intermuscular bones, and 
associated parts are correspondingly modified. 

1 7rXeice(v, to twist ; (nr6v(iv\os, a vertebra. 

2 avfiTTie^eiv, to squeeze together. 

3 In this case on the left side only. 



p. z s 1894. pi. xin. 





Minlern Bros . imp 

TADPOLES OF XE '3- 



1894.] ON THE TADPOLE OF SENOPUS EJEVIS. 101 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII. 

Reference letters : — a.h., haemal arch ; a.n., neural arch ; c, vertebral body ; sy,, 
synostosis. The small numerals indicate the vertebrae (or, where two occur, the 
intervertebrae) which form the vertices of the curves. 

Fig. 1 a. Sole. Vertebral column with five sinuations. From the left side, f nat. 

size. 
1 b. The same. Lines of curvature. 
2. Sole. Line of curvature of a backbone with three sinuations, and a 

feeble fourth one posteriorly. B. C. S. 364. f- nat. size. 
3 a. Perch. Line of curvature of the backbone (with three sinuations), with 

contour of the animal's body in relation to it. B. C. S. 364. \ nat. size. 

3 b. The same. Curvature, enlarged for comparison with lb and 2. § nat. 

size. 

4 a. Sole. Portion of a backbone with curvature involving vertebrae nos. 30 

to 35, with marked angulation of those posterior to them. § nat. size. 
4 b. The same specimen. First five vertebras. X 2. 

5. Sole. Portion of a vertebral column with vertebrae nos. 14 to IS com- 

pressed and co-ossified, f nat. size. 

6. Sole. Portion of a vertebral column, with vertebrae nos. 23 to 34 com- 

pressed. B. C. S. 500. § nat. size. 

B. C. S. and the accompanying numbers refer to the ' Descriptive Catalogue 
of the Teratological Series in the Museum of the Eoyal College of Surgeons of 
England,' ed. 1893 ; and the specimens depicted in figs. 4 & 5 have been pre- 
sented to that Institution by Prof. Sutton, but not yet catalogued. 



2. Notes upon the Tadpole of Xenopus lavis {Dactylethra 
capensis). By Frank E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., 
Prosector to the Society. 

[Eeceived February 6, 1894.] 

(Plate XIII.) 

During the past summer one of the specimens of Xenopus Icevis 
at the Society's Gardens deposited a quantity of ova, which duly 
hatched out. Ultimately a few frogs were bred from the tadpoles. 
I preserved a series of tadpoles from the newly-hatched larva 
onwards, partly in corrosive sublimate and partly with Perenyi's 
fluid ; the following notes refer to my examination of those 
specimens. But, before proceeding to describe the external and a 
few of the internal characters of the tadpoles, I will briefly direct 
attention to previous work upon the subject. 

The earliest description of the larva known to me is by the 
late Dr. J. E. Gray 1 , a description which was subsequently 2 
expanded and illustrated. The figure of the tadpole, showing 
the tentacles, does not show the dorsal fin, and is in other respects 
not good. In the definition of the tadpole (described as a distinct 
genus Silurana) we find the remark : " belly and underside of the 

1 " Notice of a new Genus (Silurana) of Frogs from West Africa," Ann. 
Mag. N. H. (3) xiv. p. 315. 

2 " Note on the Clawed Toads (Dactylethra) of Africa," P. Z. S. 1864, p. 458. 



102 ME. F. E. BEDDAED OX THE [Feb. 6, 

tail with a broad membranaceous fin continued to the end of the 
tail " — implying the absence of a dorsal fin. The next description 
and figures of the tadpole are to be found in the late Mr. W. K. 
Parker's memoir upon the Batrachian skull \ The dorsal and 
ventral aspects of the larva (he. cit. pi. 56. figs. 1, 2) are very much 
better than the lateral view (he. cit. pi. 56. fig. 3) which has been 
copied into the textbooks. This lateral view exaggerates the fish- 
like build of the larva, and even suggests armoured and extinct 
fishes. The dorsal and ventral fins, both of which are shown, are 
depicted as ceasing abruptly some way in front of the end of the 
tail, giving to it a totally undeserved " Chimseroid " look. There 
are, however, in the paper to which I refer some valuable notes 
upon the external characters of the tadpoles, as well as (of course) 
upon the skull-structure. The tentacles are correctly described, 
the absence of horny teeth noted, and the paired branchial orifices 
correctly located. On the other hand, as I shall show in the 
present paper, Prof. Parker was wrong in stating the absence of 
claspers beneath the chin. 

Quite recently a Mr. Leslie has still further increased our 
knowledge of this Amphibian, though his notes with regard to the 
larva are only confirmatory of the results given in Parker's paper 
and are not wholly accurate, as I shall point out later, in the 
alleged absence of external pills. 

The eggs laid in the Society's Gardens were deposited singly ; 
no great masses of spawn like those of our Common Frog were 
found. Nevertheless I had a group of four or five adherent eggs 
brought to me. The eggs were laid some time in the evening of 
Saturday, May 27th, 1893 ; by Monday morning at 10 a.m. I had 
newly-hatched larvae. The intervening Sunday prevented me from 
examining into the early stages of development. The rapiditv 
with which the larvae were hatched out is remarkable. At the 
Cape the breeding-season is early spring (August ), but Mr. Leslie 
does not mention the period of time which elapses between the 
deposition of the ova and the appearance of tadpoles. The 
specimens which bred at the Gardens were some which Mr. Finn 
brought back with him from Zanzibar. 

External Form and Colour. — The most remarkable point about 
these tadpoles is their extreme transparency. As will be seen from 
the accompanying drawings (Plate XIII. ), the pigment is thinly 
scattered about, not obscuring the internal structure. The blood- 
vessels and even the nerves can be readily detected when the tadpole 
is examined alive. At first the tadpoles are in shape like those of 
the Common Frog ; but on the third day, as Mr. Leslie correctly 
observes, the characteristic form of the more mature tadpole is 
acquired. The head and body become broader, and are not 
separated by a constriction as they are in the Common Frog. In 

1 " On the Structure and Development of the Skull in the Batrachia, Pt. II.," 
Phil. Trans, vol. 166 (1877), p. 625. 

9 " Notes on the Habite and Oviposition of Xenopus Uevis," P. Z. S. 1890 
p. 69. 



1894.] TADPOLE OF XENOPFS L.EVIS. 103 

the latter animal this constriction is due to a bulging of the body 
in the region of the pronephros. This bulging is less marked in 
the tadpoles of Xenopus. The dorsal fin commences just before 
the median occipital elevation begins to slope away posteriorly ; 
the ventral fin commences just in front of the accurately median 
anus. The " abdomen " has a metallic glitter, and becomes much 
more swollen and relatively shorter in the later stages. The fins 
are continuous to the very end of the tail ; there is no " Chirnaeroid 
lash " as depicted by Parker \ 

Habits. — The tadpoles generally rested in the water with the 
head downwards and the tail in constant wriggling motion. 
Whether this is connected with respiration or not I am unable to 
say. In any case I detected no special vascular supply or mechanism 
of any kind which might be related to such a function. 

The food of the tadpoles consisted entirely of Cyprids, with 
which the tank, where they were housed, swarmed. Their in- 
testines were invariably full of these Crustaceans and of nothing 
else. In spite of their purely carnivorous diet, the intestine was 
just as much coiled as in the common tadpole. The carnivorous 
diet, it should be remarked, was adopted from choice and not 
from necessity. There was plenty of water-weed upon which they 
could have fed. It is generally stated that the tadpole of the 
Common Prog is a vegetarian. It will, however, eat animal food, 
such as the dead bodies of its companions ; it can also be compelled 
to take to a purely carnivorous regimen. 

The following is a brief statement of the measurements and 
general characters of tadpoles at various stages. 

Stage I. 

Four specimens of the first stage were preserved in Perenyi fluid 
at 10 a.m. on May 29, i. e. 12 to 15 hours after hatching. 

The total length of the tadpoles is after preservation 5 millim. 
Corresponding to tadpoles of same lengths figured by Marshall and 
Bles. 

Stage II. 

Preserved at 12 midday on May 30. Three individuals as 
nearly as possible of the same length, i. e. 7 millim. Corresponding 
more or less to 9 millim. in tadpole figured by Marshall and Pies. 
The relative proportions of body to tail are 2 : 3. 

Stage III. 

Preserved on June 1st. Length 8 millim. The form of the 
" adult ''" tadpole fully established. Length of body to that of 
tail as 3 : 5 2 . 

1 The appearance occurs, however, in spirit-specimens, owing to the clinging 
of the membranous fins to tbe solid part of the tail. 

- The measurement of the body is taken to end of swollen abdomen, not to 
anus. 



104 ME. F. E. BEDDAltD OK THE [Feb. 6, 

After this the tadpoles show a progressive and rapid increase in 
length. One of June 2nd was 10 millim., of June 5, 13 millim. 
A tadpole with fully developed hind limbs was 52 millim. long. 
A tailed frog (August 1 8) only 44 millim. The mature tadpole 
represented in the drawing (Plate XIII. fig. 4) is rather longer ; it 
was not killed. 

The sucker has been stated to be absent in Xenopus. This is 
not the ease ; I found it not only in the youngest stages, but in 
larva? of 14 millim. in length ; it gradually disappears, however, as 
the tadpole grows. An iuteresting point about the ventral sucker 
in this Amphibian is that it is a single structure apparently from 
the very first. It is certainly median and unpaired in the very 
youngest larvae, which were 5 millim. in length. In larvae of 7 
millim. in length the chin sucker is exceedingly obvious, with a 
raised circular rim of a brown colour. The circular outline of the 
sucker in Xenopus contrasts with the horseshoe-shaped outline in 
the young tadpole of the Common Frog at the period when the two 
suckers have become fused. The coexistence of the Backers and 
the tentacles would seem to entirely disprove any possible 
homology between the two structures. In the youngest embryo 
at my disposal the sucker in transverse section occupied the whole 
of the ventral surface of the head, extending back to the level of 
the eyes. It is composed, as in Sana, of closely set elongated 
cells of a brownish colour. The cells converge upon the surface, 
so that in transverse sections through the head the cells are seen 
to be cut transversely and posteriorly, and to be covered by a layer 
of non-modified epidermis. The surface of the sucker at the centre 
is quite flat, and it stands out conspicuously beyond the surrounding 
integument. The cells of the sucker clearly belong to the outer of 
the two layers of the epiblast, into which they pass without any 
abrupt demarcation. In later stages the cells of the sucker get 
less and less unlike those of the surrounding integument. Prof. 
Parker's failure to find the sucker was due to the fact that his 
tadpoles were too old. I imagine that in tadpoles of such an age 
as those which he figures there would not be the least trace of these 
structures. It is curious, however, that Leslie makes no mention of 
them. If*' appears to have examined tadpoles of all ages, and in 
the youngest stages the sucker could hardly be missed if the 
tadpoles were examined with a hand lens. 

Tentacles. — As is well known, this frog has a pair of long 
tentacles, which have been compared to those of a Siluroid fish . 
These spring from the angles of the jaw just above the mouth. 
They get longer as the larva increases in size. More than once I 
have observed the tentacle of one side to be bifid. The earliest 
appearance of the tentacles is in the form of a little process of the 
integument as yet unconnected with the skull. I found the 
tentacles in this condition in two tadpoles preserved on June 2nd. 
In younger tadpoles than this I did not succeed in discovering any 

1 Perhaps better to the " nasal barbels " of Myxine and Bdellostoma. 



1894.] TADPOLE OE XENOPUS L^VIS. 105 

trace of tbe tentacles. The tentacles in these tadpoles are in the 
form of a small process of the body connected with it by a 
narrower stalk ; it is covered with a layer of columnar epidermis, 
and the interior is filled with a mass of dense tissue. It shows 
no resemblance to the sucker in its minute structure. A narrow 
rod of cartilage runs towards it from the ethmoid just above the 
joint where Meckel's cartilage articulates, but does not reach it. 
A slip of muscle is attached to the base of the rudimentary 
tentacle. 

In a full-grown or nearly full-grown tadpole such as that dis- 
played in the accompanying coloured drawing (Plate XIII. fig. 4) the 
tentacles are of considerable length, with a slender bar of cartilage 
running right along them as is figured by Parker (loc. cit. 
pi. lvii. figs. 1, 2, &c). They are inserted so exactly at the 
angle of the mouth that they are deeply grooved by it. During 
life a blood-stream can be observed to pass along the tentacles. 
The histological structure is not in any way remarkable. Beneath 
the epidermis is a certain amount of pigment. The interior of the 
tentacle is taken up by a network of connective tissue. On that 
side furthest away from the body are two blood-channels lying 
side by side ; the axis of cartilage is small relatively to the 
diameter of the tentacle. Mr. Boulenger, in a footnote appended 
to Mr. Leslie's paper quoted above, compares the tentacles to the 
" balancers " of Triton and Ambly stoma. This can hardly be, if 
the latter are, as Mr. Orr states 1 , the homologues of the external 
gills belonging to the mandibular arch. 

Mouth-cavity and Pharynx. — In the newly-hatched tadpole 
(May 29) the mouth is only a depression not communicating with 
the gut ; there are no gill-slits and no skull. On the following day 
the mouth was established. The most important fact with regard 
to the mouth-cavity has already been established by Parker and 
Leslie ; that is, of course, the entire absence of the horny larval 
teeth. To confirm the absence of these characteristic structures 
by microscopical sections is not, perhaps, an altogether unneces- 
sary piece of work. At no stage in the development of the 
tadpole of this frog did I succeed in discovering the least trace of 
the structures in question. 

In tadpoles of May 31 some of the characteristic features of the 
mouth-cavity and pharynx are already obvious. 

Just behind Meckel's cartilage is a deep recess of the mouth- 
cavity ventral in position ; laterally this becomes a narrow slit, 
close to the cartilage, and appears to be the first visceral cleft, 
though I have not found any connection with the exterior. It 
differs from the succeeding visceral clefts iu being directed more 
forwards, their inclination being at right angles with the longi- 
tudinal axis or oblique in the opposite direction. The first 
branchial cleft lying behind the hyoid arch is deep and narrow. 
It is at right angles to the longitudinal axis, whereas the succeeding 

1 " Notes on the Development of Ampliibians, &c.," Q. J. M. S. 1889, p. 295. 



106 MR. F. E. BEDDARD ON THE [Feb. 6, 

clefts are slightly oblique. The epithelium which lines it differs 
on the anterior and posterior faces of the cleft. Anteriorly the 
epithelium, like that of the buccal cavity, is formed of low cells ; 
posteriorly it is formed of tall columnar cells. These cells are 
continuous with the ventral epithelium of the pharynx, which ha* 
this character ; the dorsal epithelium being low. This pharyngeal 
tract of columnar epithelium extends back over the whole of the 
branchial region, but suddenly stops short a little way in front of 
the origin of the lungs. This fact is perhaps incidentally of some 
little importance in view of the homology between gill-slits and 
lungs which was once urged. Had this modified tract of pharyngeal 
epithelium extended to the lung and into it, as into the hyoid and 
branchial clefts, the question might have been considered anew. 
It will be noted that the hyoid cleft differs much from the branchial 
clefts which follow in that the modified pharyngeal epithelium 
only lines its posterior surface. This cleft does not open on to 
the exterior. 

In tadpoles of June 2nd (cut longitudinally and horizontally), 
in which the branchial basket was well developed with its vascular 
tufts, the hyoid cleft showed no traces of being a respiratory cleft 
and did not open on to the exterior either independently or by 
way of the other branchial cleft. 

In a tadpole of June 5th, the opening of the hyoid cleft was 
effected. It has the form of a comparatively narrow tube, which, 
curving round shortly after its origin from the pharynx, opens into 
the first branchial cleft a long way from the opening of the latter 
on to the exterior. 

Internal Gills. — The branchial arches, as in other Amphibia, fuse 
to form a basket-work, from the bars of which run cartilaginous 
processes which become tufted and form the so-called filtering 
apparatus. I observed the first traces of this filtering apparatus 
in tadpoles of May 31. These structures become later very 
vascular, and they must be respiratory in function, since no other 
internal gills are developed. J n the Common Prog the tadpoles 
possess not only these "filters'"' but tufted internal gills. Messrs. 
Marshall and Bles l , while admitting the vascularity of the filters, 
consider that, " as the blood is returned from them to the somatic 
veins, it is probable that they are not actively respiratory." They 
clearly must be iu Xenopus, as there are no other gills. 

External Gills. — As has been already mentioned, the tadpole of 
Xenopus is said by Mr. Leslie to possess no external gills. This 
statement is not quite accurate, though undoubtedly complex 
arborescent gills like those of Eana are not to be discovered. 
Messrs. Marshall and Eles have emphasized the fact, which has 
been rather slurred over, that the external and internal gills form 
a continuous series of structures. In 4-5 millim. long tadpoles 
of Rana " two pairs of external gills are present as backw T ardly- 

1 " The Development of the Blood-vessels in the Frog," Stud. Biol. Lab. 
Owens Coll. ii. 1890. 



1894.] TADPOLE OP XENOPUS LjEVIS. 107 

directed processes from the first and second branchial arches ; they 
are somewhat conical in shape, with rounded or very slightly 
notched hinder borders." This description applies in the main to 
tadpoles of Xenopus of May 31st. The opercular fold is then only 
commencing to grow, and processes from the three first branchial 
arches just project beyond the line of the body. In the lax tissue 
lying in the interior of these processes is a capillary vessel derived 
from the vascular arch. The processes, however, are hardly 
conical in form ; they have a long base of attachment, and are 
indeed rather to be described as lamellae than processes. 

Pronephros. — I carefully investigated the pronephros, but with 
entirely negative results so far as the discovery of anything of 
novelty is concerned. It is precisely like that of JRana, and opens 
into the body-cavity by three funnels opposite to its glomerulus. 

Vascular System. — Messrs. Marshall and Bles have described with 
such minuteness the development of the heart and arterial system 
in Rana temporaria that a comparison with the corresponding 
stages of Xenopus becomes easy. It is very remarkable, as they 
point out, that the condition of the vascular arches should differ 
so much from that of the closely-allied Rana esculenta. In the 
latter, according to Maurer (quoted by Messrs. Marshall and 
Bles), the afferent and efferent branchial vessels are continuous 
with each other, forming complete arches. In one specimen of 
Rana temporaria the same continuity was noted, but as a rule the 
communication between afferent and efferent sections of the aortic 
arches was indirect through the branchial capillaries. In view of 
this difference between two species of one genus, the fact that 
Xenopus agrees with Rana esculenta is of less interest. In Xenopus 
it is quite easy to trace the four aortic arches from the heart to 
the dorsal aortae. 

The truncus arteriosus first divides into two branches (on each 
side) ; the posterior of these again divides into two, and a little 
later the vessel which is now the hindermost itself divides into 
two trunks ; thus the four afferent bronchial vessels arise. Messrs. 
Marshall and Bles figure (he. cit. pi. xiv. fig. 6, A H) a short 
diverticulum of the truncus arteriosus lying in front of the fully- 
developed first branchial arch in tadpoles of 5 milium ; this they 
consider to be referable to the byoid arch. It disappears soon. I 
find an entirely similar diverticulum of the first arch in Xenopus 
in a tadpole of 7 millim. ; it was present on both sides of the 
body. In tadpoles of June 2nd there were only three vascular 
arches. The fourth arch, arising from the third, went straight 
to the lung. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII. 

Fig. 1. Tadpole of Xenopus Icevis of June 5th. 

Figs. 2, 3. Dorsal and ventral views of an older tadpole. 

Figs. 4, 5. Lateral and dorsal views of a full-sized tadpole. 



108 MB. C. W. ANDREWS ON REMAINS OF JEPYORNIS [Feb. 6, 

3. On some Remains of JEpijornis in the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.). By Chas. W. Andrews, B.Sc, F.Z.S. 
(Assistant in the Geological Department). 

[Keceived February 3, 1894.] 

(Plates XIV. & XV.) 

During the last two years several collections of vertebrate 
remains from Madagascar have been received at the British 
Museum. These include, in addition to the bones about to be 
described, portions of the skeleton of Megaladapis madagaseariensis 
(a large lemuroid animal recently described by Dr. C. I. Forsyth 
Major (8)), and bones of a smaller species of the same suborder ; 
Hippopotamus ('/two species, both of small size); Potamochoerug ; 
Bos {two species or varieties); HaUaetus (? vociferoidet) ; Crococlilus 
robustus ; and a large Testudo. The localities in which these speci- 
mens were collected are all either in the centre of the island or at 
various points along the south-west coast. It will be convenient 
for purposes of description to take the remains from these two 
districts separately, the more so as it may hereafter be shown that 
the deposits in which the bones occur are of slightly different age. 
The reason for supposing that this may be the case is, that the 
species of Hippopotamus and those of JEpyornis from the centre 
differ from those occurring on the coast. 

Remains of iEpyornis from Central Madagascar. 

These are all from tbe neighbourhood of Sirabe, in the province 
of Xorth Betsileo, situated on a plateau about 4000 to 5000 feet 
above the sea-level. In this district there are numerous hot 
springs, in the mud round which the bones are found. These are 
of a dark chocolate-brown colour, very heavy and brittle, and are 
impregnated with carbonate of lime, which forms crystalline masses 
in their cavities. 

The portions of the skeleton represented are : — 

(1) A complete right tarso-metatarsus. 

(2) A nearly perfect right tibio-tarsus. 

(3) Fragments of immature tibio-tarsi (of a large and small 

species). 

(4) A first phalangeal of the inner toe of the left foot. 

The tarso-metatarsus (Plate XIV. figs. 1 &2) is very similar to that 
of jE. hildehraadti figured by E. Burckhardt (2), but differs from it 
in size and in some points of structure. Its upper extremity is 
quite complete, so that it is possible for the first time to determine 
accurately the form of the talon and of the proximal articular 
surface. 

The dimensions of this bone are as follow ; those of JE. maximus 
and 2E. hildebrandti are given for comparison : — 



P.Z.S.1894.PkteX[V. 




MWood-wsi-a cle] <rt litt, 



Fossil Eones of iEpyorms. 



P.Z.S1894.PlateJV: 





'$W 



^1 .etlitfl 



"West, ' 



ssil Bones of i£pyornis. 



1894.] 



IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



109 



JE„ sp. 



Length 

Width of proximal end 

Width of distal end 

Width of shaft at narrowest 
point 

Circumference of shaft at nar- 
rowest point 

Width of middle trochlea 



cm. 
31-6 

11-5 

11-9 

5-4 

13-6 
4-7 



M. maxim/us. 



cm. 
37-0 (?) 



14-5 

8-0 (?) 

20-0 
5-2 



M. Mldebrandti. 



cm. 

27-5 

9-5 
100 

4-5 

11-0 
43 



At the proximal end the inner glenoidal cavity is the deeper of 
the two ; it is oval in outline, the long axis being antero-posterior, 
and its front and hind borders are produced upwards into blunt 
points, of which the hinder is much the higher. The outer glenoidal 
cavity is shallow, and slopes down at its antero-external edge, 
where it has no well-defined border. These two cavities are 
separated by a surface, plane behind and slightly concave from 
side to side in front ; there is no distinct median groove such as 
is said to occur in 2E. Mldebrandti. There is no trace of an inter- 
condylar process. As in the other members of the genus hitherto 
described, the anterior surface of the shaft is deeply depressed in 
the middle line at the upper end, the depression dying away 
downwards, till a little above the trochlea the bone is slightly 
convex from side to side. At the deepest part of the depression, 
about 5 cm. from the proximal end of the bone, the foramina interossea 
open. They are about 1 cm. apart and at the same level, thus 
differing from M. hildebrandti, where the outer is rather above the 
inner. Immediately below them there is a large rugose tuberosity 
for the insertion of the tibialis anticus. In the upper part of the 
outer surface is a rather broad groove passing obliquely from the 
anterior face to the posterior, where it dies away. The talon 
consists mainly of a broad blunt riclge, continuous with the upper 
end of the middle metatarsal and lying slightly to the outer side 
of the middle line. Internal to this is a broad, short, and very 
shallow groove, bounded internally by a low blunt tubercle lying 
immediately above the inner interosseous foramen. 

The lower part of the posterior surface closely resembles in 
general appearance tha,t of AZ. Mldebrandti, but is remarkable 
from the fact that it shows a distinct trace of the presence of a 
hind toe. Although several authors state that JSpyornis possessed 
four toes, I am not aware that any trace of the presence of a 
hallux is to be found in any specimen described till now. On the 
postero-internal surface, about 9 cm. above the distal end of the 
inner trochlea, is a bony projection, measuring 3 cm. from above 
down, and 1 cm. from side to side ; it rises to a height of about 



1.10 



MR. C. W. ANDREWS ON REMAINS OF ^PYORNIS [Feb. 6, 



1 cm., but the summit is broken away. This projection occupies 
just the position of attachment of the hallux in such birds as 
possess one, and it may represent the ligament by which the hind 
toe was attached ossified from age. 

The trochlea are large and are arranged along a slightly curved 
line. The middle one is broadest and projects beyond the others ; 
its sides are deeply concave and its articular groove only very 
slightly oblique to the long axis of the bone. Of the other two, 
the inner is the smaller, but projects slightly beyond the outer. 
There are no projections at the lower end of the channel for the 
tendon of the adductor of the outer digit, such as are figured in 
the tarso-metatarsus of jE. hildebrandti. 

In both the present specimen and in that described by 
Burckhardt (2) the width of the distal end is greater, in proportion 
to the least circumference of the shaft, than it is in the tarso- 
metatarsi from the coast. 

The tibio-tarsus is complete except the postcondylar processes, 
which are broken away. The bone on the whole resembles that of 
JE. hildebrandti, but differs from it in size and in some other 
respects. The dimensions are : — 



Length 

Width of distal end 

Width of shaft at narrowest 
point 

Circumference of shaft at the 
same point 



M., sp. 



cm. 
57-5 

100 

50 

140 



M. maximus. 



M. hildebrandti 



cm. 
64-0 

13-5 



155 



cm. 

48-0 

8-2 



11-0 



It will be seen from the above table that the tibio-tarsus, like 
the tarso-metatarsus, is intermediate in size between the corre- 
sponding bones of 2E. maximus and &. hildebrandti, and it is also 
rather longer in proportion to the tarso-metatarsus than is the 
case in JE. hildebrandti. The antero-posterior flattening and the 
curvature of the shaft, which are characteristic of the genus, are 
well marked. The distal articulation fits exactly into the proximal 
one of the tarso-metatarsus above described, and there is no doubt 
that the two bones belong to the same species, if not to the same 
individual. The median ridge between the condyles figured in the 
tibio-tarsus of JE. hildebrandti (2) is here wanting. The cnemial 
crest is moderately developed and rises a little above the proximal 
articular surface. On the upper outer surface of the ectocnemial 
crest is a foramen, probably pneumatic, the exact size of which 
cannot be determined, its edges being broken away owing to the 
thinness of the bone at that point. 



1894.] KST THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 1.11 

It seems possible that these bones must be referred to JE. mul- 
leri, a species recently named by Milne-Edwards and Grandidier (4), 
but till a description and further measurements of the limb- 
bones are published it is impossible to be certain. The tibio-tarsus 
is, however, slightly smaller, and the tarso-metatarsus slightly 
larger, than those of which the above-mentioned authors give the 
dimensions. 

At first it appeared possible that these bones might be referred 
to JE. medius, Milne-Edw. & Grand., since the femur on which 
that species is founded is, like the bones in question, intermediate 
in size between the femur ascribed to JE. maximus and that of 
JE. hildebrandti. Closer examination, however, renders it evident 
that the femur referred by Milne-Edwards and Grandidier to 
JE. maximus is too large in proportion to the metatarsus on which 
that species must be regarded as based, and that it probably belongs 
to the larger form described below under the name JE. titan. On 
the other hand, the type of JE. medius agrees fairly well in relative 
size with the other limb -bones of JE. maximus and may belong 
to that species. If this is the case, then the name JE. medius 
becomes a synonym, and, as was remarked above, the remains here 
described must be referred to another species, possibly JE. mulleri. 

The phalangeal bone appears to be the first of the inner toe of 
the left foot. It measures 5*1 cm. long; 2*7 cm. from side to 
side and 2*4 cm. from above downwards at the proximal end ; 
2*4 cm. from side to side and 1*7 cm. from above downwards at 
the distal end. The proximal articular surface is slightly concave ; 
its upper and outer borders are convex, the inner flat and the 
lower concave. It is more compressed from above downwards 
than the corresponding bone of Dinomis ; and its distal articular 
surface, the groove of which does not extend on to the dorsal 
surface, is rather wider in proportion to the length. The shortest 
vertical diameter is 1*1 cm. 

Remains of iEpyornis from the South-west Coast. 

The chief localities in which these were collected are Itampulu- 
Ve, near Murderers' Bay, and Amboulisatra. 

All the bones present a very fresh appearance, and some have 
evidently been rolled on the beach. At least three species are 
represented, ranging in size from a form much larger than 
JE. maximus to one which is probably identical with the JE. modestus 
or the Mulleromis agilis of Milne-Edwards and Grandidier (4). 
The specimens include more or less perfect femora, tibio-tarsi, 
tarso-metatarsi, a fibula, several vertebra?, and a fragment of a 
pelvis. 

In the collection from Itampulu-Ve occur some tibio-tarsi and 
femora of gigantic proportions ; some of these have aheady been 
briefly noticed in the ' Geological Magazine,' January 1894, where 
they are referred to a new species, JEjoyornis titan. 

There are two specimens of the tibio-tarsus, right and left 



112 MR. C. W. ANDREWS ON REMAINS OE JEPTORNIS [Feb. 6, 

(Plate XIV. figs. 3 & 4), both unfortunately incomplete at the 
upper end. The dimensions of these bones are : — 



Length 

Width of distal end 

Width of shaft at narrowest 
point 

Circumference of shaft at nar 
rowest point 

Shortest antero-posterior dia 
meter 



M. titan, M. maxinws. M. hildebrandti 



cm. 
80-0 

170 
7-5 

20-7 
4-5 



cm. 
64-0 

13-5 



15-5 



C1L). 

48-5 
8-2 



11-0 



The shaft is slightly curved, the inner border being concave. 
The flattening of the lower part of the anterior face, characteristic 
of the genus, is here more strongly marked than in the other 
species, and extends rather farther up the shaft. This flat surface 
is bounded on either side by a ridge, that on the inner side being 
the stronger ; these sharply separate the anterior from the lateral 
surfaces, which with the posterior form a continuous curve from 
side to side, rather flattened behind, especially towards the lower 
end of the bone. The lateral surfaces are also flattened and rough 
in the same region. A linea asjjera runs obliquely across the upper 
part of the anterior face from the procnemial crest to the inner 
border, which it reaches about 32 cm. above the lower end of the 
bone. In the other species of JEpyomis of which the tibio-tarsus 
is known, as well as in Dinornis, this ridge takes a more longitu- 
dinal course and only reaches the inner border a little above the 
condyles. Immediately above the latter is a short ridge running 
up the face of the bone and having at its lower end a rugose 
tubercle. Between this ridge and the inner border is the groove 
for the extensor tendons of the digits, deep at its lower end and 
dying away as it is traced upwards. As in the other species there 
is no ossified extensor bridge. About 2-5 cm. above the outer 
condyle is a large foramen for the passage of a blood-vessel into 
the bone. 

The condyles have the form characteristic of the genus. The 
inner is the larger and projects more forward. The intercondylar 
surface is only slightly depressed and, though faintly convex from 
side to side, does not form a distinct ridge between the condyles 
such as is figured by Burckhardt in JE. hildebrandti. The lateral 
surfaces of the condyles have very deep pits for the insertion of 
ligaments, that in the outer being 2-5 cm. deep. Behind these 
pits are large rugose tuberosities. The surface for the fibula 
closely resembles that of JE. maximus. 

The wall of the bone is very hard and compact, and is about 



1894.] 



IX THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



113 



1 cm. thick in the middle of the shaft, where the spongy bone is 
wanting ; above and below this point the wall becomes thinner 
and the bony network more developed. 

A left fibula, broken at the lower end, probably belongs to 
the same species. It is compressed from side to side to a rather 
greater extent than the fibula of Dinornis, and consequently 
its surface for articulation with the femur is narrower. The 
tuberosity for the insertion of the biceps cruris is very strongly 
developed, and the distance from it to the upper end of the bone 
is 19 cm. The greatest antero-posterior width of the upper end 
is 7*5 cm. ; the width of the articular surface from side to side is 
2-7 cm. 

A very imperfect proximal end of a left tarso-metatarsus, from the 
same locality, measures 17*5 cm. across and probably belongs to 
2E. titan. 

Among the femora that are provisionally referred to the same 
species, there is one (figs. 1 & 2, a, pp. 114, 115) from the left side 
nearly complete, wanting only the upper end of the trochanter 
and some portion of the condyles. Its dimensions are : — 



Approximate length 

Circumference of the shaft at 
the narrowest part 

Width from side to side at the 
same point 

Width of distal end (approxi- 
mate) 



M. titan. 



cm. 
410 



27-3 

9-2 

21-0 



M. maximus. 



cm. 

320 

(? true length) 

27-0 
94 » 
19-0 (?) 



M. Mldebrandti, 



cm. 

15-8 

5-0 

100 



The neck is short and thick, measuring 23 cm. in circum- 
ference ; its anterior surface is very rugose. The trochanter is 
very massive ; its smooth upper surface for articulation with the 
anti-trochanter of the ilium slopes steeply upwards and outwards 
from the neck, widening rapidly, and it must have risen consider- 
ably above the head, but the upper end being abraded it cannot bo 
determined to what extent this was the case. The anterior surface 
of the trochanter does not appear to have projected forward so 
much as in Dinornis. 

On the posterior surface near its junction with the neck is a 
large pneumatic foramen, the edge of which is unfortunately 
broken, so that its size cannot be accurately determined. This 
opens into a wide thin-walled passage, measuring 3 cm. from side 



1 This meuurement ia taken from a cast in the J5ritisli Museum. 

Proc. Zool. Boo.— 1894, No. VI 1 1. 8 



114 



MB. C. W. ANDREWS ON REMAINS OF ^PTOENIS [Feb. 6, 



to side and 1*5 cm. from before backwards, which passes down to 
about the middle of the shaft, where it terminates in the bony 
reticulum with which the bone is nearly filled. This pneumatic 
foramen, though present in most Batites, is entirely wanting in 
Dinomis and Apteryx. 

The shaft is narrowest about 12 cm. below the upper surface 
of the neck, where it is oval in section, the short diameter being 
antero-posterior. Below this point the flattening increases, and 
just above the condyles the anterior surface is only slightly convex 
irom side to side. 



Fig. 1. 





a. Left femur of Mpyornis titan (?), from front. 

b. „ ,, Mpyornis (?), from front. 

Both i nat. size. 



The popliteal fossa is large and triangular in shape, its lower 
border being formed by the inner condyle and a strongly projecting 
rounded intercondylar ridge, the inner by a rough ridge termi- 
nating above in a blunt tubercle, while its outer boundary is not 
well defined, since the floor of the fossa slopes gently up, passing 



1894.] 



IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



115 



imperceptibly into the posterior face of the shaft. Into the 
popliteal fossa several pneumatic foramina open, the largest 
measuring 7 by 5 mm. 

The condyles, which are very massive, are broken away in 
front; the outer projects considerably below the inner. Their 
lateral surfaces are concave and rough. The intercondylar fossa 
is scarcely perceptible and the surface for the fibula is narrow. 



Fig. 2. 





^esSS' 



a 



a. Left femur of Mpyomis titan (?), from behind. 

b. „ „ Mpyomis (?), from behind. 

Both i nat. size. 



In some of the broken femora referred to JE. titan the internal 
structure can be well seen. The wall of the bone is very compact 
and hard, and in the middle of the shaft it is 7 mm. thick. The 
central cavity is very small, the bone being almost entirely filled 
with a complex bony reticulum, the meshes of which are for the 
most part more or less rectangular. If we compare this structure 
with that found in Struthio and Dinornis, we find in each case 
great variations, but of a different kind. 

8* 



116 ME. C. W. ANDREWS ON REMAINS OE iEPYORNIS [Feb. 6, 

In Struthio the central cavity of the femur is large and smooth- 
walled for about 6 cm. in the middle of the shaft, the cellular 
bone being there absent. Above and below this it increases in 
quantity, narrowing the cavity of the shaft and completely filling 
the ends of the bone. As in JEpyornis there is a large pneumatic 
foramen on the posterior surface about the level of the neck, and 
also several smaller ones opening into the popliteal fossa. 

In the larger species of Dinornis the central cavity of the shaft 
is small. This, however, is not owing to the development of 
the bony reticulum, but to the great thickness of the walls, which 
appear to consist of an outer hard compact layer and an inner 
much thicker layer of soft bone, the innermost portion of which 
alone is honeycombed so as to form the bony network. The 
solid wall of the shaft of a femur 31 cm. long measures 2 cm. in 
thickness. As in Apteryx there are no pneumatic foramina, and 
the cavity of the bone must have been filled during life with 
marrow. 

In the same collection there is another nearly complete femur 
(figs. 1 &2, 6), rather smaller than the one just described, and differing 
from it so much that it will probably be found necessary to refer 
it to a different genus. 

Its measurements are : — 

cm. 

Approximate length 38*0 

Diameter of shaft from side to side at narrowest 

point 8*5 

Circumference at the same point 24*7 

Approximate width of distal end 16*5 

Circumference of neck 20*0 

It is therefore evident that the proportions of this bone are 
different from those of the femur referred to 2E. titan. Thus, if 
the length be taken as 100 in the two cases, then in the present 
specimen the width of the distal end will be approximately 43*4, 
while in ^. titan it will be 51-2. Similarly, if the least circum- 
ference of the shaft be taken as 100, then the proportionate width 
of the distal ends will be 66*8 and 76*9 respectively. 

The chief points other than size in which this femur differs from 
that referred above to JE. titan are : — 

(1) The trochanter is much less massive. 

(2) The head and neck, instead of projecting at right angles to 

the long axis of the bone, are turned somewhat upwards. 

(3) The middle of the shaft is roughly quadrate in section, owing 

to the flattening of the outer, inner, and posterior surfaces. 

(4) As was shown above, the distal extremity is proportionately 

less massive. 

(5) The popliteal fossa has a high outer border, formed by a 

rounded ridge running fron the outer condyle to the tuber- 
osity at the upper angle of the fossa. 



1894.] IN THE BEITISH MUSEUM. 117 

(6) The rotular surface is very broad and flat, and makes an 
angle of about 90° with the inferior intercondylar surface 
instead of passing into it by a gentle curve. 

The intercondylar fossa is slightly marked. The upper 
pneumatic foramen is present as in 2E. titan, and, the floor of the 
popliteal fossa being broken away, it can be seen that the inferior 
foramina opened into a large air-chamber. There is also a pneu- 
matic foramen about the middle of the rotular surface, which is 
not found in JE. titan. The nutritive foramen on the posterior 
surface of the shaft is single, in the femur above referred to 
2E. titan there are two; bat since this is not the case in some of 
the more imperfect femora belonging to the same species, it is 
merely an individual variation. 

This femur may possibly belong to M. maximus or to either of 
the recently named species, 2E. cursor and JS. lentus (4). In any 
case, as was remarked above, the differences between it and the 
femur referred to uE. titan appear to be of generic value ; and if 
this be so, then there is evidence of the existence of a third genus, 
since the recently named Mulleromis seems to include only slender 
forms of comparatively small size. 

Until, however, it is definitely known whether the femur of the 
type species of uEpyornis resembles that of 2E. titan or the one just 
described it would be imprudent to establish a new generic name. 
The evidence necessary for the decision of this question is probably 
in the hands of MM. Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, and a full 
description and figures of the magnificent collection recently briefly 
noticed by them, especially of the skulls and sterna, will be 
anxiously awaited. 

Prom the same locality there are several fragments, including the 
distal ends of three tibio-tarsi, which appear to belong to M. max- 
imus. A right tarso-metatarsus with the upper end above the 
interosseous foramina broken away may also be provisionally referred 
to the same species ; it is, however, slightly smaller, measuring 
6-3 cm. across the narrowest part of the shaft in comparison with 
6 - 9 cm. in JE. maximus. If 2E. medius should be found to be a 
distinct species, this bone may possibly belong to it. In form it 
closely resembles the tarso-metatarsus of M. maximus figured by 
Milne-Edwards and Grrandidier (3), and, like it, differs from the 
tarso-metatarsi from the centre of the island mainly in the fact that 
the shaft contracts from side to side above the trochleae more 
gradually and to a slightly less extent l . 

Erom Itampulu-Ve and Amboulisatra are several portions of the 
skeleton of a much smaller form, possibly that recently named 
Mulleromis axjilis by Milne-Edwards and Grandidier (4). These 
include the distal ends of several tibio-tarsi (Plate XV. fig. 1), 
which closely resemble the same bone of the larger forms in their 

1 This specimen may belong to the species recently named M. cursor by 
Milne-Edwards and Grandidier. 



118 MB. C. W. ANDBBWS ON EE3IAIN8 OP ^PYOENIS [Feb. 6, 

articular region, though the shaft presents considerable differences. 
These are : — 

(1) The flattening of the lower part of the anterior surface is 

less marked. 

(2) Above the flattened region the shaft contracts somewhat 

suddenly in width, becoming at the same time oval in 
section. 

(3) The groove for the extensor tendons of the digits is some- 

what deeper than in ^E. maximus, the ridge on its outer 
side being more strongly developed, while its inner border 
rises into an elongated blunt tuberosity, 2-5 cm. in length 
from above downwards, its lower end being about 3 cm. 
above the inner condyle. 

(4) Judging from various fragments, the whole tibio-tarsus 

appears to have been of much more slender proportions 
than in the larger forms ; it probably measured about 50 cm. 
in length l , or rather more than the tibio-tarsus of JE. Jiilde- 
brandti, the other dimensions of which are considerably 
greater than the corresponding ones of this bone. 

The other chief measurements are : — 

cm. 

Width of distal end 75 

Diameter of shaft from side to side at narrowest 

point 3*2 

Circumference at the same point 8*7 

The most nearly complete specimen of the smaller femora 
unfortunately wants the entire trochanter and inner condyle, 
while the head and outer condyle are much abraded. From the 
upper surface of the head to the lower end of the outer condyle, 
measured along a line parallel to the long axis of the bone, the 
length is 24 - 5 cm. ; a similar measurement of the femur of &. titan 
gives 40 cm. The circumference of the shaft at the narrowest 
point is 13 cm., while that of the femur on which JE. modestus is 
founded is given by Milne-Edwards as 12 cm. ; two other femora 
in this collection measure 11*5 and 12 cm. 

The bone is much compressed from before backwards, and the 
upper portion of the anterior face is very flat. The popliteal fossa 
is shallow and its borders less strongly defined than in the larger 
forms. 

The wall of the bone is compact and thin, but, unlike the larger 
femora, the cavity is large, since the bony reticulum is little 
developed. 

In the collection from Itampulu-Ye there are several nearly 
complete vertebra belonging to a large and a small species. The 
smaller vertebrae include a nearly complete cervical, a cervico-dorsal, 
and two dorsals. 

1 The actual length of the tibia of MttUeromis agilis is 44 cin. 



1894.] IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 119 

The cervical (Plate XV. figs. 2, 3, 4) is of the following dimen- 
sions : — 

cm. 

Length of centrum - 4*1 

Width between anterior ends of pre-zygapophyses . 2*5 
Width between outer edges of post-zygapophyses . . 2*6 

Diameter of neural canal 1*0 

Longest diameter of anterior end of vertebrarterial 
canal 1*4 

The centrum is much compressed from side to side in its 
middle portion, but widens out towards the ends. The articular 
surfaces are of the characteristic avian form ; the anterior is wide 
from side to side and narrow from above downwards, owing to 
its upper and lower borders being deeply concave ; tbe posterior 
is slightly wider than high and all hs borders are concave, the 
lower deeply so. On the ventral surface of the centrum, about 
one thud of its length from the anterior end, is a median haema- 
pophysis, the front of which rises steeply, while its hinder border 
passes by a more gradual slope into a median ridge which runs 
back for about 1*5 cm. in the middle ventral line. There is no 
pneumatic fossa in the side of the centrum. 

The lateral portions of the neural arch are remarkably thin. 
The diapophyses and parapophyses are well developed, and, on 
the left side, the fused cervical rib is nearly complete, only its 
hinder portion being broken away. The vertebrarterial canal is 
very large, much larger, indeed, than the neural, a condition not 
occurring in the living Eatites or, to the same extent, in Dinornis. 
The interzygapophysial bar has behind and beneath it a pneumatic 
fossa, and above and in front of it on the dorsal surface, imme- 
diately behind the anterior zygapophyses, there is a still larger fossa 
into which several pneumatic foramina open. On the upper sur- 
face of the post-zygapophysis, near its outer hinder border, is a small 
tubercle (hyperapophysis), from which there runs forwards and 
inwards a ridge which increases in size as it goes ; this does not 
meet its fellow of the opposite side to form a median neural spine, 
but is separated from it by a groove, which is shallow in front but 
deepens suddenly behind, forming a pit for the intervertebral 
ligament. 

The cervico-dorsal vertebra differs from the one just described 
in possessing a broader and less compressed centrum, into the sides 
of which open a pair of large pneumatic fossa?. The arch also is 
more massive and the ridges running forward from the post-zyga- 
pophyses very much higher and broader ; as in the cervical, 
however, they do not unite to form a median neural spine. The 
pneumatic fossae of the arch closely resemble those of the cervical 
vertebrae. The parapophyses and diapophyses have smooth articular 
surfaces for the free rib. 

The smaller dorsal vertebrae are very similar to the larger ones, 
and since the latter are the more complete they will be here 
described, though measurements of both will be given. 



120 MB. C. W. ANDREWS ON REMAINS OE .EPYORNIS [Feb. 6, 

Of the two fairly complete large dorsals the one (Plate XV. 
figs. 5 & 6) which appears to be the anterior gives the following 

measurements : — 

cm. 

Length of centrum 7*5 

Approximate height from ventral surface to top of 

neural spine 22*0 

Width of centrum in middle 5*0 

Diameter of neural canal from side to side 1*5 

The centrum, which is slightly compressed, is produced ventrally 
into a haemapophysis, which has been mostly broken away. The 
anterior articular surface is broader than high, while the reverse 
is the case in the hinder. The neural arch is very massive, and its 
sides below and in front of the broken transverse process are 
excavated by a large fossa roughly pyramidal in form. The 
articular surface of the anterior zygapophyses is nearly circular, 
its diameter being about 4*2 cm. ; in the posterior the surface is 
oval. The neural spine which slopes forward is very large and 
high ; it is united with the post-zygapophyses and transverse 
processes by two pairs of thin vertical buttresses of bone, and with 
the anterior border of the arch by a median unpaired buttress ; 
between these plates of bone there are deep pyramidal fossa?. The 
result of this arrangement is that, though the vertebra? are very 
large, they are at the same time extremely light. The transverse 
processes and the anterior lateral borders of the centrum being 
broken away, there is no trace of the articular surface for the 
ribs. 

The other large dorsal appears to have been posterior to the one 
just described. Its centrum is less compressed than that of the 
latter, and, as far as can be seen, there was no haemapophysis. 
Both the anterior and posterior articular surfaces of the centrum 
are about as broad as high. The articular surface of the post- 
zygapophyses are ovoid in shape and of great size, the loug axis of 
that on the left side measuring 6*7 cm., though in this specimen 
that on the right side is somewhat smaller. The fossae in the side 
and on the dorsal surface of the arch are much like those described 
above, but there is an additional median one between the post- 
zygapophyses, bounded in front by the neural spine and behind 
by the hinder border of the neural arch. The dimensions are : — 

cm. 

Length of centrum 7'2 

Width of centrum in middle 6*0 

Height of centrum in middle 6*0 

As in the last specimen the articular facets for the ribs are 
broken away. 

As was mentioned above, the smaller dorsals closely resemble 
the larger iu most respects ; they differ, however, in the form of 
the anterior and posterior articular surfaces of the centrum. 
These are concave and convex from side to side respectively, as 



1894.] IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 121 

usual, but show scarcely any curvature from above downwards. 
There is, moreover, a lateral fossa in the centrum separated from 
that in the arch by a nearly horizontal plate of bone. 

The specimen which agrees most closely with the first of the 
larger ones just described has a centrum measuring 4 cm. long, 
3 cm. high, 2'5 wide in the middle. 

Another specimen gives the following measurements : — 

cm. 

Length of centrum 3*5 

Height of centrum at hinder end 2-7 

"Width of centrum in middle 2*0 

From the above descriptions it will be seen that the iEpyornithidae 
must have included a large number of forms differing greatly in 
size and proportions ; indeed, in a very recent paper (4) Milne- 
Edwards and Grandidier have given names to no less than seven 
new species, three of which are referred to a new genus, Muller- 
ortiis, and it seems probable, as was shown above, that a third genus 
at least will have to be established. It is to be hoped that the 
authors just mentioned have taken some particular bone as the 
type specimen of each species, and that names have not been 
given to miscellaneous collections of conjecturally associated bones. 
If it should unfortunately prove that this precaution has been 
neglected, then it seems probable that confusion in the nomen- 
clature of the iEpyornithidae will result. 

It is greatly to be desired that collectors should, whenever 
possible, mark in some distinctive manner such bones as occur 
together and appear to have belonged to one individual 1 . But 
even when this is not done, it is still possible to avoid confusion 
to a large extent by applying specific names to some definite bone, 
preferably the metatarsus, as the type specimen of the species. 

The Affinities of ^Epyomis. 

Concerning the affinities of JEpyorriis the most divergent views 
have been held. Isidore Geoff roy in his original paper (6) referred 
it to the Brevipennes (Eatitae), an opinion now universally accepted. 
Valenciennes (9) considered it to be a diving bird, related to the 
Auks and Penguins. Bianconi (1) in a long series of papers strove 
to show that Jfcpyomis was the " Boc " of Eastern fable, and that 
its nearest liviug relative is the Condor. Milne-Edwards and 
Grandidier (3) confirmed Greoffroy's original opinion and considered 
that Gasuarius and Dinomis are the nearest allies. VouHaast(7), 
on the other hand, opposed this view and asserted that the resem- 
blances with Dinomis are superficial. Recently this opinion has 
been endorsed by Fiirbringer (5) and B. Burckhardt (2), both of 
whom, after an elaborate comparison of the jiEpyornithidse with 
the other Batite families, come to the conclusion that such resem- 
blances as exist between JEpyornis and Dinomis are merely the 

1 In the present instance this appears to have been out of the question, the 
bones occurring scattered at random. 



122 0** BEMAINS OF -EPYORXTS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. [Feb. 6, 

result of convergence resulting from similar conditions of life, and 
that though the great massiveness of the skeleton (pachyostosis) is 
characteristic of both families, it i< attained in quite a different 
manner in the two cases. This conclusion would certainly seem 
to be supported by the bones here described. 

In the femora, for instance, apart from their great difference 
of form, the large upper pneumatic foramen, the numerous smaller 
ones opening into the popliteal fossa, and the great development 
of the bony reticulum are characters entirely wanting in Dinornis. 
Such points of structure as these appear to be of more importance 
in determining affinities than the mere external form of the bones, 
which may be supposed to vary more readily with changes in the 
conditions of life ; for it is difficult to understand how such differ- 
ences of structure could arise in two closely related forms, since the 
same end appears to be attained in the two cases in different way-. 
The conclusion to be drawn from this is that the divergence 
between the two families must have occurred before the character- 
istic pachyostosis had been acquired. In their recent paper (4) 
Milne-Edwards and Grandidier have given a brief description 
of the skull, which, as far as it goes, does not seem to afford 
much evidence in favour of the supposed close relationship with 
Dinornis ; nevertheless, at the close of their communication the 
authors, as in their former paper, assert their belief that there 
is really such a relationship, and suggest the former existence 
of a southern land-connection to account for it. Perhaps when 
a complete description with figures of the skull, sternum, and 
pectoral girdle have been published, it may be possible to arrive at 
some definite conclusion concerning this interesting point. 

List of papers referred to. 

1. Bia>*co>~i, G. G. — Numerous papers published in the ' Memorie 

dell' Accademia delle Scienze dell' Istituto di Bologna ' 
between 1861 and 1873. 

2. Burckiiardt, E. — " Ueber JEfpyornig." Palaontologische 

Abhandlungen, Xeue Folge, Ed. ii. Heft 2. Jena, 1893. 

3. Edwards, Alpu. Milne-, et Alf. Grandidier. — " Xouvelles 

Observations sur les Caracteres zoologiques et les Affinites 
naturelles de VJEpyvrm* de Madagascar." Annales des 
Sciences naturelles (Zoologie), serie 5, vol. xii. Paris, 1869. 

4. Edwards, Alph. Milne-, et Alt. Grandidier. — "Observations 

sur YJBpyornis d<? Madagascar." Coraptes Bendus de l'Acad. 
d. Sci. t.cxviii. p. 122. Jan. 1894. Paris. 

5. Furbringer, Max. — L ntersuchungen zur Morphologie und 

Sy.-tematik der Yogel. II. Allgemeiner Theil, pp. 1463-6. 
Amsterdam, 1888. 

6. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, Isidore. — " Xote sur des ossements 

et des ceufs trouvc's a Madagascar dans des alluvions modernes, 
et provenant d'un Oiseau gigantesque." Comptes Eendus de 
l'Acad. d. Sci. t. xxxii. p. 101. Paris, 1851. 



1894.] ME. J. T. LAST ON THE BOISTES OF .EPYOEtflS. 123 

7. Haast, Jflitts vok. — " Eeniarks on the Extinct Birds of New 

Zealand." The Ibis, 1874, p. 209. 

8. Major, C. I. Poesyth". — " On Megaladapis madagascariensis." 

Proc. Eoy. Soc. vol. liv. 1893, p. 176. 

9. Valenciennes. Comptes Eendus de l'Acad. d. Sci. t. xxxix. 

p. 837. Paris, 1854. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate XIV. 
Fig. 1. Mpyornis mulleri (?), Milne-Edw. & Grand. Right tarso-metatarsus 
from behind. 

2. Mpyornis mulleri (?). Right tarso-metatarsus from inner side, h, Point 

of attachment of hallux. 

3. JEpyornis titan. Left tibio-tarsus from front. (Type specimen.) 

4. The same from inner side. 

All the figures are one-fifth natural size. 

Plate XV. 

Fig. 1. (?) Mulleromis agilis, Milne-Edw. & Grand. Distal portion of right 
tibio-tarsus from front. J nat. size. 

2. Cervical vertebra of a small species of Mpyomis (?) from left side. 

Nat size. 

3. The same from above. Nat. size. 

4. The same from front. Nat. size. 

5. Dorsal vertebra of large species of jEpyornis from right side. 3 nat. size, 
tj. The same from front, k nat. size. 



4. On the Bones of the iEpyornis, and on the Localities and 
Conditions in which they are found. By J. T. Last. 

[Received February 4, 1894.] 

In response to the kind invitation of the Secretary of this 
Society, 1 beg leave to offer the following remarks on the bones of 
the fossil iEpyornis for their consideration. There may be much of 
what 1 shall say which will, perhaps, not be new to them, yet if it 
confirms that which was already known it will not be altogether 
useless. 

I first arrived in Madagascar in the summer of 1889. I made 
Nossy-be, an island on the JS".W. coast, my head-quarters, and 
then slowly worked my way down to JNossy-ve, an island near the 
S.W. extremity of Madagascar. It was in the early spring of 
1891 that I arrived at Nossy-ve, and I remained in the south and 
south central parts of Madagascar till September of 1893, and then 
I began to turn my face towards home. During the time I was in 
the south parts of Madagascar I had several opportunities of 
searching for remains of the .Epyornis. These I made use of with 
varied success, and though I may not have been so unfortunate 
as I had hoped, yet my efforts and the experience I gained gave 
me an insight of the bird's former habits, and the kind of places 
where its remains are likely to be found. 



124 ME. J. T. LAST ON THE BONES OF .ffiPYOKNIS. [Feb. 6, 

From what is already known, the ^Epyornis may be considered 
as having had a range over the whole, or nearly the whole, of the 
southern half of Madagascar. This is proved by the fact that its 
remains have been found at Sira-be, a place situated in about lat. 
19° 50' 8. Twice I have known its bones to have been found near 
Morondava, a small town on the W. coast iu about lat. 20° 20' S. 
An egg was also found at Mtinaujara on the east coast in about 
lat. 21° 10' S. These discoveries are sufficient to prove that the 
bird occupied more or less the whole of the southern half of 
Madagascar. 

I do not believe that the whole of this large tract of country was 
equally overrun by these birds, but rather that their numbers were 
much greater in the south and south-western parts than in the 
more northerly and eastern parts. This is shown, I think, by the 
fact that, excepting an egg found at Mananjara, few or no remains 
have been found in south-east Madagascar, but that nearly all the 
remains that have been brought to light up to the present have 
been discovered in the south and south-western parts. That the 
birds were more plentiful in the south and south-west parts of 
the island may be inferred from the abundance of broken egg- 
shells which are to be found on the rocky sides of the range of 
hills on the S.W. coast, whereas I do not remember having heard 
or read that there were such broken egg-shells on the S.E. 
coast. All the unbroken eggs have, almost without exception, 
been found on the south or $. W. coast. About two years ago I 
heard of a specimen which was picked up floating about on the 
Morondava Eiver, near its mouth ; but this is the only instance, 
so far as 1 know, of one being found north of St. Augustin's Bay. 

Regarding my own operations in searching after fossils, I think 
it will be better if, in the first place, I describe my work in the 
Manansua district of the Antinosi country, in south central 
Madagascar, about long. 45° E. and lat. 23° !S. It was only 
after two or three unsuccessful attempts to enter the country that 
I was at last able to do so, through the friendship of Befanatriki, 
one of the Antinosi kings, who being about to return to his own 
country permitted me to accompany him. The journey occupied 
us eight days. On arrival at the king's chief town I was given a 
house to use till I could make myself one more suitable. This 
building-work occupied me some time, and in going about with 
men to collect material I came across several places which appeared 
to me likely to be fossilil'erous. On making inquiries of the 
natives, 1 was told that there were many bones, large and small, in 
the peaty flats where they make their rice gardens, but they did 
not know to what animal the bones had belonged. After nego- 
tiating with the king for awhile, he allowed me to dig about on 
one of the uncultivated bogs alongside the Ifunsi Biver. The soil 
met with was black and clayey above, then we came to a layer 
of whitish marly soil, followed by a friable kind of light grey lime- 
stone, resting on fine-grained red sandstone. The fossils found 
were chiefly bones of Crocodiles, Hippopotami, broken tortoise- 



1894.] MR. J. T. LAST ON THE BONES OF .EPYORNIS. 125 

shells of more than one species, with a few fragments of iEpyornis- 
bones and a variety of vertebral bones, some of which must have 
belonged to other animals than those named above. All these 
were found between the grey marl and the limestone. The place 
abounds with fossils ; but one would be led to judge that the 
creatures had not died where the fossil remains are now found, 
but rather that they had died at a distance, and that the bones, 
being set free by decomposition of the body, had been carried 
dowm to their present positions by heavy rainfalls or other means. 
If this was really the case, it would account for the jumbled-up 
manner in which the fossils are found, and would also give a 
reason why we did not find a skeleton intact. 

For nearly a year I made Manansua my head-quarters, journey- 
ing into the country in different directions as opportunity occurred. 
By this means, and from native report, I was able to learn a great 
deal about the nature of the surrounding country. It seems, 
from what I saw, that a great deal of the country to the south 
and east of Manansua was formerly covered with a number of 
small lakes. These slowly became dry, from two causes — first by 
being gradually silted up from the surrounding higher ground, and 
also by the water, when the lakes were full, cutting its way out 
through the soft sandstone rocks, until a passage was formed 
which allowed the whole of it to escape. Crocodiles abounded in 
these lakes, as their descendants do in the lakes which remain. 
A small kind of Hippopotamus and a large Tortoise lived about 
the lakes and near country ; these have left nothing but their 
fossilized bones to show that they once existed. 

By talking -with the king and people about these fossil remains, I 
learnt that they were in no way confined to the Manansua district, 
but were to be found all over the country to the N.E. along the 
Sakamare Biver — at Ilunti, more north, and beyond in the Bara 
country, still farther north. In times of peace the Antinosi and 
Bara tribes interchange visits. Some men who had been there were 
working for me, and told me they had seen the same kind of bones 
in the Bara country. The natives have no knowledge of the 
creatures of which these fossils are the remains, and if asked, 
generally say they are the bones of the Pang'ani, a mythical 
creature, in whose existence most of the Malagasy tribes firmly 
believe. 

From Befatiiri (an Antinosi king, living at Kiliarivo, to the 
N.W., and whom I met several times) I learnt that there are 
several bogs in his district, with fossil bones in them, and judging 
from the manner in which he described some of the long bones, I 
think it quite possible that some remains of the iEpyornis have been 
turned out by the natives whilst working in their gardens. He 
much wanted me to go and visit him at his town, but I could not 
get the opportunity. 

Passing thence to the valley of the Taheza River one comes to 
another piece of country where there are a number of silted-up 
lakes, now dry and used as rice-gardens. Here again, undoubtedly, 



126 MR. .T. T. LAST ON THE BONES OF .EPTORNIS. [Feb. 6, 

fossil remains abound ; in fact, judging from personal observation 
and native information, I should say that these dry lake beds are 
to be found scattered over the whole of South Central Madagascar, 
north of the Ong'ulahi, or St. Augustin River, and that they are all 
more or less fossiliferous. 

Whilst speaking of this part of the country, I must just call 
attention to a little district which extends, in a N.E. and S.W. 
direction, from the town of Salu-avaratsi (situated on the right 
bank of the Ong'ulahi River, about a mile S.E. from where the 
Taheza flows into the Ong'ulahi) for about 16 miles to the small 
river Andranumai, which enters the Ong'ulahi on its left bank. 
This stretch of country, with a width of about five miles, has a 
number of hot springs, varying considerably in temperature. 
Some are so hot that any person or animal entering them 
would be scalded to death, as the springs at Ambundrumbe and 
Andranumai ; others are deliriously warm, and by bathing in them 
a kind of vigour seems to be imparted to the whole body. This is 
especially the case at the warm spring just outside the town 
of Salu-avaratsi. The water when warm gives off a slight odour, 
something like iodoform ; but this disappears when the water 
has cooled, when it is quite clear and pleasant to the taste. The 
natives always use this water, and no other, for all domestic 
purposes in preference to the water of the great river which flows 
close by. At some of the springs a kind of salt is precipitated, as 
at Salu-avaratsi and Andranumai ; but at the hot springs at Beza 
the water rushes up through the sand, flows away, and leaves no 
salt marks. 

Much might be said about this south central district of Mada- 
gascar, but time and the scope of my present paper will not allow it. 
I think, however, sufficient has been said to show that it will 
become a country of considerable interest to the palaeontologist 
and to all lovers of natural science, especially when the country 
becomes more opened up and travelling can be accomplished with 
more ease and safety. 

I will now, with your permission, give some account of my 
explorations on the south-west coast in search of fossils and 
other natural-history specimens. Excepting the few objects col- 
lected in Manansua district, all the fossil collections I have sent 
home were obtained on the S.W. coast of Madagascar, between 
Lambuhara, about lat. 22° 10' S., and St. Augustin's Bay, about 
lat. 23° 30' S. It may be well, perhaps, to briefly describe this 
tract of coast-line. A range of hills extends along the west side 
of Madagascar at a varying distance from the coast. About St. 
Augustin's Bay the hill-sides, in places, descend into the sea. 
The rocks forming these hills are full of fossil shells. Generally 
there is an extensive flat, of some miles in width, between the 
coast-line and the foot of the hills. This flat is very low, probably 
lower in some places than the high-water fine, from which it is 
separated either by high sand-dunes or stretches of elevated sand- 
stone rocks. There are a number of lakes, varying considerably 



1894.] ME. J. T. LAST ON THE BONES OE jEPYORNIS. 127 

in size, dotted about over these extensive flats. Often a number 
of small lakes may be seen in close proximity, and these, looked 
upon as a whole, seem to be only the remains of wbat was 
formerly a lake of considerable extent. The boggy nature of the 
surrounding country also seems to indicate the same thing. Some 
of these small lakes dry up during the dry season, others are 
too large and have no outlets into the sea. The water is very 
brackish, and always leaves a thick deposit, of salt as it slowly 
subsides. It is in the beds of these lakes that the various 
fossilized forms are found. 

At Ambulisatra, in about lat. 23° S., a place visited by M. 
Grandidier several years ago, I found a variety of fossil bones. 
These consisted chiefly of remains of the Hippopotamus, Crocodile, 
Tortoise, and a few of the TEpyornis. If any of these creatures 
died in the water, the skeletons must have been much washed 
about and the bones separated, for it was seldom that two bones 
of the same animal were found together. The formation of 
the country shows that there was formerly a very extensive lake at 
this place. In the part where I excavated, the ground was fairly dry 
above, but we found it full of water below. The soil is a blackish 
clay for about two feet ; next we came to a stratum of white clay or 
loam from one to two feet thick ; after this, some greenish sand 
and a layer of green sand mixed with pebbles. The fossils were 
found lying between the band of greenish sand and the layer of 
green sand and pebbles. I made two visits to this place, and during 
my second visit I intended to make considerable excavations in 
search for iEpyornis-bones, but after a few days my work was 
stopped by the king sending orders for my men to return home. 
The men were obliged to do as the king ordered. The king, 
personally, did not care what digging I did, for some time previously 
I had visited him, paid him the accustomed honours, told him my 
business, and he, in the presence of his chiefs, gave me leave to go 
where I pleased about his country and to coUect what I wanted, 
naming one or two things which were "fadi" or prohibited. It 
was some of the big chiefs who really stopped my work. They 
thought I ought to be continually giving them presents ; and as I 
held a different opinion, they resolved to cut my work off. This 
they easily did, by telling the king some story, that it was bad for 
the cattle that the white man should dig holes in places where 
the cattle were likely to go ; they would fall in and be lost. 
Of course the king had to comply with their wishes, and this he 
easily did by sending a messenger to take away my men, in his 
name. This ended my work at Ambulisatra. 

From Ambulisatra we must proceed to a place some few miles 
further north — Ambatumifuku, in about lat. 22° 40' S. It was 
in this district that I obtained the large semi-fossil Tortoises 
which I have sent home during the last two years \ The flat 
country at this place, between the sea and the hills, is very similar 

1 [These have been described by Mr. Boulenger. See Trans. Zool. Soc. xiii. 
p. 305.— Ed.] 



128 MR. J. T. LAST OX THE BONES OF jEPTORXIS. [Feb. 0, 

to that at Ambulisatra, but thp coast-line, instead of having sand- 
dunes as a border, has a long stretch of sandstone rocks, about 
100 feet high, and extending a mile or a mile and a half inland. 
These rocks are very hard on the top, waterworn and cut in all 
directions ; but the action of water is most seen on the rocks which 
are furthest inland. Here the softer inside stone has been 
washed away, sometimes to the extent of 20 or 30 feet, forming 
large caves — quite cosy hiding-places, such as only a native knows 
how to appreciate. It was in these caves that I procured the large 
tortoise-carapaces. Generally two were found in each cave ; 
on two occasions I found a large and a smaller one, and in both 
cases the smaller one was too much broken to take away. 

Another reason why I call attention to this place is because 
the face of the sandstone rocks along the high-water line i«; 
somewhat of a study. There is one considerable ledge which is 
covered with what I take to be fossilized shrubs. The rocks are 
soft, white, and finely grained, almost like Caen stone. I obtained 
some specimens of the fossil wood with the rock attached, and I 
hope they will shortly arrive in England along with some other of my 
collections. About ten feet beneath this ledge the rock is more red 
and coarser in grain, and contains a number of common land- 
shells. I also found some pieces of iEpyornis egg-shell embedded 
in it. Several of the shells and pieces of egg-shell I cut out 
and sent home with my first tortoise-carapaces in 1892. The 
reason why I refer to this is because the presence of these pieces 
of egg-shell in the sandstone tends, I think, to show how ancient 
a bird the iEpyornis must have been. 

The next place I should like to call your attention to is Itam- 
piilu-be, situated on the south side of a rather extensive bay in 
about lat. 22° 10' S. It was in this locality that I obtained 
my best specimens of iEypornis-bones, as well as an abundance 
of bones of the Hippopotamus, Crocodile, and other animals. 
This place has a rough shingly beach leading up to an extensive 
flat of what appears to be a kind of limestone. The rock is of a 
light greyish colour, rather hard and compact ; it extends for a 
considerable distance inland, and is sparsely covered with sand 
in places, out of which there is a stunted forest growth. Here 
and there about this fiat, and within half a mile from the beach, 
are a number of pan-like depressions, varying considerably in size ; 
these have become silted up with washings from the surrounding 
country, so that though they hold a little water in the wet season 
the surface quickly becomes dry again, and the natives use them 
as small gardens. It was from these pans that I obtained my best 
fossils, and I think I might have done better still had I been able 
to be present to work the places myself. 

"Whilst I was at Manansua, in the Antinosi country, I employed 
a European (a man who had been many years in the country) 
to search for fossils and other objects of natural history. In 
going about he heard of these pans and that there were many 
strange bones in them ; he at once, with the natives he had with 



1894.] MB. J. T. LA.ST ON THE BONES OF .EPYORN1S. 129 

hiin, set to work to see what the bones were like, and seeing they 
were likely to be those I wanted, he remained working at the pans 
for several days. According to what the man told me, the places 
where he dug abounded with fossil remains, the uppermost being 
about four feet below the surface. Apparently the pans are 
from eight to ten feet deep — the first two or three feet consisting 
of a black peaty soil, the rest of a white or grey marl, in which the 
bones are found. The chief difficulty in working the pans is 
caused by the water contained in the soil : the soil is saturated, 
and the water cannot escape below because of the hard rock, nor 
can it evaporate through the peaty top ; therefore, as soon as a hole 
of any size is made, the water drains into it. I have no doubt that 
many very valuable fossils lie hid in these pans, and these can be 
obtained only when proper means are used for removing the 
water. My man told me that in the place where he found the 
largest bones he was obliged to leave many ; he could feel them 
with his feet, but could not stoop down into the water far enough 
to get them out. I think the only way of obtaining them is by 
the use of a good pump and long hose to drain the water away. 
I am strongly of opinion, judging from the remarks my man made 
about the place, that the iEpyornis-skull, that great desideratum, 
would be found here if anywhere. 

I visited Itampulu-be last September along with this man, and 
he showed me the places where he had been working. The people 
here are friendly. The king lives two days' march inland, and has 
a good name among Europeans for fair treatment. Of course 
presents must be given to the king and chiefs before any work 
whatever can be done in the country. If I have the opportunity 
of returning to Madagascar, I should certainly like to spend a 
month or so working with proper appliances at these pans. 

I will now conclude my remarks about the iEpyomis with a 
few words concerning its egg. It is strange that the egg or even 
broken portions of it are never met with far inland. During all 
my explorations, though I have found the bird's bones a long way 
inland, I have never seen any fragments of eggs either with them 
or inland anywhere. I have never heard of whole eggs being ob- 
tained inland, and I believe that all, or nearly all, have been found 
in the sand-dunes which are piled up along the coast. Everywhere 
along the south and south-west coast fragments are to be found 
in abundance, especially on the hill-sides about St. Augustin's 
Bay. Bushels of broken egg-shells could be gathered in this dis- 
trict with but little trouble. From this I judge that these birds 
used to live generally in the more inland parts of South Central 
Madagascar and at certain seasons came to the coast to lay their 
eggs, after which they betook themselves again to their inland 
homes. I do not know whether this idea is quite correct, but it 
seems to me very probable, from the fact that their eggs, both 
whole and broken, are only found on or near the sea- coast. 



Pboc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. IX. 



130 MB. MACDONALD BAEKLET ON THE [Feb. 6, 

5. Notes upon the Antelopes of the Pungue Valley. 
By MacDonald Barkley. 1 

[Eeceived January 4, 1894.] 

On the 27th of July, 1893, accompanied by an English friend 
and two gentlemen from Cape Colony, I sailed from Beira in a 
small lighter on a hunting-expedition up the Pungue Kiver, taking 
with us a few natives as guides, or as rowers in case of the wind 
failing. At Fontesvilla, a small town some 50 miles up the river, 
the terminus of the Beira Railway, then under construction, we 
increased the number of our Kafirs and proceeded about 18 miles 
further, passing the native village of Nevisferara on our way, to a 
point some 6 miles beyond that branch of the river upon which is 
the village of Mpanda's. There, our boat running aground con- 
tinually owing to the numberless shallows and saudbanks in the 
stream, we pitched a permanent camp and sent some of our 
followers back to Mpanda's to hire native dug-outs and men to 
manage them. Leaving a few boys to look after the boat and 
those trophies which we had already secured, we proceeded to the 
junction of the Ulemna and Dingadingue, a point about 82 miles 
from Beira. Our plan of campaign was to pitch a camp on one 
bank or the other, and to shoot the country round for several days, 
and then by means of our canoes to move on another day's journey 
to fresh ground. To a little beyond the Mpanda's branch the 
banks of the river are well wooded with thorn-brakes, dwarf 
palms, fever-trees, and some very fine timber ; but the only 
Antelopes we saw on this part of our journey were Waterbuck, a few 
Blue Wildebeest, and one herd of Lichtenstein's Hartebeest, the two 
former species being exceedingly plentiful throughout the whole 
of the country we covered. On the higher reaches of the river 
the valley broadens out into a level plain, covered with long dry 
grass at this season of the year, and bounded by hills of some size, 
densely clothed with fine forest timber, amongst which we were 
lucky enough to come upon a large herd of Elephants, although these 
animals are said to be very rare nowadays in this district. The 
plains are but sparsely sprinkled with shrubs and dwarf palms, and 
dotted over with huge ant-heaps, and with every here and there 
vleys. At this time of year the vleys are for the most part dry, 
but the grass on them remains short and green, and forms pasture 
for the vast herds of Buffalo, Antelopes, and Zebras which roam 
over the country. 

The district is infested by the Tetse fly, making it impossible 
to use cattle, and the climate is exceedingly unhealthy for 
Europeans except from June to October, when with moderate 
care it is possible to keep a clean bill of health. 

The following are the different species of Antelope of which we 
succeeded in shooting specimens during this trip. 

' Communicated by the Secretary. 



1894.] antelopes op the pungue' valley. 131 

1. Obeas canna. 

("Eland" of the Dutch and English.) 

This Antelope, though far from plentiful, is to be met with 
occasionally in the more open country of the Pungue Valley. At 
this time of the year (August and September) I never saw more 
than a pair together, usually feeding upon young grass at a little 
distance from timber-belts and never far from water. The skins 
of the one or two that we shot were beautifully marked with white 
stripes, very clearly defined, running in a downward direction, 
and with a dark stripe along the backbone. The animals were 
very fat and in splendid coat and condition, the largest standing 
15 hands 2 inches. 

2. COBTTS ELLIPSIPBYMNUS. 

(" Waterbuck " of the English, " Kring-ghat " of the Dutch ; 
native name " Mpeeva.") 

This Antelope is by far the commonest species throughout the 
Pungue Valley, and is sometimes found in herds of quite 40 head, 
the cows as a rule far outnumbering the bulls ; they are generally 
discovered feeding upon the short grass of the dried vleys. They 
are stoutly built and heavy, but active, standing when full-grown 
about 12 hands. The largest pair of horns I procured measured 
27| inches along the curve, the average length of those of a full- 
grown bull being 26^ inches. They are lyrate, broadly annu- 
lated to within a little of the points, but much more deeply at the 
base than higher up. The hair of the Waterbuck is coarse and 
thicker round the neck than elsewhere, and this is especially notice- 
able in the cows, which are hornless. They vary much in colour, 
from a dark slate to a light brown, with a white ring round the 
rump, and in some cases, although not all, a white marking round 
the lower portion of the neck. Their spoor is noticeable for being 
very narrow and pointed. 

3. Catoblepas gobgon. 

(" Blue Wildebeest " of the English, " Blau Wildebeest" of the 
Dutch; native name "Inkone-kone.") 

This Antelope is found in immense herds throughout the more 
open country bordering the upper reaches of the Pungue, Dinga- 
dingue, and Ulemna rivers. It is not at all uncommon to find 
them feeding in company with herds of Waterbuck and Zebra, and 
solitary specimens are frequently to be met with. When dis- 
turbed they evince great excitement and go through the most 
exaggerated antics, and, although usually shy and difficult of 
approach, are victims to their great curiosity, owing to which trait 
in their character they more than once fell to our rifles. 

They are of a bluish drab-colour, having brindled stripes down 
the forequarters, from which they are also known as the Brindled 
Gnu ; their bushy tail, mane, and beard are of coarse black hair ; 
they stand about 12 hands, both sexes carrying horns, the average 
spread of a bull's being about 26 inches. 

9* 



132 OS A NEW BAT OF THE GEXUS STEXODERMA. [Feb. 6, 

4. BlTBALIS LICHTENSTEIXI. 

(Lichtenstein's Hartebeest.) 

This Antelope, though rare, is to be found scattered over the 
rough grassy plains of the Upper Pungue Valley. It is occasionally 
met with in herds of considerable size, but more generally seen in 
small numbers. On every occasion that I came upon them they 
were feeding on the open veldt, keeping clear of the more hilly 
and timbered country, and proved very difficult to stalk. Both 
male and female carry horns, which measure about 15 inches, are 
deeply annulated, and turning slightly outwards from the base 
slope inwards again, the tips once more turning outwards and 
backwards. All those that we shot were of a uniform fawn- 
colour, with black legs, and with a grey patch, more or less defined, 
behind the shoulder. They stand about 12 hands. 

5. iEPTCEROS MELAMPL'S. 

("Eoode-bok" (Eoy-bok) of the Dutch; "Eoybuck" of the 

English ; native name " Impala.") 

This Antelope is occasionally to be found in the thick reed-beds 
along the river-bank ; but although we several times came upon 
females and shot more than one, I only once saw a male, and then 
was not lucky enough to secure it. Therefore 1 am unable to 
give any accurate measurements of their horns. 

6. Neotragus scoparids. 

This little Antelope is found in great numbers wherever the 
bush is fairly thick, avoiding the more open country and feeding 
either singly or in pairs ; it is very easy to approach, but when once 
disturbed is remarkably swift and active, doubling about amongst 
the scrub in a manner very suggestive of the course of a hare. 
It is of a bright fawn-colour, gradually shading off to white 
beneath the belly, with short, straight, sharply-pointed horns, 
about an inch apart at the base and averaging 5| inches in length. 

In addition to these Antelopes we came upon several Lions, a 
greatmany Buffaloes, Hippopotami, Crocodiles, Wart-Hogs, Zebras, 
and one large herd of Elephants. Wildfowl abound along the 
whole course of the river and in every vley, while many varieties 
of game-bird, including the Guinea-fowl, are to be found on the 
plains. 

6. Description of a new Bat of the Genus Stenoderma from 
Montserrat. By Oldfield Thomas, F.Z.S. 

[Received January 23, 1894.] 

Mr. Joseph Sturge, of the Montserrat Company of Birmingham, 
has sent to this Society a specimen of a Bat, which is said to do 
much damage to the cacao plantations in the island of Montserrat, 
Lesser Antilles. By the kindness of Mr. Sclater I have been 
permitted to examine and describe it. 



1 S94.] mr. a. Thomson's report on the insect-house. 133 

It proves to be new, and I propose to call it 

Stenoderma montserratense, sp. n. 

Most nearly allied to S. nichollsi, Thos. \ with which it agrees 
in the characters which separate that from S. rufum, Geoffr., but 
distinguished by its decidedly larger size, stouter build, and by the 
proportions of the canines and premolars, both above and below, 
which are broader horizontally and less elongate vertically. The 
inner upper incisors are as distinctly bicuspidate as in S. achrado- 
philum, Gosse. Molars f, their proportions much as in S. nichollsi ; 
the last upper transversely oval, proportionally rather larger than 
in the allied species ; their area in cross section nearly equal to that 
of the inner upper incisors. 

Palatal emargination long and narrow. 

External characters as usual, except that the fur on the upper 
surface of the arms, wing-membranes, and legs is thicker and more 
extended, and also that, as compared with S. nichollsi, the colour is 
more of a slaty than a brownish grey. No facial streaks or white 
shoulder-marks. 

Dimensions of the type, an adult male in spirit : — Head and 
body 69 mm. ; ear from notch 16*5; forearm 51*5 (= 2 , 03 in.) ; 
lower leg 23 ; knee to most distant point of hind claws 35*5. 

Skull : basal length 18*2 ; greatest length 23*6 ; zygomatic 
breadth 16 ; interorbital breadth 7*1 ; palate, breadth outside m^ 
10*5, inside m^ 4«4 ; basion to frout of palatal notch 13'2 ; front of 
canine to back of m^ 7*4, ditto below 7'4. 

Hah. Montserrat, West Indies. 

This Bat is said to hang all day under the branches of trees, and 
not to take refuge in holes aud crannies as most species do. 



February 20, 1894. 

Prof. G. B. Howes, E.Z.S., in the Chair. 

Mr. Arthur Thomson, the Society's Head Keeper, exhibited a 
series of Insects reared in the Insect-house in the Society's Gardens 
during the past year, and read the following Eeport on the subject : — 

Report on the Insect-house for 1893. 

Examples of the following species of Insects have been exhibited 
in the Insect-house duriug the past season : — 

Silk-producing Bombyces and their Allies. 

Indian. 

Attacus atlas. Anthercea mylitta. 

cynthia. Actias selene. 

jpernyi. 

1 Ann. Mag. N. H. (6) vii. p. 529 (1891). 



134 Mit. a. Thomson's report on the insect-house. [Feb. 20, 



Japanese. 
Anthercea yama-mai. 

Australian. 

* Anthercea, sp. inc. 



Scania eecrqpia. 
Telea polyphemus. 
promethea. 

Anthercea tyrrhea. 

* belina. 

Cirina forda. 



American. 



African. 



Actias luna. 
Hypochera io. 



Actias mimosce. 
Oonomita postica. 



Papilio podaliriug. 

machaoit. 

Thais polyxena. 
Gonepteryx rhamni. 
Argynnis paphia. 

euphrosyne. 

Melitcea cinaria. 



Diurnal Lepidoptera. 

European. 

Vanessa polychlorns. 
antiopa. 



atalanta. 



American. 



Papilio ajax. 

asterias. 

troilus. 

Xocturnal 

Smerinthus ocellatns. 
quercvs. 

tilicr. 

Triptogon modesta. 
Sphinx ligugtri. 

convolvidi. 

p>inastri. 

Carolina. 

Deilephila vespertilio. 

euphorbicp. 

Chcttrocampa elpenor. 

nerii. 



Charaxes jasias. 
Arge galathea. 
Lycana corydon. 
adonis. 

Papilio cresphontes. 

tumus. 

Limenitis disippus. 



Lepidoptera. 

Macroglossa stellatamm . 
*Sesia culiciformis. 
* bembiciformis. 

Zygana filipe n iJ id< i- . 
*Lasiocampa monteiri. 
*Rhabdosia, sp. inc. 

Endromis versicolor. 

Saturnia carpini. 

W rl - 

Eacles regalis. 

imperiab 's. 

Anisota ridricunda. 



* Exhibited for tbe first time. 

Of the lepidopterous insects which I have the honour to place 
before the Meeting this evening the following are exhibited for 
the first time : — Antherrra belina, from Xatal ; Anthercea, sp. inc., 



1894.] MB. O. THOMAS ON A GIRAFFE FROM! SOMALILAKD. 135 

from Australia ; Sesia culiciformis and Sesia bembiciformis, Eui'opean ; 
Lasiocampa monteiri and a species of Rhabdosia, both from S.E. 
Africa. 

The specimen of Lasiocampa monteiri is not set out, as the 
upper edges of the under wings present a very curious hairy 
appearance, and look as though they had been singed. This could 
not be seen in a set-specimen. The specimen of Rhabdosia, sp. inc., 
is a male, and there is a single specimen (a female) in the National 
Collection, but it has not yet been named. 

The cocoons of Actias mimosa 1 , from which the specimens ex- 
hibited emerged, were very kindly sent from S.E. Africa by the 
Rev. H. A. Junod, who had seen our Insect-house before leaving 
Europe. Other cocoons of this species were deposited by the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, from which five pairs of moths emerged. 

During May last I captured some wild specimens of the common 
Pearl-bordered Fritillary, and placed them in one of the cases, 
with a good supply of their food-plant ( Viola) : many eggs 
were laid. The young larvae hatched in due course, and fed well 
at first ; they then became sluggish and crawled into the corners 
of the case. After a time they commenced to feed again, and a 
second brood was produced — the first specimen emerging on the 
31st July. I exhibit this evening half a dozen examples of this 
second brood. In a state of nature this species is single-brooded. 

The specimens of the Hornet Clearwing of the Osier (Sesia 
bembiciformis) that were exhibited during the past season created 
great interest ; and many visitors, before reading the label, thought 
they were really hornets or wasps. 

The most remarkable and interesting insect exhibited during 
the past year was a Goliath Beetle (Goliat7ms druryi) from Accra, 
West Africa, which was presented by E. W. Marshall, Esq., on 
the 5th October, and which died on the 16th of December. This 
is probably the first specimen of this Beetle ever brought to 
England alive. It had been in Mr. Marshall's possession since 
May 1893, and had been in England some time before it was 
received at the Gardens. It fed principally upon fruit, and 
preferred ripe melons to any other food. 

Of Orthoptera a large number of the Canadian Stick-insects 
(Diapheromera femorata) were reared from ova deposited in 1892. 
Three specimens of Leaf-insects (Phyllium gelonus) from the 
Seychelles were presented by Dr. Nowell in December ; but I am 
sorry to say they did not live long. 



Mr. Oldfield Thomas exhibited the skin of a Giraffe from 
Somaliland, which had been brought to his notice by Messrs. 
Rowland Ward and Co., and pointed out the considerable difference 
in the character of the markings shown by it as compared with the 
8. -African Giraffe. In the Northern form the dark mai'ks were 
large, sharply defined, and only separated from each other by 
narrow pale lines ; while in the S. -African form these marks were 



136 MB. u. iuumas ox the [Feb. 20, 

mere vaguely defined blotches, comparatively far apart from each 
other. These differences were well seen on a comparison of the 
figure given by Harris of the Southern Giraffe l with those given 
by Buppell 2 and Brehm 3 of the Northern one. 

Prof. Sundevall had already noticed the difference in the general 
colour of the two animals, and had given to the Northern form 
the varietal name of Camelopardalis yiraffa, var. (Hhiopica i . 



A communication was read from Dr. E. W. Shufeldt, C.M.Z.S., 
giving particulars of the methods used in preparing certain Inver- 
tebrates, which were adopted by the experts at the U.S. National 
Museum, in the case of specimens sent to Chicago for exhibition 
at the "World's Columbian Exposition. This communication was 
illustrated by photographs of the objects in question. After the 
preparation of finished moulds of these objects, gelatine casts were 
made from the moulds, the gelatine being made of the following 
composition : — 

Best Irish Clue 4 oz. 

Gelatine (photographers') .... 2 ,, 

Glycerine 4 „ 

Boiled Linseed-oil ^ „ 

The gelatine casts were then coloured to resemble the objects 
in life. 



The following papers were read : — 

1. On the Mammals of Nyasaland : third Contribution. 
By Oldfield Thomas, F.Z.S. 

[Received February 13, 1894.] 

The present paper contains an account of the third and fourth 
collections of Mammals made and presented to the National 
Museum by Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., Consul-General for British 
Central Africa, with the help of his able assistant, Mr. Alexander 
Whyte, F.Z.S. Papers on the two previous collections have already 
been published 5 . 

The series now described bears out the prophecy I ventured to 
make in 1892, that as Mr. "Whyte's knowledge of the locality 
increased he would be able to obtain the rarer and more local 
species, and that among these there would certainly be some 

1 'Wild Animals of S. Africa,' pi. xi. (1840). 

2 Atlas Reise N. Afr. pi. viii. (1826). 

3 ' Thierleben,' iii. p. 188 (1830). 

4 " Pecora," K. Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 175. 

5 P. Z. S. 1892, p. 546 ; and 1893, p. 500. 



1894.] MAMMALS OF NYASA1AND. 137 

novelties. For although there are not a very large number of 
species altogether represented in the present collection, yet several 
are new to the locality, one is a rediscovered species described 
thirty years ago, and two are new to science. 

The Mammal-fauna is therefore evidently far from worked out, 
and Messrs. Johnston and Whyte should be encouraged to continue 
their explorations until, after the receipt of five or six more similar 
collections, we may perhaps be in a position to say that our know- 
ledge of the Mammals of the district approaches completion. 

1. Cebcopithecus abbigulabis, Sykes. 

a. Ad. sk. <$ . Fort Lister, Milanji, 3500 ft. 16/7/93. 

b. Ad. sk. 2 ■ Milanji Plateau, 6000 ft. 26/4/93. 

For the determination of these two Monkeys I am indebted to 
Mr. Sclater, who has been recently making a study of this group, 
and who has kindly furnished me with the following note respect- 
ing them : — 

" The male is much larger, and shows no rufous on the rump 
and arms. The smaller female has these parts strongly tinged 
with rufous. This is probably a sexual distinction, as it was no 
doubt on a similar specimen that C. eryihrarchus, Peters (which 
Dr. Matschie has lately pronounced to be=C. albigularis, cf. Sitz.- 
Ber. nat. Freunde Berk 1893, p. 215), was based. The female 
specimen agrees well with the figure of C. erytJirarchus in the 
' Beise nach Mossambique,' and with a female specimen formerly 
living in the Zoological Society's Menagerie." 

2. Otogale kieki, Gray. 

a. Ad. sk. Blantyre. 2/93. 

b-cl. 3 do. Shire Highlands. 12/92. 

3. Galago moholi, A. Sm. 
a. Ad. al. $ . Zomba. 

4. Epomophobus cbypttjbus, Pet. 
a. Ad. al. $ . Zomba. 
Porearm 78 mm. 

I entirely agree with Prof. Du Bocage l in considering that 
E. crypturus of Peters is not synonymous with E. gambianus, as 
stated by Dobson, but is a valid species intermediate between 
E. macroceplialus and E. minor. At the time of Dobson's Catalogue 
there was not a specimen of it in the Museum, while E. gambianus 
was represented by two examples from the Zambesi, so that he 
naturally supposed Peters to have got hold of the same form, 
especially as the latter's very imperfect description of the palate- 
ridges applies perfectly to those of E. gambianus. 

Sundevall's Pteropus ivahlbergi from Natal appears, by the dimen- 
sions given, to be really E. gambianus, but E. crypturus also occurs 

1 J. Sci. Lisb. (2) i. p. 3 (1889). 



138 MR. O. THOMAS ON THE [Feb. 20, 

there, as is shown by a specimen from that country presented to 
the Museum by Capt. Shelley in 1881. 

5. Rhinolophus hildebrandti, Pet. 
a. Ad. al. d 1 . Zomba. 

Forearm 60 mm. ; ear, length 36 ; nose-leaf 25 x 13*5. 

This fine Bat I had at first supposed to be new, owing to the 
fact that Peters had only re-softened skins to describe, and these 
scarcely showed its most remarkable characteristics, namely the 
great size of the ears and nose-leaf, and the development of a dis- 
tinct crenulate supplementary leaflet outside the horseshoe. Nor 
did its describer observe that it is entirely without the minute 
intermediate lower premolar which most of the species possess, but 
which is also absent in R. cethiops. The British Museum, however, 
contains one of Hildebrandt's typical specimens, and a comparison 
with this proves the identity of the Nyasa example with it. The 
discovery of R. hildebrandti in Nvasaland effects a great extension 
of its range, as it was originally described from Taita, E. Africa. 

6. EniNOLOPiirs landeri, Mart. ('?). 

a. Ad. al. Zomba. 1/93. 

This specimen differs from typical R. landeri, and equally from 
Peters's R. lobatus l , probably synonymous with it, in the much 
greater breadth of the horizontal portion of the nose-leaf, which 
entirely covers the muzzle. As, however, a specimen quite agreeing 
with the true R. landeri was obtained on the Shire' by Kirk and 
Livingstone (specimen c of Dobson'sCata'ogue), I think it possible 
that the difference above noted may be purely an individual one, 
and not indicative of any local distinction. Further specimens 
will, however, be necessary before this point can be properly 
cleared up. 

7. Rhinolopiius cape> t sis, Licht. 
«. Ad. al. 6 ■ Zomba. 1/93. 

8. Hipposiderus caffer, Sund. 
a. Ad. al. $ . Zomba. 1/93. 

9. Vesperus megalurus, Temm. 
a. Ad. al. Zomba. 1/93. 

10. Vesperugo nanus, Pet. 
a. Ad. al. Zomba. 1/93. 

1 Peters, ' Reise n. Mossamb.' Sang. p. 41 (1852). All reference to this species 
was accidentally omitted from Dobson's Catalogue, but in his supplementary 
report of 1880 (Eept. Brit. Assoc. 1880, p. 10) it is included among the Ethiopian 
species closely allied to and scarcely separable from R. ferrum-cqiiinum, as is 
also the true R. landeri. Whatever may be the ultimate fate of the other forms 
here thrown together by Dobson, there can, I think, be little doubt as to the 
essential identity of R. lobatus with R. landeri. 



1894.] MAMMALS OF NYASALAKD. 139 

11. Petrodromus tetrad actylus, Pet. 
a, Ad. sk. <$ . Zomba. 1/6/93. 

12. Pelis serval. 

a, b. 1mm. sks. J $ . Port Johnston. 2/93. 

13. Hyaena crocuta. Erxl. 

a. Ad. c? skin and skull. Zomba. Sept. 15, 1893. 
The following are the dimensions of the skull : — Basal length 
233 mm. ; extreme length 286 ; zygomatic breadth 179. 

14. Ehtnchogale l melleri, Gray. 

Rhinogale melleri, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 575 ; Thomas, P. Z. S. 
1882, pi. iii. 

a, b. Ad. sks. <3 $ . Eesidency Garden, Zomba. 4/93. 

c. Yg. al. Ditto. 

" Wild fruits are always found inside the stomach of this 
Mungoose." — A. W. 

The discovery of this fine Mungoose in Nyasaland is of consider- 
able interest for two reasons. Pirstly,its locality now becomes known 
with certainty, whereas hitherto it has been only conjectured 2 to 
occur on the Zambesi, a supposition that now proves to have been 
well-founded. Secondly and chiefly, owing to the fact that the 
original, and hitherto unique, specimen presented the remarkable 
number of five premolars on each side above, further specimens 
were urgently needed to show whether or not this was the normal 
number in the species. The importance of this point is exceedingly 
great, for no other known mammal has more than four premolars, 
and the exception presented by Rhynchogale has puzzled myself 
and other writers on the subject 3 . Believing as I do that four is 
and always has been the maximum number of premolars normally 
present, at least since middle Mesozoic times, it is something of a 
relief to find that the one known exception to this rule now dis- 
appears, as the perfect skull of specimen a 4, has simply the normal 
number of four premolars, and we may consequently assume that 
the type was abnormal in its possession of five. 

The occasional abnormal development of five premolars is well 
known in Carnivores, notably in dogs, and is, I believe, generally 
due to the fission into two of one or other of the normal set of 
four. I quite fail to see, as Mr. Bateson would have us do 5 , that 
such cases are any argument against a belief in the individual 
homologies of teeth, and are not explainable by the simple process, 
discovered and described by himself, of the fission of normal teeth. 

1 Nom. nov. = Rhinogale, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 575; nee Gloger, Handb. 
Naturg. pp. xxix and 75 (1842). 

2 P. Z. S. 1882, p. 86. 

3 Cf. Phil. Trans, vol. 178, Biol. p. 456, 1887 (footnote). 

4 Specimen b is so old that the teeth are all worn down or broken out, while 
specimen c is too young to show any teeth at all. 

5 P. Z. S. 1892, pp. 102 et seqq. 



140 MB. O. THOMAS ON THE [Feb. 20, 

111 the instance before us, it is practically certain that the simple 
and attractive explanation, often put forward in such cases, that a 
milk premolar has been retained, instead of being shed in the 
usual way, is not applicable. For although there is no marked 
difference in size either between the most anterior premolar of the 
type and that of specimen «, or between the third of the type and 
the second of the same normal specimen, so that the tooth between 
them in the type would seem unlikely to be the product of the 
fission of either p^ or p 2 , yet the mp 2 of other Herpestiace is in 
form entirely unlike the styliform extra tooth under discussion, 
and mp 1 has as yet never been certainly shown to be present in 
any Carnivore. 

Mr. Whyte's observation on the food of R. melleri is of great 
interest, as its fruit-eating habits may perhaps account for the 
peculiar structure and wear of the molars. In all the three 
specimens before me the posterior molars appear to be more 
worn than the anterior, as though an unusual amount of chewing 
had fallen to their share; but it must be admitted that this appear- 
ance may be deceptive, and that the explanation may be that ni 3 is 
naturally so much flatter than usual that it appears to be ivorn 
flat almost at once. 

The foetal or new-born specimen c, preserved in spirit, shows 
not the slightest trace of a mesial naked Hue below the muzzle, 
and therefore lends weight to Dr. Gray's opinion as to the value 
of this character in dividing the genera of Herpestince. 

15. Ceossaechus fasciatus, Desm. 

a. Ad. sk. $ . Zomba. 1/93. 

6. Tg. sk. Zomba. 1/93. 

c. Tg. sk. Mpimbi, Upper Shire. 

16. L.UTEA MACULICOLLIS, Licht. 

a. Ad. sk. 2 • Fort Johnston, Upper Shire'. 11/92. 

This specimen belonged to the collection worked out in May 
1893, but was accidentally omitted from my previous paper. The 
species is a rare one, and this exact record of its occurrence is 
therefore of value. 

17. Sciueus paxliatus, Pet. 

a, b. Ad. sks. rf $ . Milanji Plateau. 13 & 15/4/93. 

18. Sciueus mutabilis, Pet. 

a-i. Four adult and five young skins. Zomba. 12/92 and 1/93. 

These midsummer specimens are of the greatest interest, as 
illustrating a little further the series of seasonal changes occurring 
in this remarkable species. The adult specimens are halfway 
through a change of fur, two of them having fresh grizzled-grey 
hairs on the anterior halves of their bodies and on their tails, 
while their posterior halves are clothed with ragged rufous or 



1894.] MAMMALS OF NYASALAND. 141 

almost straw-coloured fur ; the other two are not quite so far 
advanced. Laying them beside the skins previously received it 
appears, although this must be for the present a merely tentative 
explanation, that the grey fur characteristic of October skins 
gradually bleaches under the influence of the summer sun, until 
its black rings become first brown and then rufous, this change 
being quite independent of the shedding and replacement of the 
fur itself. At the same time there is a change in the paler rings 
between white and yellow, but in which direction and at what 
particular season the series before me does not conclusively show, 
chiefly because, although marked with the month of capture, the 
exact days have not been noted, so that there is often a little 
uncertainty as to their exact succession. Coincidentally with this 
bleaching of the dark rings the true change of fur occurs, the fur 
first falling off on the head, then on the shoulders and tail, and 
remaining on the rump until in January it is, as already noted, 
nearly straw-coloured, with rufous subterminal and yellowish 
terminal rings. The bleaching of the fur from black to rufous 
during life may seem almost impossible, but that it really occurs is 
shown by the darker rings of the tail-hairs, which in October are 
all deep glossy black, but in November those near the bases of the 
hairs, where they are not exposed to the sun, are still nearly or 
quite black, while the terminal ones are brownish red. 

The young specimens, all apparently of about the same age, 
introduce a further element of complexity into the question, for 
while four of them (Dec. and Jan.) are in a rufous stage, the fifth 
(December) is grizzled grey, exactly like the grizzled grey parents 
killed in October. I can make no suggestion for the elucidation 
of the mystery, but I would suggest, to any one having the oppor- 
tunity, the collection of a mother and her whole litter of young, the 
skins to be marked with their exact date, and with the fact of 
their belonging to one another. 

I may venture to hope that further collections will contain more 
specimens of this very remarkable species, so that I may later have 
the pleasure of giving a complete account of its changes all the 
year round. 

The fourth collection, made from May to August 1893, contains, 
unfortunately, no specimens of S. mutabilis. 

19. Mus dolichttrtjs, Smuts. 

a. Ad. al. $ . Zomba. 12/92. 

b. Imm. al. Zomba. 12/92. 

The following are the measurements of the well-preserved adult 
specimen : — Head and body 97 mm. ; tail 155 ; hind foot, without 
claws, 22 ; ear from notch ] 5*5. 

Mammae 1 —2 = 6. 

20. Mus modestus, Wagn. 
a. Ad. al. Zomba. 1/93. 



142 mii. o. thomas ox the [Feb. 20, 

21. Isomys DORSALIS, A. Sm. 
a. Ad. sk. Zomba. 2 y 93. 

22. Cricetomys gambiaxus, Waterh. 

a. Ad. sk. 3 . Zomba. 

b. Ad. sk. Zomba. 27/4 93. 

23. Lefts whytei, sp. n. 

a. Ad. sk. $ . Mpiinbi, Upper Shire. 4 93. 

b. Ad. sk. $. Palombi E.. Shirwa Plain.' 15/8/93. Type. 

c. Ad. sk. 2 • Zomba. 19/4/93. 

Size and general colour above nearly as in L. capensis, but the 
back is more uniformly grizzled and less mottled. Fur decidedly 
harsher than in that species. Forehead with a white spot. Ears 
comparatively short; their external band brown all along, with a 
whitish margin ; their extreme tips only black. Xape bright 
rufous. Sides slightly more rufous than back, but not nearly so 
much as in L. capensis. Chin white. Chest rufous fawn, as 
are also the upper surfaces of the hind feet. External surface of 
fore limb, and line down hind leg, richer rufous. Tail rather 
short, black, more or less mixed with rufous fawn above, white 
below. 

Skull with a short muzzle, very broad proximally, narrow inter- 
orbital region, and narrow posterior narial fossa. Incisors broad, 
their groove close to their inner edge. 

Dimensions of the type, an adult skin, female : — 

Head and body 468 mm.; tail without hairs (c.) 47; ear, from 
notch, 88 ; hind foot, without claws, 95. 

Skull : basal length 68 ; basilar length 65-5 ; greatest breadth 
42-5 ; nasals, greatest length 37, greatest breadth 18 ; inter- 
orbital breadth 16-2 ; intertemporal breadth 12-7 ; diastema 21-5 ; 
anterior palatine foramina, length 20*5, combined breadth at 
surface 9-2 ; width (antero-posterior) of palatal bridge 8-6 ; least 
breadth of posterior narial fossa 5. 

This Hare, which 1 have much pleasure in naming after aIi\ 
Alexander AVhyte, the able seconder of Mr. Johnston's efforts to 
investigate the fauna of Nyasa, is readily distinguishable from 
L. cupensis by its harsher fur, rufous nape, shorter ears, feet, and 
tail, and somewhat different coloration. It is by no means 
improbable that the specimens from Angola which have been 
referred to " L. ochropus, Wagn.," really belong to L. whytei, but 
this point can only be determined later. The typical L. ochropus 
was described from the Cape itself, and, in agreement with Water- 
house, I can see no possible reason why it should not be looked 
upon as strictly synonymous with L. ccq)cnsis. 

24. Procayia johxstoxi, sp. n. 

a. Ad. sk. 2 ■ Fort Lister, 3500 ft. 20/7/93. Type. 

b. Imm.sk. Fort Milanji. 27/7,93. 



1894.] MAMMALS OP NYAS ALAND. 143 

c. Yg. sk. Milanji Plain, 4000 ft. 27/10/91. (P. capensis 
of P.Z. S. 1892, p. 553.) 

" Pound among the rocks at base of cliffs." — A. W. 
Allied to P. capensis, and therefore belonging to Procavia in the 
narrowest sense ; no relationship to " Heterohyrax " or "Dendro- 
hyrax. 1 " 

Size large. Pur comparatively harsh, at least in the type, killed 
in early summer. General colour of body brown grizzled with 
white, the grizzling far coarser than in P. capensis. Underfur 
smoky brown. Crown of head deep reddish brown, without white 
grizzling, much as in some of the red-headed examples of P. ahys- 
sinica. Cheeks grizzled grey, blacker just beneath the eye. Ears 
of medium length, thinly clothed internally with whitish, externally 
with black hairs. A prominent blotch behind and below the ears 
deep black, this colour running in the type vertically down the 
sides of the neck. Chin black ; throat and chest grizzled grey ; 
belly deep dirty yellow. In the younger specimens the throat and 
chest are, like the belly, yellow. Arms and legs like back, but the 
upper surfaces of the hands and feet are deep black. 

Dorsal spot small, roughly oval, uniform black. 

Skull equalling or even exceeding in size that of P. slioana, of 
which only three skulls, all in Stage VIII. , of those measured in 
1892, have a greater basal length than the present typical specimen, 
which is only in Stage VII. Diastema rather short, but longer than 
in P. capensis both above and below. Interparietal sutures per- 
sistent. Interparietal bone, as seen in specimen c, Stage II., before 
its form has been altered by the growth of the masseter, pentagonal, 
its longest side the posterior one, which is directly transverse, 
and nearly double the postero-lateral ones. 

Teeth. Molars and premolars very large and heavy, exceeding 
those of any other species ; no doubt, however, as in P. capensis, 
they will prove to be variable in this respect. P_^ sub-quadrangular, 
similar in shape to p 2 , far larger and stouter than in P. capensis. 
M^ of type no less than 8-5 mm. in breadth, thus exceeding by 
- 4 mm. the largest molar (of P. shoana) measured in 1892 ; its 
height too much reduced by wear to be worth measuring. Lower 
P^_ better developed and apparently more persistent than in P. 
capensis, its horizontal length in the type 3"3 mm. 

Measurements of the type, in skin, $ : — 

Head and body 560 mm. ; [hind foot of specimen b, 53 ]. 

Skull (Stage VII.) : basal length 90*5, greatest breadth 53 ; 
nasals, length (median) 23, breadth posteriorly 22 # 5 ; interorbital 
breadth 23, intertemporal breadth 26 [interparietal of specimen c, 
length 8*5, breadth 9*5] ; palate, length 50 ; diastema, above 11, 
below 4 ; length of upper molar series 44, of lower molar series 45 ; 
height of lower jaw 50. 

This fine new Dassy 2 , which, as being the most striking new 

1 See " On the Species of the Hyracoidea," P. Z. S. 1802, pp. . r >0-76. 

2 This word, which is the common name given by the English Cape Colonists 
bo Procavia capensis, may be conveniently used for any member of the genus. 



144 ICB. O. THOMAS OH the [Feb. 20, 

Mammal discovered during Mr. Johnston's exploration of the 
Nyasa Fauna, I have named in his honour, is remarkable as being 
the only member of the genus distinguished by any colour-markings 
other than those of the dorsal spot. The prominent black ear- 
mark is in fact quite unique in the group, while its reddish-brown 
crown, although sometimes present in P. abyssinica, will readily 
distinguish it from its nearest ally, P. capensis, in which the crown 
is finely grizzled like the back. The unusual massiveuess of the 
grinding-teeth will also readily separate P.johnstoni from all other 
forms. 

The occurrence of this peculiar but clearly representative species 
between the ranges of P. capensis and P. ghoana tends to confirm 
their distinctness from each other, on which I had thrown some 
doubt when writing in 1892. 

.Since my monograph of the genus was prepared, two species 
of Procavia have been described by Dr. Matschie ', but both 
belong to the Dendrdhyrax group, and have therefore nothing to 
do with P.johnstoni. 

25. Procavia brucei, Gray. 

a, b. Ad. & imm. sks. $ . Mpimbi, Upper Shire. 4/93. 

c Tg. sk. Fort Lister, 3500 ft. 25/7/93. 

These specimens probably represent Hyrax mossambieus, Peter.-. 

The youngest of them has already got its interparietal sutures 
closed. 

The basal lengths of the three skulls are : — 

a. (Stage TILL), 79 mm. : 6. (Stage V.), 71 ; c. (Stage III.), 63. 

The ears of these examples are more prominently white than 
is usual in P. brucei, and their bellies and feet are also particularly 
white, characters in which they somewhat resemble the closely 
allied P. bocagei, and it is probable that when more specimens 
of the latter are obtained the two forms will be found to grade 
into one another. 

In looking at the fine set of Dassies from Nyasa now sent, 
three of P.johnstoni and three of P. brucei, all found more or less 
together, one cannot fail to be struck by the peculiar method in 
which evolution seems to have been going on in the group. Not 
only do they afford a striking instance of the remark made pre- 
viously * as to the constant occurrence together of one species of 
the hypsodont and one species of the brachyodont group, the com- 
petition between members of the two groups apparently not being 
severe enough to prevent their living together, but also, the 
practicability of their living together being once proved, they seem 
then to have tried to become as different from each other in their 
superficial characteristics as possible. Thus, while the hyposodont 
P. johnstoni is distinguished from its allies of the same group by 
its dark head, black ear-markings, dirty yelloiv belly, and black 

1 S.-B. nat. Fr. Berl. 1892, p. 110, and 1893, p. 112. 

2 P. Z. S. 1892, p. 57. 



1891.] MAMMALS OP NTASALAND. 145 

digits, P. brucei in Nyasa is distinguished from P. briicei elsewhere, 
as just mentioned, by its white ears, pure white belly, and white 
digits, each species when meeting its congener having, as it were, 
emphasized its own distinguishing characters in order to be unlike 
the other. For P. brucei, wherever found, is already characterized 
by its pale colour generally, whitish head, and white or pale 
yellow dorsal spots, while P. capensis, of which P. johnstoni may be 
looked upon as a modification, has a generally dark colour and a 
black dorsal spot. 

Thus there seems to be between the two a sort of mutual 
"repulsion" in their characters, the exact converse of the better 
known " mimicry." Its object would very probably be that of 
furnishing the individuals of each species with " recognition 
marks " by which to kuow comrades from rivals. 

26. Rhinoceros bicornis, L. 
a. Horns. Shire Highlands. 

27. Phacochxerus .ethiopicus, Pall. 

a, b. Ad. skulls. <3 $ . Shire Highlands. 

28. BUBALIS LICHTEtfSTEINI, Pet. 

a. Ad. sk. and skull. Shire Highlands. 

b. Skull. Shire Highlands. 

29. Oreas canna, H. Sm. 

a, b. 2 ad. sks. § . Shire Highlands. 

30. Strepsiceros kudu, Gray. 

a. Ad. skull. J . Shire Highlands. 

31. Tragelaphus scriptus, Pall. 
a. Ad. skull. Shire Highlands. 

32. KOBUS ELLIPSIPRYMNUS, Off. 

a, b. 2 frontlets and hozms. Shire Highlands. 

33. tEpyceros melampus, Licht. 
a, b. 2 skulls. Shire Highlands. 

34. Oreotragus saltator, Bodd. 

a. Ad. sk. tf . Port Lister, Milanji, 3600 ft. 17/7/93. 
" Found in pairs at the base of the high cliffs among rocks, and 
also on the higher ridges. Also on Mt. Zomba." — A. W. 

35. Manis xemmincki, Smuts. 
ct. Ad. sk. Zomba. 



Proc. Zool. Sou.— 1S94, No. X. 10 



146 DR. O. F. TON MOELLENDOREF ON [Feb. 20, 

P.S., March 17th, 1891. — Specimens representing the following 
species have arrived since the above was written, and may con- 
veniently be added to the list here : — 

36. Rhynchocyon cirnei, Pet. 

a. Ad. sk. <$. Zomba. 1/11/93. 

37. Canis mesomelas, Schr. 

a. Ad. sk. c?- Palombi K., Shirvva Plain. 11/10/93. 

38. Nanotragus scoparius (Schr.). 
a, b. Ad. sks. Shirvva Plain. 10/93. 

39. Cervicapra arundinum (Bodd.). 
a. Ad. sk. <3 . Palombi R. 6/10/93. 

2. On a Collection of Land-Shells from the Samui Islands, 
Gulf of Siara. By O. F. von Moellendorff, Ph.D. 1 

[Received December 4, 1893.] 

(Plate XVI.) 

Mr. C. Roebelen, a well-known collector of orchids, to whom I 
am indebted for a great number of interesting shells from various 
parts of Eastern Asia, visited, in 1888 and 1892, the small group 
of islands south of Bangkok, named by the Siamese Ko-Samui, 
and situated near the coast of the Malay Peninsula at its narrowest 
part. The group, from which, so far as I know, no Laud-Shells 
were hitherto known, consists of several small islands, the largest 
of which is called Samui. The rock seems to be calcareous 
throughout : at least one small island, called Kwangtong, is, 
according to Mr. Eoebelen, one mass of apparently madreporic 
limestone. 

As might have been expected from their geographical position, 
the fauna of the Samui group is essentially Malaccan, several 
species being common to the adjoining mainland, and most of the 
forms peculiar to the group having their nearest relatives amongst 
the species of Siam, Tenasserim, and Perak. 

Fam. Streptaxid.e. 

1. Streptaxis siamensis, Pfr. 

Streptaxis siamensis, Pfr. Mon. Hel. v. p. 449 ; Try on, Man. 
Pulm. i. p. 79, t. xv. fig. 73. 

Subsp. nov. depressa. — Differt a typo spira magis depressa, 
anfractu ultimo magis distorto, penultimo suhtus glabrato, dente 

1 Communicated by Mr. Gh B. Sowerby, F.Z.S. 



P. Z.S. 1894. PI. XVI 






1 



3 



1ft i s? 






If 






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; 







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'"'\ 



' T " ($:. 



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fr.B.Sowetby del.el Mx Ttanliart imp. 

LAND SHELLS FROM THE SAMUI ISLANDS . 



1S94.] LAND-SHELLS FROM THE SAMUI ISLANDS. 147 

columellari suhohsoleto, nodiformi, dentibus in margine externo 
approximatis subcequalib us. 
Diam. 10'5, alt. 7 millim. 

By the flatter spire and the stronger distortion of the last whorl 
to the right this form appears at first sight to be very different ; 
and as there are some differences in the dentition as well, I feel 
almost inclined to separate it specifically. Having only one speci- 
men of the variety and but two of the type, I leave this question 
for further study. 

2. Streptaxis mirificcs, sp. no v. (Plate XVI. figs. 1, 2.) 

T. umbilicata, depressa, subtilissime striatula, nitens, pellucida, 
hyalina. Anfraetus 5|, planulati, superi spirant regularem 

perplanam apice fere immerso effieientes ; penuUimus ad peri- 
pheriam acute carinatus ; ultimus maxime distorlus, valde 
excentricus, basi peculiariter impressus, ad aperturam valde 
compressus, subttis subacute cristatus, sat cleflexus. Apertura 
maxime obliquci, perangusta, irregulariter cordiformis; peristoma 
sat expansion, albo-labiatum. Lamella parietalis peralta, valida, 
longe intrans, superne bicruris, utrinque in ccdlum parietalem 
desinens. 
Diam. 9, alt. 4 millim. 

A fine new species of the group of S. exacutus, Grid., and S. Jian- 
leyamis, Stol., both from Moulmein, distinguished by the entirely 
plane spire with almost immersed centre, the bifid parietal lamella, 
the compressed cordiform aperture, &c. 

3. Streptaxis roebeleki, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. figs. 3, 4.) 

T. aperte umbilicata, depressa, subtiliter arcuatim costulata, tenuis, 
pellucida, hyalina. Anfr. 6, convexiusculi, sat lente accrescentes, 
superi spirant subregularem depresso-conoideam effieientes ; pen- 
ultimug vix, ultimus paullum distortus, basi subinjlatus, glabra- 
tus, pone aperturam coarctatus. Apertura diagonalis, truncato- 
elliptica ; peristoma sat expansum rejlexiusculum, albo-labiatum, 
margine externo prof unde sinuato, ad insertionem subito attenuato, 
recedente. Lamella parietalis valida triangulariter elevata, 
dentibus 3 lamelliformibus in margine externo et basali et nodido 
in columella oppositis. , 

Diam. maj. 8 - 5, min. 7, alt. 5 - 25 millim. 
Forma major : diam. maj. 10, min. 8, alt. 5'5 millim. 
Forma minor : „ 7*5 „ 6, „ 3'75 „ 

I find no recorded form of Streptaxis with which this interesting 
species could be united. According to the rather meagre descrip- 
tion, 8. elisa, Gld. (Proc. Bost. Soc. vi. 1856, p. 12 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. 
v. p. 448), of the Mergui Archipelago, must be somewhat similar, 
but is larger, has one whorl more, the whorls are angulate or 
carinate, and there are two parietal lamellae. Both species are by 
their depressed and almost regular form, with very little distortion, 
rather isolated among the Asiatic Streptaxes ; in the somewhat 

10* 



148 PH. O. F. VON MOELLENDOItEF ON [Feb. 20, 

artificial division of the genus as given by Pfeifter they might be 
classed in Discartemon. 

4. Streptaxis (Oophana) bulbulus, Morelet. 

Streptaxis (Oophana) bulbulug, Tryon, Man. Pulm. i. p. 80, t. la. 
figs. 41-43. 

Described from Pulo Condor. The single specimen from the 
Samui group is rather more ventricose, the dimensions being 15 : 
11-5 millim. instead of 16-5: 11 in the type. 

5. Stbept axis (Oophana) strangulatus, sp. nor. (Plate XVI. 
fig. 5.) 

T. aperte umbilicata, ovata, sat tenuis, subtiliter arcuatim coshdata, 
sericina, Ju/alina ; spira gulnregulariter ventroso-conica, apice 
obtnso, glabrato. Anfr. 6, sat convexi ; ultimus paullum devians, 
circa umbilicum compressus, obtuse carinatus, pone aperturam 
subito coarctatus. Apertura pa/rum obliqua, truncato-ovalis ; 
peristoma late expansum, tenue, intus callosum, ad insertionem 
marginis externi attenuatum. Lamella parietalis valid a, sat 
elevata ; dentibus 5, tino in parte super iore collumellce, 2 in 
margine basali, 2 in margine externa oppositis. 
Alt. 10*5, diam. 7*5 millim. 

Although certainly belonging to the group of the last species, 
this peculiar form differs at once in the almost regular, hardly 
deviating last whorl and the peculiar coarctation behind the mouth, 
which calls to mind the similar formation in certain species of 
Alycceus (Diori/x). The whorls also are more convex, the shell 
is thinner, the peristome broader, and there are 5 teeth instead 
of 3. 

Mr. Ancey is quite right in considering his group Oophana, of 
which S. bulbulus is the type, to be a connecting-link between 
Streptaxis and Ennea. In fact /S. strangulatus would at first sight 
rather be considered as an Ennea by many, on account of its 
regular shape. That this is, however, a Streptaxis and not an Ennea 
may be inferred from young specimens, which show no teeth, 
whilst all the young Ennea' are dentate. 

Fam. NaninidjE. 

G. Macrociilamts limbata, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. figs. 6, 7.) 

T. perforata, discoideo-depressa , solidula, subtiliter striatula, lincis 
spiralibus nidlis, pellucida, nitens, pallide comeo-JJavescens, 
subregulariter corneo-strigata. Anfr. (>, convexinsculi, lente ac- 
crescentens, sutura profunda marginata discreti ; ultimus non 
descendens, basi convexior, circa umbilicum excavatus. Apertura 
fere verticalis, late ellijrtica, valde excisa ; peristoma extus 
rectum, acutum, margine columellari levitcr reflexo, intus callo 
latiusculo, sat crasso limbatum. 

Diam. ma). 10 22*5, min. 16-5-20, alt. 10-25 13'5 millim. 



1894.] LAND-SHELLS FJtOM THE SAMTTI ISLANDS. 149 

With all proper hesitation at introducing a new species of this 
genus, the very numerous species of which certainly require some 
weeding out, I cannot combine this form with any published 
Macrochlamys. Its nearest ally seems to be M. resplendens, Phil., 
var. obesior, Mart. (Ostas. Laudschn. p. 72, t. xii. fig. 6), of 
Siam, which has a slight callosity behind the peristome ; it is, 
however, only visible in very adult specimens and but a thin 
layer, whilst all my specimens of M. limbata show a distinct 
inner lip, which is repeated several times in the interior of the 
last whorl. Besides, the Samui form has a wider umbilicus, more 
convex whorls, equal colouring above and below, and a somewhat 
darker radial stripe. 

7. Sitala istsularis, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. fig. 8.) 

T. semiobtecte et angustissime perforata, conico-turrita, subtiliter 
striatula, lineis spiralibus valde confertis decussata, nitens, 
corneo-hyalina. Anfr. 8, planulati ; ultimas ad perijpJieriam 
acute carinatus, non desceadens. Apertura parum obliqua, 
rotundato-securiformis ; peristoma rectum, acutum, margine 
columellari superne reflexo. 

Diam. 3'75, alt. 4'75 millim. 

By the great number of whorls, the regular conical shape, and the 
very narrow spiral sculpture this species is distinguished from all 
forms of Sitala known to me. 

8. Kaliella subscclpta, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. fig. 9.) 

T. anyuste perforata, globoso-conica, tenuis, subtiliter et valde con- 
fertim costulato-slriata, corneo-fusca ; spira couoidea, lateribus 
convexis. Anfr. 6, convexi ; ultimus non desceadens, basi gla- 
bratus, ad periplwiam obtuse angulatus. Apertura obliqua, 
late lunarisj peristoma rectum, acutum, margine columellari 
superne triangular iter reflexo. 
Diam. 2*9, alt. 2*7 millim. 

The only Kaliella described from the Malay Peninsula is K. pe- 
rakensis, G.-Aust., which shows a similar outline, but is more 
distinctly carinate and only striated ; it also has much less convex 
whorls. The sculpture of our species is similar to that of 
K. sculpta, Mdff., of Macao, which has otherwise a much lower 
spire and flatter whorls. 

9. Hemiglypta siamensis (Pfr.). 

Known from Siam and Tenasserim. The spire of the (Samui 
form is generally more elevated. 

10. Abiophakta weinkaufeiana inflata, subsp. nov. 

This variety differs from the Cochin-China type in the less 
distinct angulation of the periphery and the more convex, almost 
in Hated base of the last whorl. 



I5<» DRiO. £. VON MOELLEN DOBPP OH [Feb. 20, 

Fam. HelicievE. 

11. Chloritis PLATYTRons, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. fig. 10.) 

T. sat aperte umbilicata, convexo-dejrressa, tenuis, transverse stria- 
tula, punctis impresses in seriebus regularibus dispositis sculpta, 
pilis brevissimis valde deeiduis obsita, opaca, pallide corneo- 
brunnea; spira parum elevata, apice piano. Anfr. 4|, fere 
plani, sutura inrpressa disjuncti ; tdtimus adperiplieriani carina 
bene exserta, obtusa, lata ductus, basi convcxus, medio gibbus, 
circa umbilicum infundibuliformem pervium compressus, sub- 
cr istatus, ad aperturam breviter deflexus. Apertura fere dia- 
gonalis, irregulariter cordiformis ; peristoma sat expansum, roseo- 
lahiatum, basi rejlexiusculum, marginibus valde connive ntibns, 
callo tenui junctis, columellari cum basali unguium obtusum 
formante. 

Diam. maj. 20, edt. ll - 5 millim. 

Hab. prope vicum Chaya, in littore peninsula? malaccame insulis 
Samui opposite 

Subsp. nov. SAMUIANA. — Minor, tenuior, spira ^>a«/?o magis 
convexa, peristomate minus expanso, vix labiato. 

Diam. 16*5, alt. 9 millim. 

Hab. in insulis Samui. 

This fine form belongs to the group of keeled ChloriUs, for which 
de Morgan has created the unnecessary subgenus Philidora (cf. 
P. Z. S. 1891, p. 336), and is closely allied to C. gabata, Gld., 
of Mergui and Tenasserioi. The type was found by Mr. Roebelen 
near Chaya, a village on the Malay Peninsula just opposite the 
Samui group within Siamese territory, the smaller vanety on our 
islands. 

12. PUPISOMA ORCELLA, Stol. 

Pupisoma orcella, Stol. J. A. S. B. xlii. 1873, p. 33, t. ii. 
fig. 2. 

The Samui examples differ from the Penang type merely in 
their somewhat darker colour and slightly more elevated spire. 

That Pupisoma has nothing to do with Papa, but belongs to the 
parentage of AcantJiinula and Zoogenetes (H. harpa, Say), I have 
tried to prove elsewhere (Jahresber. Senckenb. nat. Ges. 1890, 
p. 223). 

Fam. Bulimid^e. 

13. Amphidromus monilifertjs, Gld. 

Only one dead specimen was found, which seems to agree with 
the above-named species described from Tavoy. 

Near Chaya Mr. Roebelen collected a fine variety of A. anna- 
iiiiticns, Cr. et Fisch., with rose-coloured apex which I name var. 
roseotincta. 



1894.] LAND-SHELLS FROM THE SAMUI ISLANDS. 151 

Fam. Stenogyrid^e. 

14. Opeas gracile, Hutt. 

15. Opeas eillforme, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. fig. 11.) 

T. rimata, gracillime turrita, tenuis, subtiliter et maxime confertim 
striatula, nitens, pellucida, albida ; spira sensim attenuata, a/pice 
obtusulo. Anfr. 7^, convexiusculi, lente accrescentes, sutura sat 
impressa discreti. Apertura modice obliqua, anguste acuminato- 
ovalis ; peristoma rectum, acutum, ntargine columellari incrassa- 
tulo refiexo. 

Alt. 5 - 5, diam. 1*5 millim. 

I do not know any similar small and slender species o£ Opeas ; 
the comparatively great number of whorls show that it is adult. 

Farm Pupid^e. 

16. Vertigo (Staurodon) moreleti, Brown. 
Subsp. nov. SAMUI ANA. 

Differs from the Borneo and the Philippine-Island type (v. 
Jahresb. Senckenb. nat. Ges. 1890, p. 252) in the slightly more 
contracted shell and in the somewhat deeper groove behind the 
outer peristome. 

17. Hypselostoma transitans, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. figs. 12, 
13.) 

T. umbilicata, turbinata, oblique striatida , fusca. Anfr. 4,convexi, 
spiram conicam apice papillari formantes ; idtimus paidlum 
distortus, antice non ascendens, breviter solutus et porrectus, ad 
peripheriam crista sat prominente, altera minore ad suturam 
ductus, basi subgibber, circa umbilicum compressus. Apertura 
parum obliqua, rotundato-tetragona; peristoma continuum, tenue, 
expansum, haud rejlexum. Lamella parietalis validiuscula, antice 
bifida, dentibus 2 in margine externo, 1 in basi et 1 in colu- 
mella oppositis. 
Diam. 2'75, alt. 2 - 66 millim. 

This peculiar shell presents an especial interest inasmuch as it 
forms a decided transition from Hypselostoma to the Indian and 
Chinese Boysidia, Ancey, of which Pupa hunanensis, Gredl., is the 
type. As 1 have mentioned in the description of Hypselostoma 
Jiungerfordianum (P. Z. S. 1891, p. 338), the genus appears to be 
but an extreme development of the Boysidia type. Boysidia 
strophostoma, Mdff., of South China, shows already a slight distor- 
tion and detachment of the last whorl, which in the Samui species 
is much less developed than in the other forms of the genus. 
There can be no doubt, however, that it belongs to Hypselostoma, 
with which it has the peculiar quadrangular shape of the last 
whorl and the dentition of the aperture in common. H.cnssei, 
Mor., of Tongkin seems to connect it with the other Malayan 
species. 



152 DR. O. F. VOX MOELLEXDOREF OX [Feb. 20, 

18. Htpselostoma striolatcm, sp. nov. 

Owing to the bad state of preservation of the two specimens 
of this form, quite distinct from the preceding one, I cannot give 
a complete description of it. Its last whorl is much more detached 
than in H. transitans and distinctly bent upwards, and shows very 
distinct though minute spiral lines. The diameter is only 2*5 millim. 
It belongs to the group of //. bensonianumnn&H. hungerfordianum. 

Fam. Asiculid.e. 

19. Truncatella valida, Pfr. 

20. Truncatella semicostata, Mouss. 

Fam. Cyclophorilve. 

21. Opisthoporus setosus, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. figs. 14, 15.) 

T. lalissime umbilicata, discoidea, tenuis, transverse confertim 
costulato-striata, setis brevibus densis deciduis hirsuta, olivaceo- 
cornea ; spira vise prominula, apice submucronato. Anfr. Ak, 
teretes, sutura profunda disjuncti ; idtimus paullum desccndens, 
pone aperturam tubulum suturalem brevem ad anfracturn pen- 
tdtimum recurvatum gerens, turn subsolutus. Apertura sat 
obliqua, subcircidaris; peristoma duplex, internum tenue, breviter 
porrectum, externum expansum, campanidatum, svperne ad 
insertionem breviter auriculatum. Operculum extus fere planum , 
lamina calcarea anfr. 8 transverse costulo-striatis, sidco sat 
profundo ab interna tenui cornea separata. 
Diam. maj. 14, min. 10'5, alt. 5"5 millim. 
Forma conoidea : minor, arctius umbilicata, spira magis elevata, 

anf cactus ultimus magis descendens, longing sohdus. 
Diam. 11*5, alt. 7 millim. 

In size and general outline this species agrees somewhat with 
0. corniculum of Java, but the spire is still flatter, the position of 
the sutural tube is different, and the hirsuteness distinguishes it 
from the Javan and from all other known Opisthopori. 

22. Ehiostoma iiousei, Haines. 

Three specimens of a fine large Ehiostoma agree very well with 
the diagnosis of this Siamese species, of which I cannot compare 
either examples or figures. The largest specimen measures 2cS 
millim. in diameter and is 16*5 high, the operculum is 8 - 5 millim. 
wide, 3 high. 

23. Ehiostoma asiphon, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. figs. 16, 17.) 

T. late et perspective umbilicata, convexo-depressa, solida, transverse 
plicato-st riatida, cinerascenti-brunnea, interdum indistincte mar- 
morata et tceniata ; spira parum elevata, apice subacuto. Anfr. 
5, perconvexi ; ultinms antice solutus et dejlexus, in parte soluta 
superne albo-carinatus. Apertura obliqua , circidaris ; peristoma 
valde incrassatum, multiplicatum, su]>erne intus levifer incisum, 
cxtus in alant rcccdentcm hand tubulum formantem productum. 



1894.] LAND-SHELLS EROU THE SAMUI ISLANDS. 153 

Operculum cgathiforme, subtestaceum, intus profundissime ci/lin- 
drico-excavatum, lave, nitens, ecctus breviter cylindricum, turn 
semiglobosum, apice subplano, anfr. 12 marginibus lamellatim 
elevatis, in interstitiis oblique striati. 
Diam. maj. 24*5, min. 18, alt. 13*5 ; opermli diam. 6, alt. 4 

millim. 
This very interesting form differs from all known species of 
Rhiostoma in the want of a sutural tube, whilst the operculum is 
quite typical. This is another proof that the formation of a tube, 
which is but an extreme development of the " wing" at the peri- 
stome of Eucyclotus and Pterocydus, is of less systematic value than 
is generally supposed. The classification of operculate shells will 
have ultimately to rely upon the structure of the operculum chiefly, 
if not exclusively. 

24. Cyclophorus malayantts, Bens. 

AVhilst Prof, von Martens is quite right in combining the so- 
called C. malayanus of the ' Couchologia Indica ' and of Reeve with 
the very variable G. aurantiacus, Schum. (Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. 
xxi. 1887, p. 159), I believe with him that the true G. malayanus, 
Bens., of Pulo Penang is a distinct species. A fine large Cyclo- 
phorus of the Samui group I consider to belong to it, although I 
cannot compare typical specimens. My largest example measures 
48 by 39 millim. 

25. Cyclophorus diplochilus, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. fig. 24.) 

T. pro genere anguste umbilicata, subdep>resse turbinata, solida, 
transverse leviter striatula, lineis sjpiralibus rugulosis decussata, 
jiallide corneo-fusca, tceniis interruptis castaneis, interdum 
strigis castaneis flammulatis picta. Anfr. 4|, perconvexi, ad 
suturam subplanati ; idtimus antice vix descendens. A'pertura 
sat obliqua, circidaris ; peristoma duplex, externum album, late 
expansum, revolutum, marginibus callo junctis, columellari dila- 
tato ; internum aureum aut aurantiacum,valde nitens, continuum, 
late expansum, margine dextro valde dilatato, crassum, quasi 
multiplicatum, sulco ah externo separatum. Operculum nonnale. 
Diam. maj. 38, min. 28, alt. 31 ; diam. apert. c. perist. 24, intus 

14 millim. 
Porina minor : diam. maj. 30, min. 22'5, alt. 25 ; diam. apert. 18, 

intus 11 millim. 
At first I believed this fine shell to be G. cumllatus, Gld., of 
Mergui, of which no figure has been published, and which v. Mar- 
tens in his able paper on the Mergui Archipelago does not 
mention. According to the diagnosis of Gould's species as given 
by Pfeiffer (Mon. Pneum. suppl. i. p. 44), however, there appear 
to exist sufficient differences to justify the separation of the two 
forms specifically. C. cumllatus is considerably smaller, white, 
the last whorl subangulate, the columella!" margin not diiatate, the 
outer peristome is only called " reflexiusculum," whilst in my 
species it is strongly recurved, &e. Otherwise the formation of 



154 DR. O. F. VOX MOELLEXDORFF ON [Feb. 20, 

the peristome, the inner yellow or orange lip contrasting with the 
white outer one, the widening of the peristome to the right, &c, 
must be analogous according to Pfeiffer's description. 

26. Lagocheilfs liratflfs, sp. nov. (Plate XYI. figs. 25, 26.) 

T. angusie umbilicata, turbinate, sat tenuis, nitidula, transverse 
subtiliter stricdida, lineis spiircdibus elevatis sat confertis usque 
ad umbilicum cincta, corneo-flava, obsolete strigata. Anfr. 5^, 
convexi ; ultimas antice paullum descendens. Apertura sat 
obliqua, fere circularis ; peristoma suhduplex, tenue, breviter eoc- 
pansum, baud rejlexum, ad insertionem breviter excisum. 
Diam. maj. 5, min. 4*25, alt. 5 millim. 

Differs from L. townsendianus, Crosse, of Perak, in the smaller 
size, the higher and more pointed spii'e, the more convex whorls, 
the narrower umbilicus, the want of angulation in the last whorl, 
and the equally distant, uniform spiral lines. 

Fam. DlPLOMMATINIDiE. 

27. Alycjefs roebeleki, sp. nov. (Plate XYI. figs. 20, 21.) 

T. modice umbilicata, subdepresse turbinata, tenuis, pellucida, 
costulo-siriata, lineis spircdibus microscojneis decussata, lirte 
jlava ; spira modice elevata, lateribus subconcavis, apiee obtusulo 
glabrato. Anfractus 5, p>? rc onvexi, ad suturam profundi im- 
jiressam subplanati ; idtimus postice spiram altitudine ■midti, 
superans, vedde inflatm, gibber, 4 millim. pone aperturam valde 
const rictus, turn denuo dilatatus, ad aperturam sat defleccus. 
Apertura diagonalis, subcircularis ; peristoma continuum, vix 
duplicatum, sat expansum, baud rejlexum, flavo-lahiatwn. 
Operculum corneum, valde concavum, anfr. 6. Tubulus suturalis 
brevis, appressvs. 
Diam. maj. 9*5, alt. 7 millim. 
Yar. minor: spira paullo magis elevata. Diam. 8*5, alt. 7 

m illim. 
Although nearly related to A. peralensis, Crosse, this form must, 
I think, be separated specifically. It is larger, much less elevated, 
more widely umbilicated, the last whorl comparatively higher, 
about four-sevenths of the total altitude, and much more tumid, more 
deflected at the end, and therefore the plane of the aperture much 
more oblique, the constriction deeper, the peristome hardly double, 
not so thick, and yellow instead of white. Besides there is half 
a whorl less, as I count distinctly 5| in A. perakengis. Unless 
transitory forms exist in the, as yet, little-explored Malay Peninsula, 
I think these differences sufficient to consider the Samui race a 
distinct species. 

28. Alycvefs canalicflatfs, sp. nov. (Plate XYI. figs. 22, 23.) 

T. sat aperte umbilicata, depressa, solidula, confertim coshdata, 
pallide cornea ; spira parum elevata, convexo-cono.dea. Anfr. 
3g, conve.ri; idtimus a medio ivjledulus, subgibber, pene apertu- 



1894.] LAND-SHELLS FROM THE SAMUI ISLANDS. 155 

ram valde constrietus, turn campanidatus, sublcevigatus, in media 
parte laevigata obtuse cristatus. Apertura diagonalis, subcircu- 
laris ; peristoma dwplex, externum sat expansum, internum 
continuum, valde porrectum incrassatulum, superne et basi 
effusum et subcanaliculatum. 
Diam. maj. 2*25, min. 1'75, alt. 1*2 millim. 
Evidently a near ally of the small Perak species, such as A. micro- 
discus, m., but at once distinguished by the peculiar grooves near 
the upper insertion and at the base of the peristome. 

29. Diplommatina (Sinica) samuiana, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. 
figs. 18, 19.) 

T. dextrorsa, elongate ovato-conica, confertim coslulata, pallide 
cornea. Anfr. 7, modice convcxi, superi 5 spiram subregulariter 
conicam efficientes ; pemdtimus magnus ; ultimus angustior, paid- 
lum distortus, initio constrietus, antice ascendens. Apertura 
verticalis, subcircidaris ; peristoma duplex, externum modice 
expansum, superne interruptum, internum incrassatulum, sat 
porrectum, basi columella angidum distinctum formans. 
Lamella columellaris humilis, palatalis longiuscida, subhorizon- 
talis, supra columellam conspicua. 

Alt. 2*5, diam. 1*33 millim. 

Pam. PuPiNlDJE. 

30. Pupina aktata, Bens. 

31. Pupina pallens, sp. nov. (Plate XVI. figs. 27, 28.) 

T. conoideo-ovata, Icevis, nitens, pallide corneo-brunnea. Anfr. 6, 
convexiusculi ; ultimus sat distortus, supra aperturam applanatus, 
antice breviter ascendens. Apertura paullum retrorsum incli- 
nata, circidaris ; peristoma expansiusculum, liaud rejlexum, 
margo externus ad insertionem attenuatus, recedens cum lamella 
parietali triangidari valida 'Canalem superum formans, basalis 
et columellaris incrassati et dilatati. Canalis inferus angustus, 
liorizontalis, pjostice in foramen subcirexdare desinens. 
Alt. 8, diam. 5*5 millim. 

This somewhat difficult form agrees in size with P. arida, Bens., 
of Perak and Tenasserim, but differs in the more obtuse spire, the 
more distorted last whorl, and consequently the aperture placed 
more to the right and protracted at the base, the thinner outer 
peristome, the broader columella, the broad triangular parietal 
lamella, and the narrower lower incision. 

Fain. Hydroc.enid^e. 

32. Georissa monterosatiana, ISTev. et G.-A. 

Wubsp. nov. SAMUIANA. — Minor, anfr. magis convcxis. Alt. 

2"5, diam. 1*5 millim. 
A slight modificatiou of the Perak type. 



156 PROF. P. it. UUF.Llt 05 THE HEMIPTKBA-HETBBOPTBBA [Feb. 20, 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI. 

Figs. 1, 2. Streptaxit tabifiem, p. 147. 

3, 4. mebeleni, p. 147. 

5. (Oophana) strangulatus, p. 148. 

6, 7. Macrochlamys limbata, p. 148. 

8. >ifnl(i insuktru, p. 149. 

9. Kaliella mbsculpta, p. 140. 

10. Chloriiis plaiytropu, p. 150. 

11. Opeas fiiiforme, p. 151. 

12, 13. Hypaelostomw transit an.<, p. 151. 
14, IT). Opixthoponu tetosus, p. 152. 
lft, 17. Bh&oetoma asiphon, p. 152. 
18, 19. Diplommatina samuiana, p. 155. 
20, 21. Alycaus roebeleni, p. 154. 

22, 23. caiwlicula'us. p. 154. 

24. Cyclophrrm diplochilus, p. 153. 
25, 26. Lagocheilus lirotttln*. p. 154. 
27, 28. I'ujpina pallens, p. 155. 



A List of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the Families 
Anthocorida? aud Ceratocombidee collected by Mr. II. II. 
Smith in the Island of St. Vincent ; with Descriptions of 
New Genera and Species. By P. K. Uhler. 1 

[Received January 22, 1894.] 
A. Lint of Species of which specimens were obtained. 



AxTHOCOEIDiE. 

Lasiochilus pallidulus, Renter. 

variabilis, I'hler. 

pictus, sp. nov. 

fraternus, Vhlcr. 

Piezostethus sordidus, Renter. 
Triphleps perpnnctatus, Beuter. 
Brachysteles pallidus, Renter. 



CERATOCOMBIDiE. 

Ct-ratocorabus brasiliensis, Beuter. 

minutus, I'hler. 

Cryptostemma fasciata, Uhler, 

Schizoptera flavipes, Renter. 

scutellata, sp. nov. 

capitata, sp. nov. 

Oiuniatides (gen. nov.) insignia, sp. 



Cardiastethus elegans, Uhler. nov. 

conBimilis, i'hler. Oncerodes (gen. nov.) robusta, sp. 



' Communicated by Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S., F.Z.S., on behalf of the "West 
India Islands Committee. 

[In the list of St. Vincent Hemiptera recently communicated to the Society 
(see P. Z. S. 1893, p. 705) it was mentioned that Prof. Uhler had been obliged to 
leave the Anthocoridte and Ceratocombidae undetermined, the material sent to him 
being inadequate for the study of such difficult insects. Since then Prof. Uhler 
has received from the Committee additional material — chiefly from the neigh- 
bouring island of Grenada — which has enabled him to complete his enumeration 
of the two groups of Heteroptera in question, and I now communicate to the 
Society the results of this part of his work. We hope that t lie list of Hemiptera- 
Heteroptera of Grenada will shortly be in the possession of the Committee. — 
D.S.] 



1894.] OF ST. VINCENT, WEST INDIES. 157 

B. Descriptions of New Genera and Species. 

Fam. Anthocoeidi, 
Genus Lasiochilus. 
Lasiochilus pictus, sp. nov. 

In form similar to L. ncbulosus, Uhler, but somewhat narrower, 
with the head a little more tapering. Above pale rufo-flavous and 
testaceous, beneath pale rufo-pieeous. Head moderately short, rufo- 
testaceous, minutely rugulose in front, with a triangular impressed 
line between the eyes, near which the siirface is slightly granulated ; 
the neck is a little swollen, highly polished, slightly wider than the 
space between the eyes, bounded in front by an impressed line 
with some punctures ; the front narrower and longer than the neck, 
with the sutures bounding the tylus deeply defined ; antenna? mode- 
rately slender, not setaceous, testaceous, a little dusky, the second 
joint much the longest, a little thicker towards the tip, the third 
joint much more slender, a little shorter than the fourth, which 
is a little thicker than it ; rostrum pale fuscous, slender, reaching 
as far as the middle coxae. Prouotum trapezoidal, wider than long, 
with the lateral oblique margin pale testaceous, reflexed, with the 
anterior angle a little rounded; surface rufo-testacous, polished, re- 
motely pubescent, the callosity of the anterior lobe long, convexly 
prominent ; collum scarcely projecting beyond the side of the head, 
narrow, but distinct ; the posterior lobe large, punctate, the punctures 
continuing forward on the sides, the posterior margin hardly sinu- 
ated, with the humeral angles callous, pale, and acute. Scutellum 
pale reddish brown, depressed and punctate behind the middle. 
Hemelytra pale testaceous, minutely pubescent, closely punctate 
except upon the posterior part of the corium ; the cuneal portion 
smoke-brown, but darker exteriorly, and dull testaceous on the 
costal border ; posterior margin of the corium also brown ; mem- 
brane soiled whitish. Legs dusky testaceous. Venter clouded 
with dusky brown, a little paler exteriorly, the posterior margins 
of the segments fringed with yellowish hairs, and most of the 
ventral surface spread with fine yellowish pubescence. 

Length to tip of abdomen 2 millim. ; width of base of pronotum 
| millim. 

One or two specimens were found on the leeward side of 
St. Vincent, and others were taken in the island of Grenada. 

Pain. Cebatocombidi. 
Genus Schizoptera, Fieber. 

Scitizoptera scutellata, sp. nov. 

In form similar to 8. ?-utteri, Reuter, but with the membrane 
more tapering posteriorly. Subconic-ovate, black, opaque, minutely 
pubescent, with n broad orange band covering the clavns, except 



15S PROF. P. K. TJHLEU OX THE IIEWIPTERA-HETEltOPTEIlA [Feb. 20, 

directly at base, the costa, and base of the two medial veins of the 
corium ; the legs and antenna? yellow. Head broad, convex, narrower 
than the front of the pronotum, but with the eyes prominent and 
extending beyond the pronotum ; antennae reaching to the tip of 
corium, the basal joints thick, the second one longer than the first, 
and the remaining ones thread-like, set with fine hairs. Pronotum 
convexly arched, a little wrinkled anteriorly, steeply sloping for- 
wards, minutely and closely scabrous, with the posterior margin a 
little decurved, and the humeri moderately prominent ; the scutellum 
small, dull black. Clavus raised like a tabula ; the veins of the 
corium coarse and prominent ; the membrane long, dull black, with 
the medial longitudinal veins long, parallel, and continued to the 
tip. 

Length to tip of membrane 1| millim. ; width of pronotum 
| millim. 

Only one specimen was secured on the island, and as it is not 
labelled, nothing can be stated concerning its habitat. 

SCHIZOPTEBA CAPITATA, Sp. nOV. 

This form, omitting the head, is nearly like aS'. jlavipes, Eeuter. 
The head departs remarkably from all the related species in being 
long, conical, and acutely tapering at tip ; the body, head, pronotum, 
legs, and scutellum are pale fulvous, with the coriaceous part of the 
hemelytra velvety black, and the membrane and apex of the corium 
whitish yellow. Eyes small, lateral, subglobose, blackish ; antenna? 
pale yellowish, reaching beyond the tip of the corium, the basal 
joint shorter than the second, the second a little thickened at tip, 
with the remaining joints very slender, dusky, and minutely fringed ; 
rostrum projecting from behind the middle of the gula, pale 
testaceous, reaching to the middle coxae, and a little piceous at 
tip. Pronotum transverse, trapezoidal, flat above, steeply sloping, 
with the lateral margins oblkpjely tapering and the margin a little 
reflexed ; the anterior margin, as wide as the space between the eyes, 
abutting against a collum which stands between the eyes ; the 
posterior margin almost straight, with the humeri subacute. Scutel- 
lum crescentiform, elevated at base, contracted beyond the base and 
acutely tapering to the tip. Corium somewhat greyish pubescent, 
the veins distinct, the cubital one leaving a wide areole in the 
interval out to the costa and keeping on to tip of membrane ; the 
costal vein tawny towards the tip, the vein next inward running 
parallel with this and equally continuous. 

Length to tip of membrane 1| millim. ; Avidth of pronotum 
| millim. 

Only one specimen was secured. It was found at locality No. 6. 

In this form the hemelytra are very much wider than the abdo- 
men and longer than usual, with the costal margin curved nearly 
the same as in S. Jlavipes, Reut. Mr. Reuter does not include 
in this genus any species with produced head ; but the characters 
in this species, apart from those of the bead, seem distinctly to 
connect it with the genus to which it is now referred. 



1894.] or st. yincent, west indies. 159 

Ommatides, gen. nov. 
Coleopterine, closelyresemblinga short thick Geocoris. Eyes very 
large, oval, projecting diagonally against the anterior corner of the 
pronotum ; front of the head short, bluntly tumid, with the face 
vertical, protracted downward, and having long lobate cheeks 
which converge over the base of the rostrum ; antenna filiform 
beyond the second joint, the basal joint shorter and a little thicker 
than the second ; rostrum thick at base, short, tapering, quite slender 
towards the tip, reaching almost to the middle coxae. Pronotum 
very short, almost annular, with the sides rounded off anteriorly to 
admit the form of the eyes, the posterior margin almost straight. 
The two forward pairs of legs placed near together ; the anterior 
tibiae greatly thickened at tip and armed with long spines. Scutellum 
very short, transverse, triangular. Hemelytra high convex, extend- 
ing amply over the abdomen and much loDger than it ; the costal 
border moderately curved, with the middle areole moderately wide, 
and the thick cubital vein running back parallel with the next inner 
vein all the way to tip of membrane, and with the two exterior 
transverse veins as in Schizoptera. 

Ommatides insights, sp. nov. 

Ovate, blunt and wide in front; orange, with the pronotum, 
scutellum, and a broad band behind the scutellum, covering the 
membrane, blue-black. The head reddish brown above, yellow below 
the origin of the tylus, obsoletely scabrous, very minutely pubescent. 
Legs polished, stout, bright yellow, remotely hairy. Pronotum 
moderately arched, opaque, a little scabrous. Hemelytra thick, 
opaque, velvety ; the membrane but little thinner than the corium, 
with the inner margin straight, not overlapping at tip, the apex a 
little tapering and rounded at tip. 

Length to tip of membrane 1 millim. ; width of pronotum 
|| millim. 

A single specimen of this peculiar little insect was taken, but 
no record is given concerning the place where it was found. 

Onceeodes, gen. nov. 
Coleopterine, and resembling an Issus in form ; the hemelytra 
particularly wide and subglobose, blunt at the anterior end. Head 
nearly vertical, short and broad, moderately convex before the line 
of the eyes, transversely impressed between them ; the cheeks 
separated by deep vertical lines, the tylus nearly linear ; rostrum 
very short and thick, tapering at tip, fitting very compactly into 
the sternum, reaching to tip of anterior coxse ; antennas with the 
two basal joints thick, the second joint a little shorter and not so 
thick as the first, the remaining joints thread-like, finely pubescent. 
Pronotum transverse, nearly crescent-shaped, moderately arched, 
having the anterior angles rounded off to fit the curve of the eyes. 
Scutellum acutely triangular, much longer than wide. Hemelytra 
but little longer than wide, suborbicular, narrower at base, cor- 
responding to the width of the pronotum; the veins coarse; and 



160 DR. SIIUFELDT OX THE AFFINITIES [Feb. 20, 

prominent, longitudinal, the two middle ones connected on the 
disk and sending back a branch parallel to the others, all of which 
continue out to the tip ; suture of the clavus deeply defined, the 
clavus wide and nearly triangular. Legs stout, placed close together 

Oncerodes robusta, sp. nov. 

Short, thick, very convex, opaque bluish-black, with a velvety 
aspect above. Base of the hemlytra, including the scutellum, clavus, 
and a spot expanded on the costal margin, bright yellow. Head 
transversely rugulose, the front piceous, with the throat and antennae 
dull honey-yellow ; the rostrum a little darker. Legs thick and 
short, honey-yellow. Venter dull black, rufo-piceous on the genital 
pieces. 

Length to tip of hemelytra I4 millim.; width of pronotum 
I millim. ; width of hemelytra | millim. 

A single specimen was found on the leeward side of the island. 

In respect to form of body and longitudinal direction of veins on 
the hemelytra this insect bears some relation to Hif2)selosoma,Heutev ; 
but in all other respects it seems sufficiently different to constitute 
a separate genus. 



4. On the Affinities of the Steganopodes. 
By Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, C.M.Z.S. 

[Keceived January 25, 1894.] 

Recently I have written an account of the osteology of all the 
North-American Steganopodes, illustrating it with many figures 
of the representative species. This, extending as it would to 
between one hundred and two hundred pages, is altogether of too 
great length to submit on the present occasion ; it may be of 
interest, however, to offer some of the conclusions arrived at 
with respect to the relationships of the birds constituting that 
suborder. 

Basing then, as we do, our judgment on a study of the 
skeletons of the Steganopodes, we are justified in regarding them 
as being composed of three superfamilies. These may be desig- 
nated as, first, the Pelecanoidea ; second, the Phaethontoidea ; and 
third and lastly, the Fregatoidea. 

Arranging these, and the North-American families of them, 
with their genera, a taxonomic scheme on such a basis would 
stand thus : — 

SurKRFAMILIES. FAMILIES. GENERA. 

fPelecanus. 
Phalacrocora.c. 
Anhinga. 
Sulci. 
Phaethontoidea. Phaethontida\ Phaethon. 

Fregatoidea. Fregatidee. Fregata. 



1894.] OF r XHE STEGANOPODES. 161 

Ornithotomists are agreed that the Steganopodes, considered as 
a whole, constitute a well-defined group, but beyond this the 
majority are reticent as to the question of the affinities existing 
among the families and genera composing it, and its relations 
as a whole to other avian groups in the system. 

If from among the Pelecanidce we select the genus Phalacrocorax, 
there is no doubt, so far as its osteology indicates, that it is 
closely related to the genus Anhinga. This, as has been showm in 
my work, is evident from a direct comparison of the corresponding 
bones of the skeleton of any species of Cormorant with those of 
the skeleton of Anhinga. 

On the other hand, and by similar methods, there is no dis- 
guising the kinship existing between Phalacrocorax and Sula, 
although the gap between these genera is somewhat greater than 
that between the Cormorants and the Anhingas. 

Pelicans of the genus Pelecanus are aberrant forms which, as 
osteologically indicated, have varying relations w T ith all three of 
the genera thus far mentioned. They are, however, apparently 
more nearly related to the Sulidce than to the Cormorants. 

Prom the Pelecanoidea the passage to the Phaethontoidea is not 
far to seek, for, upon comparing the corresponding bones in the 
skeleton of such a Gannet as Sula breivsteri with those of Phaethon 
fiavirostris, we are at once confronted with so many points of 
similarity as to leave no doubt upon our minds that it is between 
the genera and families represented by such species as these that 
the linking of the two groups takes place. 

This is important, for in another direction we are led on the 
one hand through Phaethon to the suborder Longipennes, and on 
the other to the suborder Tubinares — Phaethon fiavirostris having 
some osteological characters that strongly suggest Larine affinities, 
and still more that bring to mind the skeleton of a Puffinus. 

With their distinct maxillo-palatines, their perforate nostrils, 
their hardly coalesced palatines, their four-notched sternum, and 
with their ilia widely separated from the "sacral crista," taken in 
connection with numerous other important skeletal characters, 
the Tropic Birds are fully entitled to rank as a superfamily — 
the Phaethontoidea. 

There can be no doubt about Fregata, for the skeletal characters 
seen in its skull, its sternum and shoulder-girdle, its pelvis and 
limbs, and in its trunk skeleton, as described in detail in my 
account, stamp it at once, not only as being a form having 
many skeletal characters completely at variance with those 
found in average steganopodous birds — such as Cormorants and 
Gannets — but as a type likewise for which a superfamily must be 
founded in order to show that these striking departures are fully 
appreciated by the student of its osteology. As indicated in our 
scheme above referred to, this superfamily may be designated 
Fregatoidea. 

The pelvis in Fregata is decidedly more like the pelvis in 
Phaethon than that bone in other tSteganopodes. In its extra- 

Peoc. Zool. Soc. —1 894, No. XI. 1 1 



162 THE SECRETARY 0>~ ADDITIONS TO THE MENAGERIE. [Mar. 6, 

ordinary short and otherwise weak pelvic limb-bones as com- 
pared with the very lengthy pectoral ones, and the size of the rest 
of the bird, it stands quite unique in the suborder to which 
it belongs. More remarkable than all, however, are the many 
characters in its skull that powerfully recall the Albatrosses 
among the Tubinares. These are so evident that one is almost led 
to believe, if it be not actually the case, that the strong hooked 
beak in the skull of Fregata is a Diomedean rather than a Pele- 
canine character 1 . Apart from the free ends of the furcula 
coalescing with the coracoids, there are characters in the sternum 
and shoulder-girdle of Frer/ata that also recall the forms of the 
corresponding bones in the Albatrosses, but beyond this there 
appears to be nothing else in the skeleton of the Man-o'-War 
Bird at all reminding us of those birds. 

Since this relationship exists between Frer/ata and Diomedea, 
remote as it may be, it nevertheless, taken in connection with 
what has been pointed out above in regard to Phaethon and Puffinus, 
ought to convince us that the Steganopodes are more closely con- 
nected with the Tubinares than they are with the Longipennes. 

There are those who claim to see a kinship existing between the 
Ace i pit res and the Fregatoidea, but there are surely no indications 
of it so far as the osteology of any of the representatives of the 
two suborders in question is concerned. 



March 6, 1894. 
Dr. A. Gunther, F.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions to the 
Society's Menagerie during the month of February 1S04 : — 

The total number of registered additions to the Society's Mena- 
gerie during the month of February was 83, of which 66 were by 

1 In my extended account of the osteology of the Steganopodes, referred to 
above, a full description of the skull of the Man-o'-War Bird is given, illustrated 
by several figures from photographs. From that account I select some of the 
statements: — "For example, both superficially and otherwise the skull of 
Fregata resembles the skull in some species of Albatrosses (Diomedeidte) in not 
a few respects. This not only applies to the lower jaw, where the similarity is 
very evident, but also to a number of characters in the cranium and face. The 
long powerfully hooked superior mandibles are a good deal alike, as are the 
masillo-palatinee. Fregata has a vomer that approaches that bone in the 
Albatrosses ; its palatines are not far off, and even still less so its pterygoids 
and quadrates. The lacrymals are upon the same plan of structure, ami the 
entire cranium proper in the Man-o'-War Bird might well answer for that of 
an Albatross but slightly removed from the typical stock. Fregata, however, 
lacks the deep supraorbital glandular fossa; so characteristic of the Diomedetda, 
and, from above downwards, the skull is somewhat more compressed than it is 
in, for example, such a species as the Short-tailed Albatross (L. albatrus)." 
[Then follows a detailed comparison, character by character, of the skull and 
associate parts as found in Fregata aquila and Diomedea albatrus, but that 
comparison is of too great length to insert here as a footnote.] 



1894.] THE SECRETARY ON ADDITIONS TO THE MEXAGERIE. 163 

presentation 5 by purchase, and 12 on deposit. The total 
number ot departures during the same period, by death and 
removals, was 73. J 











.-'*?•■-■ 



i\v : s^ 



m 



■&& 



■ . - 



Young King Vulture in down plumage. 
(Received October 20, 1893.) 

vV^V^ °PP° rfcuni *y of calling attention to the younp Kine 
Vulture (Gypacjus pajm) which we received in the down olumaJ 
on the 20th October last. It has been figured hi the' Keld" 
tan. p. 071 (1893), by the proprietors of which the accompanying 



164 MR. W. BATESON ON THE COMMON PILCHARD. [Mai*. 6, 

illustration has been lent to us. This bird has now moulted its 
nestling-plumage altogether, and has assumed the first feather- 
plumage, in which it is nearly of a uniform black. 

The young bird was probably not more than 2 or 3 months old 
when received, and therefore would appear to remain about 7 or 
8 months in its nestling-plumage. 



Mr. W. Bateson exhibited six specimens of the Common Pilchard 
(Clupea pilchardus) showing variation in the number and size 
of the scales. The specimens had been received from Mr. 
Matthias Dunn, of Mevagissey, Cornwall. In each of them the 
scales over a greater or less area of the body were smaller and 
more numerous than in the normal fish. Similar specimens were 
exhibited to the Society by Mr. Bateson in 1890 and had been 
described in the Proceedings l as examples of abnormal repetition 
of parts. In that paper reference was made to an account of a 
similar specimen that had been given by the late Mr. P. Day", 
who took a different view, being of opinion that the fish was 
a hybrid between the Pilchard and the Herring. For reasons 
then given it was urged that the evidence of hybridity was unsound, 
and it was represented that the abnormality was more probably 
due to variation. 

The new cases fully bore out the view then taken. Except in 
the matter of the scales, each of the six examples was in all re- 
spects a true Pilchard, having the normal sculpture on the opercula, 
the high number of gill-rakers characteristic of the Pilchard, and 
the histological features normally found in the scales of the 
Pilchard. In the matter of the gill-rakers the lowest number seen 
in the abnormal fishes was 70 and the highest S9, most of them 
having about 78. The numbers seen in normal Herrings are 
considerably lower than these. 

In four of the new specimens the small abnormal scales extended 
over the posterior half of one side only. In one specimen both 
sides were almost uniformly covered with the small scales. In the 
sixth specimen the posterior half of one side showed the small 
scales, and on the other side there was in about the middle of its 
length a circular patch of very small scales, the remainder of the 
scaling being normal or nearly so. Unfortunately the specimens 
had been somewhat rubbed and the precise numbers of the scales 
cannot confidently be given. Speaking in general terms, it may 
be said that in the areas of abnormal scaling the size of the scales 
was about half that of the normal scales. All the specimens 
were well grown and in good condition, ranging from 7 to 8| inches 
in length. 



1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1890, p. 58G. 

2 Op. cit. 1887, p. 129, pi. xv. 



1894.] ON ZOOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN AFRICA. 165 

Dr. J. "W. Gregory, E.Z.S., made some remarks on the factors 
that appear to have influenced zoological distribution in Africa, 
commencing with the following observations : — 

"It has long been known that the phenomena of distribution in 
Equatorial Africa present a series of glaring contradictions and 
anomalies. Thus many groups extend across Africa east and west, 
others run north and south, while a third group occurs only as 
isolated patches on the summits of the highest mountains. Simi- 
larly the fishes of many rivers and lakes belonging to different 
basins have identical or nearly allied species. These are absent in 
North-east Africa and reappear in the lakes and rivers of Syria. 
As it was believed that the geology of Central Africa was very 
simple and that the country had been for ages remarkably stable, 
it has appeared very difficult to explain these facts of distribution. 
The results of more recent work, however, show that the lake- 
region of Africa is a district of great instability." 

Dr. Gregory then gave a brief sketch of the probable changes that 
had occurred in the level of the country: — " Originally the Victoria 
Nyanza district was probably a high plateau on which rose rivers 
that flowed on one side into the Congo and on the other into 
the Indian Ocean and the Bed Sea. The centre subsided and the 
drainage formed a great lake. This was subsequently further 
isolated from the Congo and the East Coast river-systems by two 
long cracks forming rift valleys. Subsequently the Nile cut 
through the mountains to the north of the Nyanza, and the waters 
of that lake became discharged into the Nile. The Jordan Valley 
was connected to the East- African river-system at a time when 
much of the Eastern Levant was dry land and Palestine was 
covered by a freshwater lake. The surplus waters of this lake 
discharged to the south and flowed along the valley that by later 
subsidence was formed into the basin of the Bed Sea. The living 
land- and river-mollusks of Abyssinia and the fossil species to the 
south also show that the connexion between Syria and the Central 
African lakes was established by a river that flowed across Baringo 
and Basso Narok and thus into the south end of the Bed Sea. 

" The key to the distribution of the land animals and plants lies 
in the discovery of the former extension of the glaciers of Mount 
Kenia. The climate must then have been very different from the 
present one. The results of the former greater height of the land 
would have been a depression of the isobaric surfaces and the 
formation of a high-pressure area over the central plateau. The 
winds would have been different and far less regular, and the 
rainfall would have been greater and more evenly distributed. The 
surface of maximum l-ainfall would have been lower and more 
extensive. Hence the present alpine flora would have descended 
from the mountains to the plateaus, and the low-level flora have 
been luxuriant and better adapted for food than the existing scrub. 
There would therefore have been no such barriers to the migration 
of small mammals and many of the invertebrates as exist at 
present." 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XII. 12 






166 ON EIYEH-CRABS OF TILE GENUS THELPHUSA. [Mar. 6 

Dr. Gregory then exhibited and made remarks upon a series 
of photographic slides, illustrative of his recent expedition to 
Mount Kenia. 



The following papers were read : — 

1. Note on Three Species of River-crabs of the Genus Thel- 
phusa, from Specimens collected in Eastern Africa 
by Dr. J. W. Gregory, Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., and 
Mr. F. J. Jackson. By F. Jeffrey Bell, M.A. 

[Received February 7, 1894.] 

During his remarkable expedition to Mount Kenia Dr. Gregory 
obtained, in the papyrus-swamp north of Rangatan Ndari, Lei- 
kipia, a River-crab of the genus Thelphusa, which may be referred 
to the species T. berardi, first figured by Savigny. From a 
height of from two to three thousand feet on Mount Zomba, 
Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., has lately sent a specimen which must 
be referred to T. depressa, Krauss. Mr. F. J. Jackson has also 
been so good as to present to the Trustees of the British Museum 
two examples of the same genus taken on the south side of Mt. 
Elgon, which are to be referred to T. nilotica, M.-E. 

It is very interesting that three different species should reach 
the Museum within as many months from three distinct, though 
not so very distant, localities in the eastern half of Central Africa. 
What is of importance is that the species from the more northern 
localities (Mt. Elgon aud Leikipia) are those which have a more 
northern distribution, for both are Egyptian ; whereas T. depressa 
was described by Krauss * from Port Natal, and a variety of the 
same species, characterized by Mr. E. J. Miers 2 as T. depressa 
johnstoni, was found by Mr. H. H. Johnston during his expedition 
to Kilimanjaro in 1884. 

So far as evidence is afforded by the species of this freshwater 
Crab, the line of demarcation between North and South Africa 
would lie south of Mt. Elgon and north of Kilimanjaro ; and in 
support of this view there is the fact that, as Mr. Edgar Smitb has 
reminded me, Physopsis afrieana and Limncea natalensis, which 
were both described by Krauss from specimens collected in Natal, 
have been found in Lake INYassa. The latter, however, extends as 
far north as Abyssinia, and there is some reason to suppose that it 
also inhabits the West Coast of Africa ; so that it does not afford 
us much assistance in the delimitation of areas of distribution in 
this region of the African continent. 

However, the problems of distribution in Africa are so many and 
so difficult, that what we need at present is a broader and firmer 
basis of facts. 

1 Siidafrikan. Crust. (1843), p. 38, pi. ii. fig. 4. 
3 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1885, p. 237. 



1894.] ON THE HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF GRENADA. 167 

2. On the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the Island of Grenada, 
West Indies. By P. R. Uhler. 1 

[Eeceived February 9, 1894.] 

[Two papers were recently communicated to the Society on 
Hemiptera from the island of St. Vincent (see P. Z. S. 1893, p. 705, 
& 1894, p. 156) ; in these it was mentioned that Prof. Uhler was 
engaged in working out the collections from Grenada sent to him 
by the Committee. I have now the pleasure of offering to the 
Society the memoir the reception of which we were then looking 
forward to. The collections studied were made by Mr. and 
Mrs. Herbert H. Smith under the auspices of Mr. P. D. Godman, 
P.P.S., in the manner that was mentioned when we were dealing 
with the St. Vincent insects. — D. S.] 

The collection of Heteroptera here enumerated was brought 
together in the island of Grenada by Messrs. Herbert H. Smith 
and Henry E. Summers during a part of the year 1891. It re- 
presents the results of a careful search over the principal parts of 
the island during a period of about eight months, extending from 
February to November. The total number of species brought 
back is about 166, excluding varieties and some immature forms 
which could not be identified. 

Although not exhaustive, the collection affords an excellent 
basis of comparison with the faunas of other islands and countries 
adjacent to the centre of America ; it also supplies some hints as 
to the sources from which the fauna has been derived. 

Prom a review of the species here enumerated it appears evident 
that the Hemipterous fauna is Central-American. It is largely 
composed of forms which belong to the borders of the Tropics, 
rather than of such distinctly tropical ones as inhabit the South- 
American continent. The percentage of small forms is remarkably 
large. The family most extensively represented is the LvGiEiDiE, of 
which 28 species are present, and these are correspondingly 
numerous in individuals. Of these species nine-tenths are found 
in Cuba and the other Greater Antilles, and about the same 
number also occur in Mexico and Central America. 

Next in abundance appear the Pentatomoidea, with 24 species. 
Most of these, likewise, are found in the Antilles, Mexico, and 
Central America, and form part of the fauna which ranges from 
the southern United States to the borders of the equatorial region. 
The most conspicuous form is Edessa rugulosa, which is closely 
related to a species of Cuba and San Domingo and to another 
from Mexico. Banasa lenticularis is very closely related to another 
species which also occurs in the countries just mentioned. 

The Redtjvioidea come next, but the 24 species of this family 
are not generally abundant in individuals. About eight-tenths of 

1 Communicated by D. Sharp, F.R.S., F.Z.S., on behalf of the Committee 
for investigating the Flora and Fauna of the West India Islands. 

12* 



168 prof. p. e. uiiler on TUB [Mar. 6, 

these are widely distributed in the Antilles, Mexico, Central 
America, and the Isthmus of Panama. 

The Capsio^: are represented by 18 species, all but one of which 
have been found in the Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and the 
southern United States. 

The Coreid^e are represented by 17 species, a very few of which 
are of large size, while most of them are widely distributed, occurring 
from the Gulf States to the northern borders of South America. 

In the ANTHOCORiDiE we find a few genera and a total of 14 
species. Those which are not new belong to forms peculiar to the 
Gulf States, Mexico, Central America, and the Greater Antilles. 
As these little creatures live much in concealment, amid tangled 
vegetation and decaying leaves, and upon twigs, fungi, and mosses, 
their distribution is but little restricted, and they extend over 
large parts of the continental areas. 

In the Ceratocombid^; we meet with only 5 species, and these 
are of the widely distributed forms which spread north from the 
region of Brazil — Ptenidiophyes mirahilis, Reuter, being the only 
one of these not yet found in the corresponding island of St. 
Vincent. The collecting of these minute insects has been so 
generally neglected that the time has not yet come for adequate 
comparative statements to be made relative to the genera and 
species belonging to different localities ; but the assemblage from 
St. Vincent, as now known, is more varied and comprehensive 
than that of Grenada. Four of the widely distributed species 
occur in both islands, while the four other peculiar forms were 
found in St. Vincent and not in Grenada. It is very unlikely 
that these types are confined to St. Vincent, and we confidently 
expect to see them discovered when the minute insects of Grenada 
shall have been more exhaustively collected. 

The fauna of the littoral plain of the southern United States 
includes several genera and species not yet discovered in the West 
Indies, but it also embraces two or three species, particularly in 
the genera Ceratocombus and Cryptostemma, which have an exten- 
sive distribution in the central regions of America. 

Turning to the Veliid.e, we find them comparatively well 
represented by fourteen species, rich in individuals. They exhibit 
some interesting modifications of structure. The elongation of the 
legs in one species of MicroveMa points to a closer relationship than 
has hitherto been indicated between this group and that of the 
Hydrobatidae. A genuine salt-water species, Rhagovelia pJumhca, 
which also lives on the ocean about the Florida Keys and on the 
coasts of Southern Florida, adds new interest to this peculiar 
group of insects. This species is also noteworthy from the fact 
that the sexes unite sexually in what would appear to be a larval 
stage — the male being usually not more than one-half the bulk 
of the female, and both being of weak integumentary structure, 
and destitute of rudimentat'y wing-segments in the greater number 
of specimens. No specimens with wing-covers have yet been 
brought to notice. 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 169 

A large number of specimens of the Hydrobatid^e were found, 
but represent only four species. They were met with more especially 
near the sea-coast on the flat lands and marshes. 

A form closely related to Kheumatobates adds another to the 
growing list of these remarkable insects. It is a matter of regret 
that only one mature and winged specimen of this curious form 
was taken, and it is unfortunate that no observations were made 
respecting its mode of life and the peculiai'ities of its habitat. 
The pale and membranous character of its wing-covers give it the 
appearance of a small and slender wasp, so that this peculiarity 
of aspect might be of some service in protecting it from enemies 
which it must meet with in the water where it dwells. 

The other palustrine and aquatic forms here enumerated are 
mostly common species which have an extensive distribution 
throughout the regions between Northern Brazil and the southern 
United States. 

The presence of only two species of Corisa seems remarkable in 
a region where shallow placid and sluggish waters abound and 
form such suitable homes for this type of insect. 

It is also difficult to account for the absence of a large number 
of forms of Galgulus, Mononyx, and Notonecta. These hardy insects 
abound in just such places as are mentioned above ; as for example 
on the marshes, turbid sands, about the slime on the borders of 
sluggish waters, and among the roots of grass and slender plants 
in wet places. 

In comparing this assemblage of species with that of the island 
of St. Vincent, the differences between them do not seem sufficient to 
warrant their separation into two faunas. The most divergent form 
from the general average is the remarkable Alydid, Darmistidus. 
This form was not among the collections from Grenada, and it is 
not like any that has yet been brought from any part of the 
American continent or its islands. 

This collection adds valuable information supplementary to our 
previous knowledge of the faunas of the Greater Antilles, Mexico, 
Central America, and Colombia ; but much further research 
will be required before we can satisfactorily recognize the limits 
of the great areas of distribution of the Hemiptera south of the 
United States. 

PaCHYCORIDjE. 

Agonosoma, Lap. 

1. Agonosoma elavolineata, Lap. 

Agonosoma jlavolineata, Lap. Hemipt., Mag. de Zool. ii. p. 69. 

Examples of this species were collected at Balthazar, April 6, 
at an elevation of 250 feet above the sea, from foliage along the 
road, on dry ground, in woods of second growth. On April 30 a 
specimen came to the light at night. Other specimens were found 
on the La Porce estate, August 17, on open damp ground under 
piles of weeds. On the Caliveny estate they were swept, September 
17, from herbage on low open ground. 



170 PBOF. P. E. UHLER ON THE [Mar. 6, 

2. Agonosoma. trilln'eata (Fabr.). 

Gimex trilineata, Fabr., var., Spec. Ins. ii. p. 341. 

At Balthazar, one specimen came to the light at night, on 
April 30 ; another was found on herbage near the leeward coast, 
at St. George's ; a third was beaten, on September 29, from 
herbage, on the hillside of the Mount Gay estate. 

Symphylus, Dallas. 

Symphylus deplaxatus (H.-Schf.). 

Pachycoris deplanatus, IL-Schf. "Wanz. Ins. iv. p. 3, t. ex. fig. 344. 

Specimens were taken at Balthazar, April 7, which came to 
the light at night, and one was beaten from herbage on August 18; 
on September 3-10, specimens came to the light, at night, on the 
Mount Gay estate. 

Sphyrocoris, Mayr. 

Sphyrocoris obliqets (Germar). 

Pachycoris ohliquus, Germar, Zeitschr. i. p. 94. 

Several specimens were swept from herbage at Balthazar, April 7, 
at an elevation of 250 feet above the sea, on open weedy places 
near a stream of water. Others were secured near St. George's, 
as also on the Mirabeau and Mount Gay estates. 

Thteeocoeid.1. 
Thyreocoris, Schrank. 

Thyreocoris pulicahia (Germar). 

Odontoseelis pulicarius, Germar, Zeitschr. i. p. 39. 

This species was taken on the Mirabeau estate, March 25, at 
an elevation of 500 feet above the sea, in open places near a 
stream, where it was swept from herbage. It was also found at 
St. George's near the botanic gardens, September 10, on grass 
growing in a swamp. At Mount Gay it was taken, September 17, 
from herbage on low ground. 

The specimens differ in no important respect from those which 
are common in Maryland and the southern United States. In these 
last localities the species lives in the axils of Eupatorium, on low or 
marshy ground. 

C Y D >' I D JE. 

Cyrxomexcs, Am. et S. 
Cyrtomenus ciliatus (Pal. Beauv.). 

Pentatoma ciliata, Pal. Beauv. Ins. Afr. et Amc'r. p. 1S6, pi. 11. 
fig. 6. 

Two specimens were captured on the Mount Gay estate, 
September 6, on open places near a stream. 



1894.] HEMIPTEBA-HETEEOPTEBA OF GBENADA. 171 

PANG.EUS, Stal. 

PanGjEtjs mabgo (Dallas). 

JEthus margo, Dallas, List, i. p. 116. 

Numerous specimens of both sexes were found at Balthazar, 
March 7 and 31, up to an elevation of 1900 feet above the sea, on 
foliage, next the ground, in damp places near the water. Others 
were taken on the Grand Etang, September 12, at an altitude of 
1300 feet, while flying at sunset. 

Geotomtts, Muls. et Eey. 

Geotomtjs spinolai (Sign.). 

^Ethus spinolce, Sign. Ann. Soc. Ent. Pr. 1863, p. 545, pi. 12. 
fig. 12. 

Only one specimen was found. It was taken on the Mount 
Gay estate, August 28, while flying at sunset. 

Amistestus, Dallas. 

1. Amnesties subfeeeugineus, Westw. 

Cydnus subferrugineus, Westw. Hope Cat. i. p. 19. 

Many specimens were collected at various places on the island. 
At Balthazar they were taken while flying over open places at 
sunset, August 4. On the Mount Gay estate they were also 
found, August 20-25, flying at sunset ; and on the Grand Etang, 
September 15, they were beaten from undergrowth in the forest, 
at an elevation of 1 900 feet above the sea. 

2. Amnestfs pttsilltts, Uhler. 

Amnestus pusillus, TJhler, Hayden Geol. Surv. Bulletin, i. p. 278. 

This uncoloured little groundling was collected in April, at 
Balthazar, where it occurred on open weedy places, in second- 
growth thickets. 

Pentatomidji. 

Maceoptgium, Spin. 

Macboptgium eeticttlabe, Pabr. 

Cimex reticularis, Fabr. Syst. Bhyng. p. 170. 

This common American insect was captured at Balthazar, 
April 15, at an elevation of 250 feet above sea-level. It was 
found on shady places among the weeds, in woods of second 
growth, near a stream of water. 

Cuba is the most northern territory from which this species is 
at present known. It seems to be about as common in Grenada 
as it is known to be on the Upper Amazons. 



172 prof. p. r. uhler ox THE [Mar. 6, 

Podisus, H.-Schf. 

1. Podisus sagitta (Fabr.). 

Cimex sagitta, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 99. 

Several specimens were beaten from plants at Baltbazar, 
April 3, in open weedy places, and from similar berbage on tbe 
Mount Gay estate, on August 22 to 31. 

This species ranges all the way from Tabatinga, on the Upper 
Amazon, to Texas and Tamaulipas, Mexico, and extends its 
distribution through all the Greater Antilles. 

2. Podisus gaumeri, Dist. 

Podisus gaumeri, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Am., Hem.-Heter., Suppl. 
p. 320, pi. 30. fig. 16. 

A few specimens of this form were collected at St. George's, 
August 22 and 31, from herbage in swampy places. 

Mormidea, Am. et S. 

Mormidea upsilox (Linn.). 

Cimex upsilon, Linn. Syst. Xat. ed. xii. i. p. 720. 

This species proved to be quite as common in Grenada as it is 
at Para, at various other places on the coast of Brazil, and in the 
West Indies. Specimens were collected at Balthazar, April 7, 
on open weedy places, where they were swept from herbage ; at 
the same place they were taken, August 15, from herbage, at 
night. Others were captured at light, at night, on the Mirabeau 
estate, and likewise on the Vendome and Chantilly estates and 
Grand Etang. At Mount Gay specimens were found, September 
14, at elevations of 400-600 feet above the sea, in open places 
upon herbage. 

Euschistus, Dallas. 

Euschistus cremator (Fabr.). 

Cimex crenator, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 101. 

Two forms of this species, the one with acute humeri, the other 
with blunter ones, were found in large numbers on most parts 
of the island. At Balthazar it was brushed from herbage on 
March 23, in cocoa orchards where the soil was damp and shaded ; 
on April 2 they were found at an altitude of 1900 feet above the 
sea, on a narrow strip of grassy and weedy land between the lake 
and the forest. Others were collected later in April on the 
Mount Gay and Lake Antoine estates, and as late as May 4. 

Berectxthus, Stal. 
Berect>*thus delirator (Fabr.). 
Cimex delirator, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 103. 
This is a Colombian insect which ranges from the head of 
the Madeira river, in Brazil, all the way to Venezuela, . Central 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF GRENADA. 173 

America, and Mexico, and extends to the Lesser Antilles. It is 
also found in the vicinity of Para and at a few points farther up 
the Valley of the Amazons. 

Several specimens were secured at Balthazar, April 7, in open 
weedy places, from herbage, near a stream. On the Mount Gray 
estate they were found, August 22, on herbage in open places, at 
night. Two specimens were taken at St. George's, September 11 
and 28, on herbage. 

Peoxts, Spinola. 
Proxys victor (Fabr.). 
Cimex victor, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 705. 

A few specimens were taken at Balthazar, April 1, in the 
swampy forest near the sea-shore, where the mangrove-tree 
nourishes. A single specimen was also found on the Chantilly 
estate. 

Arvelius, Spinola. 

Arvelifs albopuistctattts (De Geer). 

Cimex albopunctatus, De Geer, Mem. iii. p. 331, pi. 34. fig. 6. 

Specimens of normal size were found near Balthazar, April 1, 
in a swampy forest near the sea-shore. On the Mount Gay estate 
others were taken, August 28, on herbage, on the hill about 700 
feet above the sea. 

Specimens sometimes occur in Florida, Cuba, and Lower 
California which are only half the normal size. 

Tetania, Stal. 

1. Thtanta perditor (Fabr.). 

Cimex perditor, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 102. 

This extremely common species inhabits Northern Brazil and 
spreads through Colombia to Mexico, and far northward in the 
western part of the United States into Southern Colorado. It 
is also found in all the principal West India islands including 
Trinidad. On the eastern side of the United States it extends as 
far north as to the vicinity of Savannah in Georgia. 

The specimens collected in Grenada were found on the Mount 
Gay estate, August 21 and September 28, where they were beaten 
from herbage in open places near a stream of water. One speci- 
men was obtained at St. George's, in August, from herbage, at 
night. 

2. Thyanta TJENIOLA. (Dallas). 
Pentatoma tceniola, Dallas, List, i. p. 250. 

This is also a common species in the West Indies, and numerous 
specimens were secured in Grenada. It is also found in Northern 
Brazil, Central America, and Mexico, and it spreads over the border 
into California and Arizona. In San Domingo it is very common on 
low plants growing beside the roads near the coast. It is also 



174 prof. p. r. uhler on thb [Mar. 6, 

quite variable in size and sometimes lacks the red band on the base 
of the pronotum. 

In Grenada it was taken on the Lake Antoine estate, March 24 
and April 13, at an elevation of 350 feet above sea-level, on 
herbage in open places. It was also found on the Mount Gay 
estate and at St. George's, in August. 

3. Thyanta casta, Stal. 

Thyanta casta, Stal, Stettin, ent. Zeit. xxiii. p. 104. 

This species was taken on the Mount Gay estate, in smaller 
numbers than the preceding one, and it was beaten from herbage, 
August 1, in open places. It was also found on the Lake Antoine 
estate, March 24, on herbage, aud in thickets near the sea. 

Crato, Dist. 
Crato urbicus, Dist. 

Crato urbicus, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Amer., Hem.-Heter., Suppl. 
p. 457, pi. 39. fig. 22. 

Only two specimens of this insect were secured ; they were 
beaten from herbage, at night, in open places, August 22, on the 
Mount Gay estate. 

Banasa, Stal. 

Banasa lenticularis, sp. nov. 

Form similar to B. paclcardii, Stal, but more convex above, 
especially upon the pronotum ; longer oval than the related B. 
imbuta, Distant. Pale green, more or less rufous upon the pro- 
notum, base of head, coriaceous part of hemelytra, and posterior 
border of the scutellum highly polished. The head, pronotum, 
and corium set with remote erect bristles, most of the remaining 
surface minutely pubescent. Head a little longer than wide, 
irregularly and remotely, finely punctate, the surface uneven, 
depressed next the base of tylus, often paler at base and near the 
eyes. Antenna? more or less rufous, remotely pubescent, the 
second joint much shorter than the third, the fourth sometimes 
infuscated ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxse, green, black at 
tip. Pronotum unusually convex in the female, somewhat less 
so in the male ; the lateral margins reflexed, impunctate, ivory- 
white, hardly sinuated, the humeral angles a little prominent, 
with the outer margin curved and the surface near it tumid ; the 
surface generally coarsely, remotely, deeply punctate, the punc- 
tures partly arranged in transverse, curved, broken lines ; the 
margin, bounded behind by a line of punctures, behind the eyes 
reflexed, and the angles outside the eyes produced into a small 
tooth ; the posterior margin a very little arcuated, with the edge 
most slenderly reflexed, and the posthumeral margin sinuated, 
with the submargin depressed. Scutellum very remotely, coarsely 
punctate, the punctures becoming denser and finer along the sides, 
with the apex narrow, pale, almost flat, and nearly impunctate. 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF GRENADA. 175 

Corium and elavus coarsely, deeply punctate in lines, becoming more 
dense and irregular on the cuneal space ; the costa with about three 
lines of punctures, and a line of smaller ones on the inner suture ; 
disk along the suture broadly smooth; membrane transparent, 
sometimes a little tinged with rufous ; wings also more or less 
rufous or yellowish. Tergum often reddish, with the connexivum 
pale green, more or less yellowish or reddish, highly polished, 
remotely and finely punctate, angles of the posterior segment 
acute. Legs deep green, with the tibiae not grooved. 

Length to end of venter, c? 8|— 9, § 10-KH mm. ; width of 
pronotum c?5-5|, $ 5|-6. 

Eighteen specimens of this species were collected by Mr. H. H. 
Smith, who gives the following notes concerning their capture : — 
" Swept from herbage in open weedy places, at an altitude of 
250 feet above the sea, on April 3 ; about cocoa orchards, on 
herbage, April 5 ; came to light at night, August 6-10, at an 
altitude of 250 feet; also August 25-30; August 26-31, beaten 
from herbage ; September 3-10, came to light at night, at an altitude 
of 300 feet." These were collected on the Mount Gray estate, on 
the leeward side of the island of Grenada. 

Piezodorus, Fieber. 

PlEZODORUS GUILDINGI (Westw.). 

Raphigaster guildinii, Westw. Hope Cat. i. p. 31. 

Specimens of both sexes and of two varieties (i. e. degrees of 
maturity) were found at Balthazar and other places. At the 
former they were taken, March 23, from herbage, at night. Others 
were found at St. George's, August 22, on open swampy places, 
upon herbage. 

This species has an extensive distribution. In my collection 
there are specimens from Paraguay, B-io, Pernambuco, San Domingo, 
Cuba, Mexico, and Southern Florida. I have also examined spe- 
cimens from Jamaica, Trinidad, and Central America. 

This species varies in size, convexity, and depth of colour. Some 
of these differences are due to the degree of maturity of the speci- 
mens at the time of their capture. Immature specimens are a 
pale faded greenish, either with or without the red band across the 
pronotum. When the dorsum of the mesonotum shows through 
the integument the base of the pronotum appears black, but when 
the chitinous cover of the pronotum is maturely indurated no 
blackish spot appears across the base of this segment. Specimens 
when fresh and mature are of a clear green colour. 

Nezara, Am. et S. 
1. Nezara margin ata (Pal. Beauv.). 

Pentatoma marginata, Pal. Beauv. Ins. Afr. et Amer. p. 147, 
pi. 10. fig. 1. 

Several specimens of this species were collected. Those from 



176 prof. p. r. uhler ok the [Mar. 6, 

Balthazar were taken, March 24, in open places and from thickets 
near the sea, from herbage ; others were found at the same place 
in April, and one was captured on the Lake Antoine estate. 

This is another Colombian form with a distribution from 
Northern Brazil to Southern Florida and the coast of Texas. It is 
found in all the Greater Antilles and Trinidad. Two specimens 
from Para, in my collectiou, vary but little from the type as we 
find it in Mexico and Cuba. The specimens from Grenada vary 
much in size, just as they do in San Domingo, Cuba, and Mexico. 
The males are sometimes only about half the size of the females. 

2. Xezara viridula (Linn.). 

Cimex viridulus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, p. 444. 

This species is now known from the warm parts of all four of the 
continents. In the United States it inhabits the littoral plain 
from Virginia to Florida and Louisiana. It is found iu all the 
large West India islands, including Trinidad. 

In Grenada the specimens were found at Balthazar, April 2, 
on weeds and various kinds of herbage. On the Mount Gay 
estate it was taken, August 20 to 25, on herbage in open places. 

Edessa, Fabr. 
1. Edessa bifida, Say. 

Pentatoma bifida, Say, Insects of Louisiana, p. 7 ; Edessa cornuta, 
Burm., and E. cornuta, Guerin ; also E. albirenis, H.-Schf. Wanz. 
Ins. vii. p. 127, t. ccxlix. fig. 774. 

Types of all the references above given have been identified for 
me by Dr. Stal and others, and there is no reason for keeping 
them apart as is done in the Catal. Gen. des Hemipt. par MM. 
Lethierry et Severin, pp. 183, 189. 

This species is distributed from Northern Brazil and Colombia 
through Central America and Mexico into the southern United 
States and the Antilles. It is variable to a marked degree in the 
distribution, depth, and coarseness of the punctures, the size and 
length of body, and the convexity of the pronotum. The scutellum is 
occasionally blunter than in the average, and the pronotum sometimes 
shows traces of wrinkles on the convex dorsum. Mr. Distant's figure 
of E. cornuta, Burm., Biol. Centr.-Am., Hem.-Heter. pi. 9. fig. 22, 
well represents the E. bifida, Say, as we find it in Louisiana, Florida, 
Cuba, and Grenada. Besides this, a pair of types from the Mexican 
series separated by Mr. Distant in working up his material for the 
'Biologia ' are before me at this moment, and they are precisely like 
my specimens from the United States and the Antilles. In examin- 
ing a series of somewhat more than a hundred specimens of both 
sexes, from near Samana, San Domingo, I was surprised to find 
abrupt differences in the length of the anterior fork of the sternum 
of the male, and in the depth of excavation and angularity of the 
sides of the genital segment. The female is usually a broader, larger, 



1894.] HE3IIP1ERA-HETEE0PTEEA OE GBEXADA. 177 

and more convex insect than the male. Occasionally the knobs 
on the superior surface of the connexivum are absent. When alive 
these insects are grass-green above, with the corium more or less 
bright wine-brown. Specimens from San Domingo seem to 
be usually more rugose upon the pronotum and wing-covers and 
flatter near the anterior angles of the pronotum than in the 
series which I have examined from the United States and Mexico. 
Specimens from Grenada are on the average more smooth than those 
from San Domingo. In my collection there is a graded series which 
takes in the various modifications from E. comuta, Burm., with narrow 
and acute scutellum and coarse deep punctures, through the mode- 
rately smooth and remotely punctate E. albirenis, to the smooth 
E. sigillata with obsolete punctures on the pronotum and scutellum. 

2. Edessa eegueosa, sp. nov. 

Form of E. rufo-marginata, De Greer, but of the size of E. medi- 
tabunda, Fabr., which it somewhat resembles. Bright green, 
moderately polished, wrinkled on the head, pronotum, base of 
scutellum, and base of costal area, with the hemelytra wine-brown, 
and the lines of the clavus, reticulations of tip of corium, most of 
the costal area, and underside of the body yellow. Head short, 
minutely but distinctly punctate, bordered on the sides and tip 
with yellow; antennae honey-yellow, the basal joint much thicker 
than the following ones, the second shorter than the third, the 
fourth only a little longer than the third ; rostrum rufo-flavous, 
reaching midway between the fore and middle legs, and fitting 
into the fork of the mesosternum. Pronotum transverse, coarsely, 
deeply, irregularly punctate in somewhat transverse series, the 
sunken space in front of the callosities and behind the eyes densely 
aud finely punctate ; callosities and their diagonal continuation 
smooth, impunctate ; lateral margin reflexed, smooth, yellow, the 
humeral angle prominent, a little rounded, smooth, the post- 
humeral submargin sunken, with two lines of close punctures ; the 
posterior margin a little arcuated, the submargin bordered with 
a line of fine sunken punctures ; pleural border beneath the lateral 
margin linearly callous, grooved and punctate in continuity with 
the underside of head. Sternal pieces remotely punctate ; the 
mesosternal plate corresponds with that of E. meditabunda. Scu- 
tellum moderately long, very moderately convex at base, depressed 
next the tip, less coarsely but deeply, not closely punctate, some- 
what rugose on the base and middle, more finely punctate 
posteriorly, the sides slenderly bordered with yellow, and the tip 
acute. Clavus narrow, punctate with red in two approximate lines, 
the margin cariuately elevated; corium bordered next the clavus with 
two strong punctate ridges, which are hollowed inwardly by two 
corresponding lines of rufous sunken punctures ; the punctures of 
the disk fine and even, those of the base coarser ; costal area con- 
tracted at base, set near the base with small, yellow, transverse 
callosities between the reddish punctures ; membrane bronze-brown, 
with the veins darker. Legs honey-yellow, obsoletely punctate, 



178 prof. p. e. uhleb on the [Mar. 6, 

clothed with erect hairs. Venter and sternal pieces highly polished, 
finely punctate, transversely grooved, the grooves of the pleura 
more especially punctate ; stiginatal orifices black ; connexivum 
green, more coarsely punctate, the angles of the segments acute ; 
ventral ridge prominent, highly polished, impunctate. 

Length to end of venter 10—13 mm.; width of pronotum 6|-7 mm. 

Forty-one specimens were collected at different places on the 
island. At Balthazar, on the windward side, they were taken on 
April 1, in the swampy forest near the sea-shore, and mainly in 
the mangrove district; also April 13, at an altitude of 350 feet, in 
second-growth timber near the border of a stream on the Lake 
Antoine estate. 

This species approaches E. meditabunda in the structure of the 
mesosternal plate, which has the anterior fork long and slender, 
with the sides acutely triangular, and the posterior fork shorter 
and more blunt ; but it differs in having the tylus much longer, 
the sides of the head not turned up, in the evenly reflexed and not 
knobby border of the pronotum, in the longer and acute scutellum, 
and in the more contracted and less callous costal margin. 



COEBIDi). 

Spaetoceea, Lap. 

Spaetoceea fusca (Thunb.). 

Chnex fusca, Thunb. Nov. Ins. Spec. ii. p. 44. 

Ten specimens of two varieties of this insect were collected 
on the Mount Gay estate. They were obtained, April 2, from 
thickets on swampy ground ; also September 14, at elevations of 
400-600 feet, on open places on herbage : and on September 29 they 
were beaten from herbage on the hillside. One specimen was taken 
at Chantilly, March 23, in a clearing, on the underside of a Jog. 

Acanthoceeus, Pal. Beauv. 

AcANTHocEErs lobatus, Burm. 

Acanthocerus lobatus, Burm. Handb. ii. p. 318. 

Specimens of this insect were obtained in nearly every section of 
the island. At Balthazar they were beaten from herbage, March 
19, on an open place about 250 feet above the sea. Others were 
taken at Chantilly, Yendome, and particularly on the Mount Gay 
estate, where they were numerous in September, on herbage. 

Leptoglossus, Gruerin. 
Leptoglossfs zonatus (Dallas). 
Anisoscelis zonata, Dallas, List, ii. p. 452. 

The most beautiful variety of this insect proves to be quite 
abundant in Grenada. Specimens were taken, both in the spring 



1894.] HEHIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 179 

and autumn, on r the windward and leeward sides of the island. 
They were found on the Mount Gay estate, also at Balthazar, 
Lake Antoine, and on the Mirabeau and Vendonie estates. 

Pthia, Stal. 

Pthia picta (Drury). 

Gimex picta, Drury, Illustr. i. p. 107, pi. 45. fig. 1. 

A few specimens of this species were found at Balthazar, 
March 15, also on the Mirabeau estate, March 25, on herbage in 
open places, and on the Mount Gay estate, October 10, upon hill- 
sides, on herbage. 

This is an exceedingly common insect in the eastern part of San 
Domingo, and it is not rare in Cuba, Florida, and Texas. 

Madura, Stal. 
Madura pereida, Stal. 

Madura perfida, Stal, Stettin, ent. Zeit. xxiii. p. 304. 
Three specimens were taken on the Lake Antoine estate, in 
March and September, on herbage. 

Margus, Dallas. 
Margus inornatus, Dist. 

Margus inornatus, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Am., Hem.-Heter. pp. 137, 
365, pi. 13. fig. 18. 

Two specimens were found near Balthazar, March 19, at an ele- 
vation of 1250 feet above the sea, upon an open place, on herbage. 
A third specimen was taken on the Mount Gay estate, August 
28, at an elevation of 700 feet, on herbage. 

Catorhintha, Stal. 

Catorhintha selector, Stal. 

Catorhintha selector, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1859, p. 471. 

Many specimens were collected on the Mount Gay estate, 
April 5, at an elevation of 400 feet above the sea, where they were 
found on the herbage in cocoa orchards. Others were taken on 
the Lake Antoine estate, April 13, at an elevation of 350 feet, 
from herbage in the second-growth woods. 

Akasa, Am. et S. 

1. Anasa scorbutica (Fabr.). 

Gimex scorbuticus, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 706. 

Five specimens were taken on the Lake Antoine estate, April 13, 
at an elevation of 350 feet above the sea, in second-growth woods 
on the bank of a stream. 



180 PROF. P. R. UHLER ON THE [Mar. 6, 

2. Anas a bellator (Fabr.). 

Cimex bellator, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii. p. 286. 

Two specimens were secured on the Black Forest estate and 
Balthazar, April 6, from weeds in a nutmeg orchard, at an elevation 
of 400 feet above the sea. 

Zicca, Am. et S. 

Zicca TjEniola (Dallas). 

Clavig ralla keniola, Dallas, List, ii. p. 514. 

Six specimens were taken near Balthazar, April 2, at an ele- 
vation of 1900 feet above the sea, on grassy and weedy land, from 
herbage. 

Alydus, Fabr. 

Alydus pallescens, Stal. 

Alydus pallescens, Stal, Bio Jan. Hemipt. i. p. 34. 

Numerous specimens were collected in most parts of the island. 
At Balthazar they were brushed from herbage, in open grassy and 
weedy places, in April ; on the Lake Antoine estate they came to 
the light at night, on March 15. At St. George's specimens were 
taken, August 22, in open swampy places on herbage, and at the 
same place as late as September 30. 

Leptocorisa, Latr. 

Leptocorisa filiformis (Fabr.). 

Cimex filiformis, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 727. 

Several specimens were taken on the Mount Gay estate, 
April 5, where they were brushed from herbage in the cocoa 
orchards. Other specimens were secured at the same place, 
September 16, from herbage. 

Harmostes, Latr. 

Harmostes serratus (Fabr.). 
Acantliia serrata, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 75. 
A few specimens were swept from herbage on the Mount Gay, 
Mirabeau, and Lake Antoine estates in the spring and autumn. 

CoRizus, Fallen. 

1. Corizus hyalinus (Fabr.). 

Li/gams hyalinus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 168. 

Five specimens of the ordinary type were found on the island. 
They were taken at Balthazar and on the Mount Gay estate in 
April and August. 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF GRENADA. 181 

2. Corizus sid^e (Fabr.). 

Lygceus siclce, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 169. 

Dr. Stal has described a variety of this species as 0. pictipes. 
The insect is very variable in size, colour, form, and pattern of 
marking, much depending upon its condition at time of capture. 

Numerous specimens were collected in nearly all parts of the 
island, both in the early part of the year and as late as the middle 
of August. 

Jadera, Stal. 

Jadera lateralis, Stal. 

Jadera lateralis, Stal, Stettin, ent. Zeit. xxiii. p. 307. 

Several specimens of this bright-coloured species were taken at 
Balthazar, April 1, and on the Mount Gay estate, April 5, also in 
August and September, on herbage. 

Bee ytidj. 
Metacanxhus, Costa. 

Metacanihus capitatus, sp. nov. 

Pale ruf o-testaceous. Form similar to M. elegans, Curtis, but with 
proportionately longer legs and antennae. Head black, rounded, pol- 
ished, with a pale spot at base, the tylus prominent, vertical ; antennae 
very slender, yellow, the basal joint nearly as long as the posterior 
femur, a little thickened and dusky at tip, articulation of the next 
two joints a little dusky, the fourth thick, fuscous, about half as long 
as the third ; rostrum dull yellow, reaching to the middle coxae, be- 
coming more slender towards the tip. Pronotum closely distinctly 
punctate, the posterior lobe large, swollen, with the middle line a 
little elevated, and tuberculate at the posterior end ; antehumeral 
surface transversely indented, the posterior margin reflexed each 
side; lateral line obliterated, present as a carina on the short, 
collar-like anterior lobe, this lobe fulvous, with a pale anterior 
margin, from each side of which a pale short spine projects obliquely 
upwards. Legs long, slender, honey-yellow ; the tibiae setiform, 
paler, annulated with black ; the femora a little swollen and deeper 
coloured at tip, tarsi blackish on the apical half. Scutellum small, 
tumid, armed with a long, curved, pale spine which projects back- 
wards. Hemelytra almost transparent, tinged with testaceous, the 
costal border a little arcuated, costal area and clavus obsoletely and 
sparsely punctate. Beneath smooth, pale testaceous, the sternum 
pale piceous, abdomen straight ; venter more distinctly pubescent 
at tip, hardly wider at base than at apex. 

Length to end of venter 3J mm. ; width of pronotum | mm. 

Six specimens of this insect were collected on the Mount Gay 
estate, on the leeward side of the island. They were beaten from 
herbage, at altitudes between 200 and 400 feet, from August 21 to 
31st, 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XIII. 13 



182 PROF. P. R. UHLER ON THE [Mai 1 . 6, 

Nysitjs, Dallas. 

1. Nysiits proyidus, sp. nov. 

Oblong, narrow ; greyish yellow, the upper surface more or less 
clouded with fuscous, greyish pubescent. Head long, nearly as 
wide between the front of the eyes as the width of the apex of 
pronotum ; the surface closely pubescent, marked along the middle 
with a slender, yellow, feebly raised line ; the surface between the 
eyes granulated, the granules each side of middle arranged in lines, 
punctures few, indistinct ; the tylus pale fulvous anteriorly, 
bounded each side at base by a small knob placed next a dark band ; 
middle of gula, including the bucculae, blackish piceous ; rostrum 
slender, fusco-piceous or tinged with fuscous, reaching between 
the posterior coxae ; antenna? dull testaceous, the base and inner 
side of basal ioiut, base and apex of second, and base of fourth joint 
blackish. Pronotum longer than wide, obscurely bilobed, impressed 
and rather abruptly sinuated on the sides behind the anterior lobe ; 
the surface transversely wrinkled, unevenly punctate with piceous, 
less so on the anterior lobe, the apical border black ; the surface be- 
fore the humerus spread with a blackish spot, which includes the 
knob-like angle, but leaves a yellow spot next thereto ; the lateral 
margin obsoletely carinate, indented before the anterior angle, the 
middle with a pale yellow, slender line ; posterior margin a little 
arched, sometimes bordered with black, having the posthumeral 
border depressed, expanded, and pale yellow. Mesosternum black 
in the middle, with the costal segment and the coxa tipped with 
brown ; the anterior and posterior coxae mostly testaceous. Legs 
testaceous, the femora banded with concurrent dark brown spots ; 
the tibiae piceous at base and tip, and the tarsi piceous, excepting 
the testaceous base. Scutellum obsoletely punctate, with a dark, 
transverse, sublunate callosity, having a blackish cavity in front 
of it at base, the apical division paler, acutely carinate at tip. 
Hemelytra dull whitish or testaceous, punctate with fuscous, 
finely pubescent, acutely prolonged, with the cuneus rufous ; the 
costal area narrow, pale testaceous, with a few brown points, the 
veins interrupted with brown ; membrane semitransparent, with the 
veins more or less brownish. Venter rufo-testaceous, more or less 
sprinkled with darker brown ; the ovipositor blackish. 

Length to tip of venter 3|-5 mm. ; width of pronotum 1-1 4 mm. 
This is the common and widely distributed species which has 
hitherto been wrongly referred to JV. scolopax, Say. The true N. 
scolopax has a rostrum which reaches to the middle of the venter, 
which is not the case in the species here described. Our species 
inhabits North America from Quebec to Arizona, from thence it 
spreads into Mexico and Central America, and following south it 
is found on the Isthmus of Panama, and in Colombia and Northern 
Brazil. In the AVest Indies it occurs in Trinidad, Grenada, 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 183 

St. Vincent, Porto Rico, San Domingo, and Cuba, and from thence 
it extends through Florida into all of the Eastern States as far 
as Maine. 

Possibly it is the most variable species of the group as yet dis- 
covered, for it appears in all states of marking and colouring, from 
the pale testaceous with few spots to the dark grey with all degrees 
of clouding and specking. 

In Grenada specimens were taken at Balthazar, in open weedy 
places on herbage, April 3, at an altitude of 250 feet ; also on 
the Lake Antoine estate, April 13, at an altitude of 350 feet, on 
the shores of a stream in the midst of second-growth timber, and 
in August at various other localities on the island. 

2. Ntsius in^qttalis, sp. nov. 

Subovate, broad, a little more robust than N. californicus, Stal. 
Pale dull fulvous, punctate with fuscous yellowish pubescence. 
Head subacute, a little longer than wide, fulvous, with a pale line 
stretching from base to end of tylus ; inner border against the eyes 
pale yellow, followed by a wider black stripe, the antenniferous 
lobe also pale yellow ; gula black along the middle ; antennae dull 
fulvous, the basal joint blackish on the under surface at tip, the 
second joint longer than the third, tipped with black, the apical joint 
blackish, a little longer than the third ; bucculae pale ; the rostrum 
more or less fuscous, reaching to the middle coxse. Pronotum 
trapeziform, obliquely narrowing towards the apex, the sides not 
arcuated, with the margin feebly reflexed, the anterior lobe short, 
with the transverse incisure carried out to the excavation next the 
margin, but not through it ; the surface distinctly and closely 
punctate, having a pale callous line each side of the middle 
throughout its length ; the disk often infuscated, the middle line 
grooved, having a pale callosity on its posterior end at the margin, 
apex before the callous line deeply sunken, the lateral submargin 
grooved and lineated with fuscous ; humeri with an acute knob, 
behind which the margin is indented ; the posterior margin thick, 
deflexed, arched, a little scalloped ; the posthumeral outer edge 
pale and feebly expanded. Under surface rufo-fulvous, whitish 
pubescent, having an interrupted blackish line along the sides, the 
sternum and base of venter blackish, and the venter mostly fulvous, 
with the black lines continued along the sides. The legs dull 
fulvous, pale at base, necked with brown on the femora, the base 
and tip of the tibiae and tarsi more or less fuscous. Scutellum 
transverse, punctate, pubescent, blackish at base, or each side of 
middle, the middle line and lateral raised margin pale testaceous, 
the apex carinate, acute on the tip. Hemelytra pale testaceous or 
whitish, carried back in a long tapering curve ; the veins more or 
less interrupted with brown, as also the apical and outer border of 
the clavus and posterior border of the corium ; apex of the cuneus 
darker brown ; the costal area narrow, pale, with outer edge 
strongly reflexed ; membrane long and narrow, the veins often 
marked with long smoky spots, the middle to tip with a long 

13* 



184 prof. p. r. uhler oisr the [Mar. 6, 

blackish stripe. Cormexivum sharp-edged, thin, recurved, dull 
testaceous or pale fulvous ; disk of the tergurn black each side, 
middle line of the last two segments also black. 

Length to tip of venter 3|-4| mm. ; width of pronotum \- 
1| mm. 

This remarkable species was found in abundance on the Mira- 
beau estate, on the windward side of the island. It has also been 
taken in Florida and Cuba. The notes of capture are as follows : — 
March 25, at an altitude of 500 feet above sea-level, on herbage 
in open places near a stream of water ; April 7, at an altitude of 250 
feet, came to light in the night, and was also swept from herbage ; 
also April 13 and 27, in second-growth woods and in weedy 
places. 

This is a variable species, approaching very near to N. califor- 
nicus, Stal, from which it can be at once distinguished by the 
longitudinal callosities of the pronotum. 

Ischnorhynchus, Fieber. 

ISCHNORHYNCHTTS CHAMPIOia, Dist. 

IschnorJiynchus championi, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Am., Hem.-Het. 
p. 193, pi. 19. fig. 3. 

A few specimens were taken at several localities in the island . 
At Balthazar they were brushed from herbage in cocoa orchards, 
in shady and damp places, on March 23 ; at Chantilly they 
occurred at an elevation of 500 feet, on May 5, in second-growth 
thickets. Later in the year they were found on the Caliveny 
estate, near sea-level, September 1, on the foliage of dry scrubby- 
growth. On October 16 they were found in a similar, but damp 
place, near St. Greorge's. 

Ninus, Stal. 

NlNUS NOTABILIS, Dist. 

Ninus notabilis, Dist. t. c. p. 191, pi. 19. fig. 4. 

This species was found in considerable numbers on the Ven- 
dome estate in September, where it was beaten from herbage on 
marshy land. It was taken also on the Mount Gay estate, and 
upon the Mirabeau estate, in open places near a stream of water, 
on herbage, March 25. 

Neoninus, Dist. 

NEONINUS ILLI7STRIS, Dist. 

Neoninus illustris, Dist. t. c. p. 192, pi. 19. fig. 5. 

Specimens were taken at Balthazar, March 23, in damp and 
shady places, from herbage, in cocoa orchards. It was also found 
upon the Mirabeau estate, April 7, where it came to the light 
at Dight. 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF GRENADA. 185 

Blisstjs, Burin. 

Blissus leucoptertts (Say). 

Lygceus leucopterus, Say, Heteropt. New Harmony, p. 14, no. 5. 

This is the common " Chinch Bug " of the United States 
Mexico, and the Greater Antilles. It attains a large size and is 
more variable in Grenada, both in size and marking, than is 
commonly found to be the case in the eastern United States. 
Specimens were collected on the Mount Gay and Caliveny 
estates in June and September, on weedy places in second-growth 
thickets near a stream of water. 



Ninyas, Dist. 

NlNYAS STRABO, Dist. 

Ninyas strabo, Dist. t. c. p. 194, pi. 19. fig. 6. 

This neat little insect was found at several places on the island. 
On the Mirabeau estate it was taken, March 25, on herbage in 
open places near a stream of water. It was found also at 
Balthazar, and on the Mount Gay estate, August 20 ; also at the 
Grand Etang, September 15, among piles of weeds and waste 
from the stable. 

Pachygrontha, Germ. 

1. Pachygrontha oedanc abodes, Stal. 

Pachygrontha cedancalodes, Stal, Enum. Hemipt. pt. 4, 1874, 
p. 139. 

Two specimens of this small form were taken at Granville, 
April 13, at an altitude of 250 feet above the sea, where they 
came to the light at night. One specimen was captured at sea- 
level, March 26, on herbage in a thicket growing in a swamp. 

2. Pachygrontha bimaculata, Dist. 

Pachygrontha bimaculata, Dist. t. c. p. 393, pi. 34. fig. 23. 

Numerous specimens of this species were secured on the Mount 
Gay estate, April 1-5, at the light, and September 30, at an 
altitude of 500 feet above the sea, in second-growth woods. 

3. Pachygrontha longiceps, Stal. 

Pachygrontha longiceps, Stal, Enum. Hemipt. pt. 4, 1874, p. 140. 

This large species was moderately numerous at Balthazar, 
April 7, at an elevation of 250 feet above the sea, where it was 
swept from herbage in open weedy places near a stream. It was 
also found on the Vendome and Mount Gay estates, August 21 
and September 8, upon herbage in open and marshy places. 



186 pkof. p. b. uhleb oy the [Mar. 6 

Myodocha, Latr. 

Myodocha ttxispinosa, Stal. 

Myodocha unispinosa, Stfd, Enuni. Hemipt. pt. 4, 1874, p. 147. 

More than a dozen specimens of this peculiar insect were 
collected at Balthazar and other localities. At Balthazar it was 
beaten from herbage, in open places, at night, on March 19. 
On the Chantilly estate it was found March 7, on herbage in 
the cocoa orchards. One specimen was captured in August, at 
Balthazar. 

Pameea, Say. 

1. Pameba vincta, Say. 

Pamera vincta, Say, Heteropt. New Harmony, p. 16, no. 3. 

This common species is widely distributed throughout the 
littoral region of the United States south of Pennsylvania. Pamera 
paruula, Dallas, is a synonym of this form, which should be re- 
placed by the name given above. It has a wide distribution, 
spreading from Central Brazil through the regions of Colombia, 
Central America, Mexico, and the Antilles into the United States. 

In Grenada it appears to be as common as in Cuba and San 
Domingo. Specimens were taken at Balthazar, 1900 feet above 
the sea, April 2, in open grassy places, upon herbage. It was also 
found in August on the Mount Gay estate, and in other localities 
on the island. 

2. Pa^ieea bilobata, Say. 

Pamera bilobata, Say, Heteropt. New Harmony, p. 17, no. 7. 

This is also a common species with a wide distribution south- 
ward and westward from the United States to Brazil and Colombia. 
At Balthazar it occurred at an altitude of 1900 feet above the 
sea, April 2, on grassy and weedy lands, where it was beaten from 
herbage ; it was also taken as late as April 25, in second-growth 
thickets on plants. 

3. Pameea ctbyipes, Stal. 

Pamera curvipes, Stal, Enum. Hemipt. pt. 4, 1874, p. 148. 

A variety of this species was found in moderate abundance at 
Balthazar, Chantilly, and other places. It was met with in March 
under decaying A*ines and weeds on a damp rock ; while the 
greater number of the specimens were obtained later in the season 
on rank herbage and in thickets. 

Ozophoea, Uhler. 
1. Ozophoea coxsanguixea (Dist.). 

Davila consanguimus, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Am., Hem.-Het. p. 395, 
pi. 35. fig. 2. 

This species is placed in Davila by Mr. Distant, but it is con- 
generic and perhaps identical with 0. burmeisterii, Guerin, from 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF GRENADA. 187 

Cuba. Many specimens were collected at Balthazar, April 7, 
from herbage on open weedy places near a stream of water. 

2. OzOPHORA PALLESCENS (Dist.). 

Davida pattescens, Dist. t. c. p. 395, pi. 35. fig. 3. 

This is the smallest species of the genus which has thus far 
been discovered. It has likewise been placed in the genus Davila 
by Mr. Distant. Specimens were collected at Balthazar, Chantilly, 
and other localities, on the same kinds of herbage as the preceding 
species. 

Ptochiomera, Say. 

Ptochiomera oblonga (Dist.). 

Plociomera oblonga, Dist. t. c. p. 209, pi. 17. fig. 24. 

Numerous specimens of this insect were taken at Balthazar, 
March 27 and later, on herbage in cocoa orchards near water. 

The names Ploxiomerus and Plociomera are later inventions of 
authors and are not to be found in the writings of Mr. Say. That 
used above is the spelling given by Mr. Say, and there seems to be 
no satisfactory reason for changing it. 

PvGiEus, gen. nov. 

Form similar to PtocJiiomera, but with the pronotum transverse, 
obsoletely constricted, with the lateral raised margin callous 
along the sides of the almost flat posterior lobe, carried forward 
very slender to the anterior angle. Antennae thick, a little longer 
than the head and pronotum united ; the first joint not so long as 
the head, not thickened towards the tip ; second a little longer, 
growing thicker towards the tip ; the third much shorter, thicker, 
fusiform ; the fourth not quite so thick as the third, subfusiform, 
acute at both ends. Bostrum slender beyond the basal joint, 
reaching the middle coxae, the basal joint as long as the gula, the 
second joint a little longer. Head moderately long, in front of 
the eyes narrower than the apex of pronotum ; eyes large and 
prominent; the face tapering, sloping forwards, with the tylus 
prominent ; the bucculae very low, slender. Prosternum collar- 
like in front of the anterior coxae. Pore femora moderately thick, 
without spines, posterior femora long, curved at the tip. Scutellum 
a little longer than wide, acute and carinate at the tip, the sides 
strongly decurved. Hemelytra long oval, with a tapering curve 
posteriorly, the membrane a little protracted behind the abdomen, 
the costal border thick and slightly reflexed, a little sinuated, with 
the embolium long and broadly grooved. 

Pyg^us pallidus, sp. nov. 

Long oval, fulvous, polished, minutely pubescent, and feebly 
punctate ; antennae darker beyond the testaceous basal joint. 
Bostrum, coxae, and legs testaceous. Underside highly polished. 
Posterior lobe of pronotum punctate, anterior lobe smooth ; pos- 



188 prof. p. b. uhler on the [Mar. 6, 

terior margin a little deflexed, sometimes slenderly infuscated. 
Scutellum at base coarsely and deeply punctate. Claws punctate 
in Hues, the corium a little less coarsely punctate, with the cuneus 
dusky ; the membrane whitish, immaculate. 

Length 1| mm. ; width of pronotum | mm. 

This plain little insect inhabits also Cuba, Texas, Florida, the 
eastern side of the United States as far north as Tewksbury, Mass., 
and spreads into Lower Canada. It is sometimes quite common 
in Maryland. The four specimens from Grenada were secured at 
Balthazar, August 4, at an altitude of 250 feet above the sea, in 
open places, where they were flying at sunset, on the Mount Gay 
estate, August 20 to 25, and September 15, on the Grand Etang 
road. 

Salacia, StSl. 

Salacia picturata, Dist. 

Salacia picturata, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Am., Hem.-Het. p. 406, 
pi. 35. fig. 19. 

Five specimens of this species were taken at Balthazar and 
other places on wet sand, or on weeds close to running water, 
April 15, and also August 17 under bundles of weeds. 

In placing this insect in the genus Salacia, I have merely 
followed the lead of Mr. Distant, because no type of that genus 
is within my reach, and I desire to avoid multiplying genera in 
this much-divided family. 

Trapezus, Dist. 

Trapezus fasciatus, Dist. 

Trapezus fasciatus, Dist. t. c. p. 217, pi. 20. fig. 5. 

Three specimens of this insect were collected on the Grand 
Etang, August 13, at an elevation of 1900 feet above the sea. 
They were beaten from masses of brush in a clearing of the damp 
forest. One specimen was taken September 15. 

Petissius, Dist. 

Petissius diversus, Dist. 

Petissius diversus, Dist. t. c. p. 407, pi. 35. fig. 22. 

Numerous specimens of this little insect were collected at 
Balthazar, April 22, in open weedy places, among second-growth 
thickets, and on the Chantilly estate, April 15, where they were 
flying about the flowers of an orange-tree. 

Gonatas, Dist. 

GONATAS DIVERGENS, Dist. 

Gonatas divergens, Dist. t. c. p. 219, pi. 20. fig. 10. 
Many specimens of this species were taken at Balthazar, 
April 8, from wet sand on the banks of a stream, where they 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 189 

were alighting from the air. Others were found on the Mount 
Gay estate, August 20-25, under piles of weeds and leaves. 

Ehaptus, Stal. 

Ehaptus collenus, Dist. 

Rhaptus collina, Dist. t. c. p. 410, pi. 36. fig. 3. 

Seven specimens of this insect were found on the Mount 
Gay estate, where they were either beaten from herbage in open 
places or taken from beneath piles of weeds and leaves. 

Mela:nocoryphus, Stal. 
Melanocoryphus bicrucis (Say). 

Lygceus bicrucis, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. iv. 1825, 
p. 322. 

Four specimens of this common North-American insect were 
taken on the Mount Gay estate, August 21-26, on herbage. 

Oncopeltus, Stal. 

1. Oncopeltus easciatus (Dallas). 
Lygceus fasciatus, Dallas, List, iv. p. 538„ 

Five specimens were found on the Mount Gay estate, August 
26 and 30. They were beaten from herbage on an open flat 
tract near the sea. 

2. ONCOPELTUS CENGUXIEER, Stal. 

Oncopeltus (ErythriscJiius) cingulifer, Stal, Enum. Hemipt. pt. 4 
1874, p. 103. 

Numerous specimens were collected at Balthazar, March 7 
and April 2, from herbage in second-growth woods. One 
specimen -was secured at Granville, March 27 ; another was found 
on the Mount Gay estate, April 5, on herbage ; and another at 
the same place on August 26. 

3. Oncopeltus yaricolor (Eabr.). 
Lygceus varicolor, Eabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 149. 

A few specimens of this beautiful species were found at 
Balthazar and other places in April, on open places upon herbage. 
One was also found on the Lake Antoine estate, another on the 
Mirabeau estate, and yet another was found at Windsor, on the 
windward side of the island, March 28, on herbage in an open 
area at an elevation of 500 feet above the sea. 

PyRRHOCORIDjE. 

Dysdercus, Am. et S. 
Dysdercos annuliger, sp. nov. 
Form of D. suturellus, H.-Schf., and differing from that species 



190 peof. p. e. uhlee ok the [Mar. 0, 

in having a white ring at the base of the apical joint of the 
antennae, and in lacking the white cross on the inner margin of 
the corium and clavus. There are two principal patterns of mark- 
ing in this insect : one in which the upper surface is dusky black, 
with the exception of the head, the anterior two-thirds of the 
pronotum, and the base of scutellam, which are red ; in the other 
the insect is red above, excepting the base of the pronotum and the 
membrane, which are black. In the female the underside is red 
with a black edge to the basal margin of the ventral segments and 
pleural sutures. In the male most of the venter is white, as are 
also the collum and posterior border of the pleural pieces. The 
rostrum of the male usually reaches to the middle of the second 
ventral segment, but in the female it extends only to the basal 
segment. 

Varieties occur which connect the two extremes of colour. The 
legs vary in the amount of red upon the femora and tibiae. 
Many of the specimens have these members piceous blackish. 

Length to tip of abdomen rf 8-10, $ 10-12 mm. ; width of 
pronotum 2|— 4 mm. 

This species is also closely related to D. ruficollis, Linn., but it is 
a much larger insect, with a longer head, exactly as in D. euturetttis, 
IL-Scbf., and with a proportionally longer rostrum in both 
sexes. In D. ruficollis all the specimens I have examined were 
marked with a more or less distinct black dot behind the middle 
of the corium. 

Many specimens were collected on both sides of the island. 
At Balthazar they were found March 30, in considerable 
numbers upon decaying oranges in shady places. On the Mount 
Gay estate (leeward) they were taken, April 5 and 25, in the 
cocoa orchards, where they were brushed from the undergrowth. 
In August and September they were found on the Mount Gay 
estate and St. George's. 

The white colour of the base of the fourth joint of the antenna? 
is sometimes indistinct, but not quite absent. 

Capsidj;. 
Lopus, Hahn. 
Lopus militaeis, sp. nov. 

Long oval, pubescent, bright yellow beneath, the markings rufo- 
fulvous above. Head short, with a dusky oval loop on the 
cranium, open at base, and closed at the base of the tylus ; the 
tylus stout, black, the cheeks and throat bright yellow ; rostrum 
yellow, fuscous from the middle to the tip, reaching behind the 
middle coxae, the basal joint thickened at tip, reaching upon the 
sternum ; antennae black, long, tapering, the second joint rod- 
shaped, about as long as the more slender third and fourth joints 
united ; eyes black, very prominent. Pronotum dark brown, dull, 
pubescent, with the collum, and a broad reddish stripe running 



1894.] HEHIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF GRENADA. 191 

back from it, widening at the basal margin, narrowing between the 
callosities and sending off a slender line behind them ; lateral 
margins sinuated, acutely reflexed, excepting the sides of the 
prominent collum ; margin of the propleura also reflexed. Legs 
black, orange or rufous on the coxae and base of femora. Scutellum 
almost flat, flavo-rufous, a little fuscous near the basal angles. 
Hemelytra dark brown, greyish-pubescent, with the cuneus and 
inner edge of the clavus fulvous; costal areoledong, narrow and 
almost straight, the membrane dark brown, the vein of the 
areole pale. Venter yellow, invested with long whitish pubescence, 
the sides obscured with a series of spots, and the ovipositor black. 

Length to end of venter 5-5| mm. ; width of pronotum 21 mm. 

Only two specimens, a male and a female, of this bright insect 
were secured. They were found on an open and weedy place 
upon herbage, on La Force estate, at an elevation of about 350 feet 
above the sea. 

Calocoris, Fieber. 
Caeocoris (Megaco]lum) rubrinervis (Dist.). 

Creontiades (Megacoelum) rubrinervus, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Hem.-Het. p. 237, pi. 23. fig. 12. 

A fine series of specimens were brought back from the island. 
They were found on both sides of the region. At Balthazar they 
were taken April 7, from plants in open weedy places near a 
stream of water. In March they were found on the Mirabeau 
and Lake Antoine estates. In August they were swept from 
herbage on the Mount Gay and Lake Antoine estates. 

The form of the sides of the head and proportions of the 
antennse seem to place this species in Calocoris rather than in 
Megacoelum. 

Melinna, IJhler. 

Melenna modesta, Uhler. 

Melinna modesta, Uhler, Entomol. Americana, iii. 1887, p. 69. 

Several specimens were taken on the Mount Gray estate and 
at St. George's, late in August and early in September, by sweeping 
the herbage. 

In Maryland this species occurs in late summer on willows, 
and also on undergrowth of thin woods and on pine-trees, near 
streams of water. 

Phytocoris, Fabr. 

Phytocoris eximius, Eeuter. 

Phytocoris eximius, Renter, Ofv. Vetensk.-Akad. Forh. 1875, 
no. 9, p. 67. 

Three specimens, all different in markings, were found at 
Balthazar, March 2, and at St. George's in September. They 
came to the light at night. 



192 prof. p. e. uhler on the [Mar. 6, 

This is a common species with an extensive distribution. It 
inhabits Colombia, Central America, Mexico, California, Washington 
State, Oregon, Colorado and Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Minne- 
sota, Lower Canada, and all the Atlantic States from Maine to 
Florida, and the Gulf States west into Texas, as also San 
Domingo and Cuba. Degrees of maturity affect its colours and 
pattern of marking. 

Poeciloscytus, Fieber. 

PffiCiLOSCYTUS (Ltgus) cuneatus (Dist.). 

Lygus cuneatus,~Dist. Biol. Centr.-Am., Hem.-Het. p. 435, pi. 37. 
fig. 24. 

This is a common species in the Antilles and on the borders of 
the adjoining continent. It is found in Central America, Mexico, 
Texas, and Florida, and apparently as far north as Virginia. 
Specimens from the last-named State have passed through my 
hands, but, as their antennae were mutilated, a slight element of 
uncertainty exists in the identification. 

Many specimens were collected on the Mirabeau estate, April 7, 
as they came to the light at night. At Balthazar and on the 
Mount Gay estate they were swept from herbage in August. 

Fulvius, Stal. 

1. FULVIUS ATRATUS, Dist. 

Fulvius atratus, Dist. t. c. p. 282, pi. 27. fig. 18. 

Several specimens of this species were taken at Balthazar, 
March 7, and also early in August, in bushy places on herbage 
and at the light. Others were captured at Chantilly, and on the 
Grand Etang they were met with at an altitude of 1900 feet upon 
decaying weeds. In the United States this species frequents 
fungi in damp, shady borders of woods, and it flies freely in the 
sunshine. 

2. Fulvius lunulatus, sp. nov. 

Black, polished, oblong-ovate, with the head shorter than 
normal, wider than the apex of pronotum, and swollen between 
the eyes, vertex with a faint impressed line ; antennas dark brown, 
the second joint paler, very long, and white on the apical one- 
third, the third and fourth a little more slender than the second, 
but not setaceous ; rostrum piceous, reaching behind the posterior 
coxae. Pronotum wider than long, tumidly convex on the middle, 
broadly indented, and grooved in the centre behind the collum, 
the posterior submargin bounded by an incised line ; humeral 
angles acutely prominent, the lateral margin deeply sinuated. 
Scutellum piceous black, highly polished, convex. Legs pale 
fuscous, the anterior femora darker. Hemelytra black, or 
brownish black, marked with a minute pale fleck at the base of 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OP GRENADA. 193 

the corium, and with the inner border of the clavus slenderly- 
fulvous ; corium with an obliquely placed lozenge-shaped white 
spot on the basal third, and a smaller oval spot of the same 
colour on the inner half of the cuneus ; membrane smoke-brown, 
showing a slender edge of white against the margin of the cuneus. 

Length to tip of venter 2-2| mm. ; width of pronotum | mm. 

Several specimens were collected on the Black Forest estate 
and about the Grand Etang, on the windward side of the island, 
from August 13 to 19, at an altitude of 1500 to 1900 feet above 
the level of the sea, under leaves on the ground, on bark of 
decaying logs in a clearing, and also beaten from masses of brush 
and leaves. 

ECCRITOTARSUS, Stal. 

1. ECCEITOTARSUS ATBATUS, Dist. 

Eccritotarsus atratus, Dist. t. c. p. 285, pi. 26. fig. 20. 

This is a common species in the West Indies, Mexico, Central 
America, and Colombia. It inhabits also California and Texas. 
Numerous specimens were taken at Balthazar, at an elevation 
of 1900 feet above the sea, April 2, on herbage, in open grassy 
places near water. It was found also on the Mount Gay estate 
in August, flying at sunset. 

2. ECCRITOTARSUS INCURVUS, Dist. 

Eccritotarsus incurvus, Dist. t. c. p. 285, pi. 26. fig. 19. 

Numerous specimens were found at Balthazar, also on the 
Mirabeau, Mount Gay, and Lake Antoine estates, either in March 
or August, on grass and herbage near streams of water. In the 
southern United States it lives in midsummer on low herbs in open 
places on sandy beaches of streams. 

Cyrtocapsus, Eeuter. 

Ctrtocapsits caligineus (Stal). 

Capsus caligineus, Stal, Ereg. Eugenie Eesa, Ins. p. 258 ; Dist. 
t. c p. xx. 

Piriihous pallipes, Dist. t. c. p. 303, pi. xxix. fig. 11. 

A few specimens were taken at Balthazar and on the Mirabeau 
estate in March and April in weedy places. 

Engytatus, Eeuter. 

Engytatus geniculatus, Eeuter. 

Engytatus geniculatus, Eeuter, Ofv. Vetensk.-Akad. Eorh. 1875, 
no. 9, p. 83. 

Neoproba varians, Dist. t. c. p. 271 , pi. 26. fig. 7. 

This species is distributed all the way from Colombia to Mexico, 



194 peof. p. e. uhlee oy the [Mar. 6, 

the Antilles, Texas, and Florida. In San Domingo it lives on 
various kinds of weeds growing on the sides of the roads and in 
neglected gardens. 

Xurnerous specimens were collected on both sides of Grenada. 
On the Mount Gay estate they were found, late in August, on 
herbage in the open country. At St. George's they were taken 
during the same month, at night, from herbage. 

Dicyprts, Fieber. 

DlCTPHXS SEPARATUS, sp. nOV. 

Long and moderately narrow, pale greenish, erect-pubescent, 
with the basal joint and apex of the second joint of antennae black ; 
punctures of the hemelytra coarse, sparse, black ; corium with a 
large black dot a little behind the apex, with the apex, the 
posterior border faintly, the tip of scutellum, and the end of the 
cuneus also black. Head moderately short, highly polished, 
remotely pubescent ; eyes dark brown ; antennae pale green, 
minutely pubescent, a little longer than from tip of head to apex 
of clavus ; rostrum testaceous, dusky at tip, reaching almost to the 
apex of the posterior coxae. Pronotum obsoletely punctate, marked 
with a deeply-impressed longitudinal line, the posterior margin 
deeply sinuated. Legs pale greenish, with the apex of the tarsi 
piceous. Scutellum a little punctate, set with erect hairs. Corium 
and clavus with remote erect fuscous pubescence ; cuneus minutely 
striato-punctate, long, sinuated on the inner border : the membrane 
long, iridescent, with the veins of the areole a little dusky. 

Length to tip of abdomen 3 mm., to tip of membrane 4 mm.; 
width of pronotum g mm. 

This species extends its habitat from Cambridge, Mass., to 
Florida and Texas ; it is also found in California. 

Six specimens of this insect were taken on the Mount Gay 
estate, October 16, on low herbage. 

Paeacae>~us, Dist. 

Paeacaenus mexicantts, Dist. 

Paraccii-nus mexicanus, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Am., Hem.-Het. p. 445, 
pi. 39. fig. 2. 

This species was captured at Balthazar, March 23, in a cocoa 
orchard in a damp situation. On the Mirabeau estate it was found 
March 25, on herbage near a stream of water. 

AsnsrosA, Dist. 

Axxoxa labeculata, Dist. 

Annona labeculata, Dist. t. c. p. 446, pi. 39. fig. 3. 
One specimen was found near Balthazar, March 23, in a shady 
damp locality, on herbage, in a cocoa orchard. 



1894.] HEMIPTEEA-HETEEOPTEEA OE GEENADA. 195 

Halticus, Burin. 

Haltictts tthlebi, Giard. 

Halticus ulileri, Griard, C. Bend. Soc. Biol. ser. 9, iv. p. 81. 

Halticus minutus, Uhler, in Popenoe, Report, Kansas, 1889, 
p. 212, pi. 9. figs. 10 & 12. 

Calocoris canus, Dist. t. c. p. 430, pi. 37. figs. 11 & 12. 

Several specimens were found, most of which were winged. A 
brachypterous specimen was taken, March 25, on the Mirabeau 
estate ; the other specimens were found, in August, among dry 
weeds and rubbish on damp ground at Balthazar and Chantilly. 

Episcoptts, Beuter. 
Episcopus ornatus, Beuter. 

Episcojpus omatus, Beuter, Ofv. Vetensk.-Akad. Pbrh. 1875, 
no. 9, p. 90. 

Lygus uvidus, Dist. t. c. p. 433, pi. 37. fig. 18. 

In the United States this species is distributed from New York 
to Florida, and from thence to Cuba and San Domingo. It 
abounds in midsummer in fields from which wheat has been cut, 
and where it lives upon the Ambrosia artemisicefolia. 

In Grenada it was common at Balthazar and on the Mirabeau 
estate, on weeds, both in April and August. 

Psallus, Eieber. 

PSALLUS POLITTXS, Sp. nOV. 

Oval, black, highly polished, minutely pubescent. Head large, 
triangular, almost vertical, moderately convex, rufo-piceous beneath, 
with a few indented points on the vertex, the width across the eyes 
a little greater than the apex of the pronotum ; antennae yellow, 
short, moderately stout, the two apical joints and sometimes the 
distal end of the second joint fuscous, the second nearly as long as 
the head and pronotum united ; rostrum testaceous, piceous at base, 
the tylus also piceous. Pronotum transverse, simple, moderately 
convex, obliquely narrowed, and abruptly decurved on each side in 
front, the surface highly polished, sparsely pubescent, obsoletely 
punctate. Scutellum nearly equilateral, moderately convex, acute 
at tip, obsoletely wrinkled. Legs testaceous, the tarsi usually 
more or less dusky. Hemelytra highly polished, minutely greyish 
pubescent, covered with shallow punctures ; the membrane smoke- 
Drown. Pleural pieces and sternum piceous. Venter highly 
polished, not apparently punctate, often rufo-piceous at base. 

The male has the second joint of antennae a little thickened at 
apex and often fuscous there. 

Length to tip of venter l|-2 mm ; width of pronotum | mm. 

Nineteen specimens of this little insect were secured in various 
places on the windward side of the island. Of these both sexes 



196 prof, p. r. uhler on the [Mar. 6, 

were found on the Mirabeau estate, April 7, at an altitude of 
250 feet ; on the Mount Gay estate, at levels from 200 to 400, on 
August 21 ; and on the Chantilly estate, September 17, at an 
altitude of 500 feet. Some came to the light at night, others 
were taken while flying at sunset, and some others were swept 
from herbage in open places. 

Bhinacloa, Eeuter. 
Bhinacloa forticorstis, Eeuter. 

Rhinacloa forticornis, Eeuter, Ofv. Vetensk.-Akad. Forh. 1875, 
no. 9, p. 88. 

This species was found at Balthazar, St. George's, and on the 
Mount Gay estate in August, upon herbage growing in swampy 
ground. 

CeEATOCOMBIUjE. 

Ceratocombus, Signoret. 

1. Ceratocombus brasiliensis, Eeuter. 

Ceratocombus brasiliensis, Eeuter, Monogr. Ceratocomb. p. 7, 
no. 3, fig. 3. 

This species is common in both St. Vincent and Grenada, and 
it seems to have a general distribution from Brazil to the Antilles. 
Numerous specimens were collected at Balthazar, March 5, under 
decaying leaves on a damp rock, next the shady bank of a stream. 
At Woburn one specimen was found on the Windsor estate, at an 
elevation of 500 feet, March 28, under decaying leaves on wet sand 
on the shady bank of a stream. In August it was abundant on 
the Mount Gay estate, at an elevation of 1900 feet above the sea, 
in a clearing of the damp forest, with masses of brush and leaves. 

Individual specimens vary somewhat in the extent of the white 
colour near the costal margin of the hemelytra. In some of them 
scarcely more than a white dot is present, while in others the 
colour is extended into a broad streak. In a small proportion of 
the specimens the white is obsolete or absent. 

This form is closely related to, if not the same as, one which 
belongs to the Gulf States and Florida ; but, as only soiled speci- 
mens have been accessible to me, it is not possible to express a 
settled opinion as to the identity of these insects. 

2. Ceratocombus minutus, sp. nov. 

Oblong-ovate, dull black ; form similar to C. brasiliensis, Bent., 
but small, and comparatively wider across the hemelytra. Head 
subconical, longer than wide, a little narrower than the apex of 
the pronotum, minutely pubescent, sometimes tinged with rufous, 
indented in the middle, with the tylus wide and prominent, and 
the eyes projecting beyond the sides of the pronotum ; underside 
of head testaceous, piceous on the tumid base of the gula, the 
rostrum testaceous, reaching upon the middle coxae ; antennae 
moderately stout, testaceous, the two apical joints slender and 



1894.] HEMIPTEEA-HETEBOPTEBA OE GBENADA. 197 

more distinctly hairy. Pronotum transverse, moderately convex, 
minutely pubescent, strongly decurved behind the eyes, with the 
lateral margins reflexed and set with remote bristles, the humeral 
angles a little prominent, posterior margin a little curved ; sternum 
piceous, transversely tumid at the collum, and smooth. Legs dusky 
testaceous, with the anterior femora broad and compressed. 
Hemelytra dull black, pubescent, gradually widening posteriorly, 
the membrane almost as long as the corium, opaque, and bluntly 
rounded at tip, with the middle area large and oval, similar to 
C brasiliensis ; costal margin broadly recurved almost to the tip of 
corium, the cell adjacent to the costa long and wide, subtriangular. 

Length to tip of hemelytra 1| mm. ; width of pronotum § mm. 

Numerous specimens were collected in various localities in the 
island. At Balthazar, 250 feet above tide-level, specimens were 
secured, April 20, in weedy open places in second-growth thickets, 
and at the same place on August 4, 10, 15, flying at sunset. On 
the Mount Gay estate they were found August 28-31 and 
September 6, at an altitude of 200 feet, flying at sunset. On the 
Grand Etang they were secured at an altitude of 1900 feet on a 
clearing in the damp forest, where they were beaten from masses 
of brush and from leaves. On the Chantilly estate they were 
found, August 5, at an altitude of 500 feet on open hillsides, 
amidst a second- growth timber, where they were swept from piles 
of decaying weeds and rubbish. 

Ceyptostemma, H.-Schf. 
Ceyptostehma easciatum, sp. nov. 

Dark'brown, opaque, oblong-oval, gradually widening posteriorly, 
minutely pubescent. Head subcorneal, tinged with rufous in 
front and below ; antennae long, stout, rufo-testaceous, hairy ; 
rostrum pale testaceous, reaching to the posterior coxae. Pronotum 
a little wider than long, indistinctly grooved on the middle line, 
steeply decurved on the sides anteriorly, where it becomes a little 
narrower. Legs pale testaceous. Hemelytra apparently coriaceous 
throughout, dark brown, minutely scabrous and pubescent, crossed 
behind the scutellum by a wavy, broad, deep yellow band. Beneath 
dull yellow on the meso- and metasternum, and sometimes on the 
base of the venter. The entire underside is sometimes pale piceous. 

Length to tip of venter 1 mm. ; width of pronotum | mm. 

Four specimens were collected on the Grand Etang, August 9, 
at an altitude of 1900 feet above the sea, from masses of roots, 
pbyto-parasites, and decaying leaves on trees. 

Schizopteba, Fieber. 
Schizopteba flavipes, Reuter. 

Scliizoptera Jiavipes, Eeuter, Monogr. Ceratocomb. p. 19, no. 2, 
fig. 10. 

The original type of this species came from Rio, Brazil ; but the 
Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XIV. 14 



198 peof. p. b. uhler ox THE [Mar. 6, 

specimens from the West Indies agree in all respects with the 
description given by Mr. Eeuter. This species is now known to 
me through specimens from Venezuela, Central America, and the 
Antilles. 

Several specimens were taken at Balthazar and on the Grand 
Etang, in August and the early part of September. They were 
captured while flying, at sunset, and at various elevations from 
500 to 1300 feet above the sea. 

Ptexldiophyes, Eeuter. 
Ptexidiophtes mikajbilis, Eeuter. 

Ptenidiophyes mirabilis, Eeuter, Monogr. Ceratocomb. p. 26, 
no. 1, fig. 15. 

Only three specimens were secured : one on the Chantilly 
estate, early in August, on a hillside, in the piles of decaying 
weeds ; and the others were found on the Grand Etang, August '.>, 
at an elevation of 1900 feet above the sea, where they were beaten 
from masses of roots and decaying leaves. The type was takeu 
in Brazil. 

AsnocoEiDi. 

Lasiochilus, Eeuter. 

1. Lasiochilus paelidexes, Eeuter. 

Lasiochilus pallidulus, Eeuter, Monogr. Anthoc, Acta Soc. 
Fenn. xiv. 1884, p. 571. 

Many specimens were collected at various points on the island. 
At Balthazar they were taken, April 7, at an elevation of 250 
feet above the sea, while flying over open places at sunset. On 
August 7 they were taken at the same place from vines and 
bushes. At the Grand Etang they were found, September 15, at 
an elevation of 1900 feet, among piles of weeds. Others were 
taken on the Mount Gay estate. 

2. Lasiochiees vaeicolok, sp. nov. 

Oblong-oval, much less robust, narrower and more tender than 
L. pallidulus, Eeut., fusco-testaceous, pale pubescent, paler 
beneath, and with the head, pronotum, and base of scutellum 
rufo-piceous. Head highly polished, shorter than the pronotum, 
with the eyes black, large, and extending beyond the width of the 
front of the pronotum ; antennae moderately slender, pubescent, 
testaceous, sometimes a little dusky, and darker on the ends of the 
joints, a little longer than the head, prothorax, and scutellum 
united, the second joint stout, a little longer than the head, 
slightly thickened at tip ; rostrum pale testaceous, reaching 
behind the anterior coxae, the basal joint thick, barely reaching to 
the eye. Prouotum polished, with slender transverse wrinkles ; 
the collum narrow but distinct ; the anterior lobe convexly elevated, 
with an impressed point on the middle ; the lateral margin feebly 
sinuated behind, but strongly contracted in front ; the posterior 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF GRENADA. 199 

margin sinuated, with the humeral angles prominent, oblique, and 
a little rounded ; the pro- and mesopleura piceous, with the 
sternum and coxal pieces paler. Legs pale testaceous. Base of 
scutellum transversely elevated, the surface behind this depressed, 
dull testaceous, with the tip almost acuminate. Hemelytra long, 
closely pale pubescent, dull yellowish, with the apex and inner 
margin dusky, the costal margin almost straight, and the basal 
margin of the cuneus bounded by a pale line ; membrane dusky, a 
little paler at base. Venter fulvo-testaceous, distinctly pubescent, 
ovate, with the ovipositor piceous. 

Length to tip of venter l|-2 mm. ; width of pronotutn | mm. 

Numerous specimens were collected at several points, such as 
Balthazar, August 8, at an elevation of 250 feet above the sea, 
in open fields, in piles of decaying weeds ; at Chantilly, August 5, 
at an altitude of 500 feet above tide, on open hdlsides, from piles 
of decaying weeds and rubbish ; from Grand Etang, September 12, 
15, on piles of weeds ; and from the Mount Gay estate likewise 
on weeds and waste from stable. 

3. Lasiochilus fraterntts, sp. nov. 

Form similar to the preceding, but more robust, closely 
resembling L. fusculus, Beuter, smaller, and with a shorter 
pronotum, &c. Colour fusco-piceous, paler beneath, with pale 
testaceous legs and rostrum. Head a little shorter than in L. 
fusculus, rufo-piceous before the line of the eyes, polished, a little 
shorter than the pronotum ; a curved impressed line across the 
vertex, the eyes extending a little wider than the front of pro- 
notum ; antennae stout, f usco-testaceous, the second joint gradually 
thickening towards the tip, a little longer than the pronotum, the 
two apical joints paler, conspicuously pubescent ; rostrum reaching 
to the anterior coxse, the basal joint stout and extending to the 
middle of the eye. Pronotum trapezoidal, wider than long, 
polished, transversely wrinkled, a little scabrous on the posterior 
lobe, punctate on the sides, the lateral margin bluntly rounded off, 
hardly sinuated, set with erect bristles, the apical border a little 
reflexed, the posterior margin moderately sinuated, with the 
humeral angles subacute and a little produced. Sternum, pleural 
pieces, and disk of venter more or less dark piceous, the deflexed 
margin of the pronotum placed inferior ly, sharply defined, growing 
much thicker anteriorly. Scutellum deeply depressed, a little 
scabrous, pubescent. Hemelytra dull fusco-piceous, minutely 
pubescent, more or less dull testaceous at base and along the length 
of the clavus ; membrane long, pale fuliginous, paler at base. 

Length to tip of venter 2 mm. ; width of pronotum g mm. 

Some specimens have a faint pale dot on the middle at base of 
cuneus. This species lacks the indentation on the middle of 
pronotum. Specimens were collected at Balthazar, March 12, 
at an elevation of 300 feet, on dry hillsides, amongst second- 
growth woods, under piles of decaying weeds, and at the same 
place August 7, 8, 10-15 ; on the Mount Gay estate, August 20- 

14* 



200 pbof. p. e. uhlee o>" the Mar. 6, 

25, at altitudes of 150-200 feet, flying at sunset ; at St. George's, 
August 21 and September 1, altitude 500 feet, flying at sunset. 

4. Lasiochiiajs hxbulosub, sp. nov. 

More robust than either of the preceding species, subovate, 
dark piceous. with a tinge of rufous, the head, pronotum, and base 
of scutellurn highly polished. Head short, pale rufo-piceous in 
front of the vertex, the tablet carrying the ocelli opaque and rough, 
bounded in front by a transverse groove, impressed line at base of 
tylus deep ; antennas slender, about as long as the head, pronotum, 
and scutellurn united, the basal joint projecting a little in front of 
the head, piceous, sometimes pale at tip, the second joint shorter 
than usual, pale yellow with a dusky tip, scarcely longer than the 
head, the two apical joints tinged with fuscous ; rostrum dark 
piceous at base, pale rufo-testaceous from thence to the tip, 
reaching to the anterior coxae. Sternum and venter piceous, the 
posterior borders of the middle pleura, as also exteriorly, yellowish. 
Pronotum trapezoidal, wider than long, dark piceous, fringed with 
a few long ciliae : dorsal surface very moderately convex, a little 
scabrous and wrinkled, with a wide collar at tip ; the lateral margin 
very obliquely convergent, emarginated at the apical angle ; 
posterior margin moderately sinuated, the humeral angles a little 
prominent. Scutellurn dark piceous, raised at base, depressed 
behind this to the tip and minutely scabrous. Legs and coxa? dull 
testaceous, occasionally paler, with the middle of femora dark 
piceous ; tarsi generally piceous. Hemelytra wide, almost parallel- 
sided, dull pale yellowish, pubescent, coarsely punctate, the apex 
of the clavus, an oblong spot near the end of the coriuin, a streak 
exterior to this on the costa, and the cuneus dusky or piceous, 
the posterior edge of the corium marked with polished, piceous, 
interrupted streaks ; the membrane pale, clouded with fuliginous. 

Length to end of venter 1| mm. ; width of pronotum | mm. 

Several specimens were collected at Balthazar, August 7, at an 
altitude of 250 feet, in second-growth woods, from vines and 
brush, also on August 17, under piles of cut weeds, in open damp 
ground. Others were found on the Mount Gay estate, August 20- 
25, and Mere beaten from herbage in open places, at an elevation 
of 200 feet. 

5. Lasiochilus pictus, Lhler. 

Laslocliilu.s rictus, Uhler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 157. 

A few specimens were found at Balthazar and on the Mount 
Gay estate, August 20 to 25, at elevations of 150 to 200 feet above 
the sea, and they were taken, while flying, at sunset. 

6. LxsiocHiLrs basalis, Eeuter. 

Losiochih's basalis, Eeuter, Monogr. Anthoc, Act. Soc. Fenn. 
xiv. p. 569. 

Several specimens were taken on the Chantilly estate and at 
Balthazar in March and August, on the hillsides, from among 
rotting leaves and herbage. 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTBRA OE GRENADA. 201 

7. Lasiochiltts eusculus, Eeuter. 

Lasiochilus fusculus, Eeuter, Monogr. Anthoc., Act. Soc. Fenn. 
xiv. p. 576. 

A few specimens were obtained at Balthazar, early in August, 
in an open field, where they were shaken from decaying leaves. 
On the Grand Etang one specimen was taken, September 1, while 
flying at sunset. 

Piezostethus, Fieber. 

Piezostethus sordidus, Eeuter. 

Piezostethus sordidus, Eeuter, Monogr. Anthoc, Act. Soc. Fenn. 
xiv. p. 591. 

Numerous specimens were procured at several localities. Those 
from Balthazar were found July 11 and August 17, either flying 
at sunset, or on open damp ground beneath piles of cut weeds. 
On the Mount Gay estate and on the Grand Etang they were 
taken daring August, from herbage in open places. 

Triphleps, Fieber. 
Triphleps perpunctatus, Eeuter. 

Triphleps perpunctatus,~R&xitev, Monogr. Anthoc, Act. Soc. Fenn. 
xiv. p. 654. 

A few specimens were taken at Balthazar, August 17, on open 
damp ground under piles of weeds. 

Brachtsteles, Muls. et Eey. 
Brachysteles pallidus, Eeuter. 

Br achy steles pallidus, Eeuter, Monogr. Anthoc, Act. Soc Fenn. 
xiv. p. 672. 

A few specimens were secured at four different localities. At 
Balthazar they were found August 14, flying at sunset : others 
were taken on the Mount Gay and Chantilly estates, and at St. 
George's, in August and September, either flying at sunset or 
beneath piles of weeds. 

Cardiastethus, Fieber. 

1. Cardiastethus assimilis, Eeuter. 

Cardiastethus assimilis, Eeuter, Monogr. Anthoc, Act. Soc. Fenn. 
xiv. p. 693. 

Several specimens were secured at Balthazar, April 20, from 
weedy places in second-growth thickets, and on the Mount Gay 
estate, September 4, flying at sunset, or in second-growth woods. 

2. Cardiastethus elegans, sp. nov. 

Form similar to G. assimilis, Eeuter, but rather more elongated, 
pale rufo-piceous, with the legs and antennae yellowish. Head 
moderately long, highly polished, fulvous before the line of the 
antenna), rufo-piceous behind this point, with a band of punctures 



202 peof. p. e. uhlee o>~ tke [Mar. G, 

connecting the eyes ; antennae thick on the two basal joints, the 
two apical ones very slender and hairy, the first joint scarcely 
extending beyond the tip of tylus, the second becoming thicker 
next the tip, longer than the head ; rostrum extending over the 
anterior coxa?, rufo-testaceous, darker at base, the basal joint 
scarcely reaching to the eyes ; the eyes black, a little deeper than 
the head, coarsely granulated ; neck behind the eyes short and 
thick. Pronotum much wider than long, rapidly and obliquely 
narrowing towards the front; the collum very slender and recurved; 
callosities transverse, convexly prominent ; the posterior lobe short, 
darker than anteriorly, obsoletely punctate and rugulose ; the pos- 
terior margin broadly sinuated and having the humeral angles 
indented, moderately prominent ; the lateral margin deflexed, 
thickened, emarginated at the anterior blunt angle. .Sternum and 
pleural pieces pale rufo-piceous. Legs a little pubescent, darker 
on the femora than the tibia?. Scutellum impressed behind the 
middle and rugose nearer the apex. Hemelytra bright yellow, 
pubescent, roughly punctate, the inner border and apex of the 
corium dark brown, this colour extending over the cuneus ; mem- 
brane more or less tinged with fuliginous, but occasionally clear 
and iridescent. Venter polished, minutely punctate and pubescent, 
more or les3 spread with dark piceous. 

Length to tip of venter 1-1 5 mm. ; width of pronotum § mm. 

This is a particularly bright-coloured species, rendered more 
conspicuous by the dark band on the base of pronotum, and 
by the dark border of the hemelytra. Specimens were captured 
at Balthazar, April 20, at an altitude of 250 feet, on weedy open 
places in second-growth thickets ; also on the Grand Etang, at an 
altitude of 1900 feet, where they were beaten from brush and 
masses of leaves. On the Mount Gay estate they were found 
August 20-25, and were beaten from herbage in open places, and 
they were seen flying at sunset in August and September. They 
were also obtained at St. George's, August 22, in open swampy 
places, on herbage. 

Acaxthia, Fabr. 

ACASTTHIA LECTCLAEIA (Linn.). 

Cimex lectularia, Linn. Fauna Suec. p. 909. 
Acanthia lectularia, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 67, 1. 
One specimen was taken. It is very common and a great 
pest, especially in the poorer class of houses. 

TufGITIDD. 

Teleoxemia, Costa. 
Teleoxemia sacchaei (Fabr.). 
Acanthia sacehari, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 77. 
Several specimens were found at Balthazar, April 5, on herbage 
in the cocoa orchards, also on Lake Antoine estate, April 13, 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 203 

among second-growth trees, and at the same place August 26, 
and on the Mount Gay estate, August 26-31, where it was beaten 
from herbage. 

Typonotus, Uhler. 

Typonotus planaris, Uhler. 

Typonotus planaris, Uhler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 716. 

A few specimens were taken at Balthazar, April 3, from 
herbage in open weedy places. Also at St. George's and on the 
Mount Gay estate, in September, from herbage on low grounds. 

CORYTHAICA, Stal. 
CORYTHAICA CARINATA, sp. UOV. 

Oblong, narrow, pale fuscous, sinuated on the sides of pronotum, 
with the costal base of hemelytra less distinctly so, but more 
broadly and deeply behind the middle. Head short, pale brown 
above, the bucculae whitish ; the eyes barely projecting beyond the 
line of the sides of pronotal prolongation ; antennae slender, fulvo- 
testaceous, dark at base, the apical joint more obscurely brownish, 
the second joint minute, the third as long as all the rest united, 
very slender, minutely ciliated, dark brown at base, the apical 
joint with long, erect setae ; rostrum flavo-testaceous, reaching to 
the middle coxae ; a diagonal whitish streak beneath the eye. 
Pronotum tapering anteriorly, with the protuberance detached and 
lifted above the base of the head, becoming more compressed as it 
rises, and at the apex curved down beyond the head, its sides and dor- 
sum each with a carinate line having series of large quadrangular 
cells between them, the lower border reflexed ; the posterior lobe of 
pronotum broad, a little convex, with the lateral margin expanded 
into a white, thin, reflexed border, which is bounded on the inner side 
by a raised thread ending anteriorly in a small button, the three 
longitudinal carinate folds white, arched, the intervening surface 
granulated ; the carinate folds are continued back to tip of the 
scutellum, the lateral ones arched at base, fading out posteriorly, 
and the middle one low and slender throughout. Hemelytra 
mostly opaque, testaceous behind the middle, with the raised lines 
whitish ; the discoidal areole fusiform, fuscous behind, with the 
bounding veins carinate and the exterior one rising posteriorly ; 
the surface generally granulated ; a brown double spot occupies the 
space costally beyond the discoidal areole ; costal area narrow, 
tapei'ing at base, of almost equal width from thence to tip of 
membrane, whitish, provided with a single series of subquadrate 
areoles, and marked near the tip with a dark brown spot contiguous 
to a brown circle on the closed membrane, middle cells of the 
membrane large, unevenly reticulated, and with brown veins, the 
tip almost truncated. 

Length to tip of wing-covers 2|-2| mm. ; width of pronotum 
| mm. 



204 prof, p. r. uhler on the [Mar. 6 

Collected on the Mount Gray estate, August 21-31, September 
11-29, and October 7, on low grounds and hillsides up to 400 
feet, beaten from herbage ; also at St. George's, September 29, on 
herbage. 

The description is chiefly derived from the dark and mature 
specimens. Some of these vary in marking, as well as in breadth 
of hemelytra, especially in the amount of dark brown on the 
membrane. This colour sometimes occupies the whole base and end 
of this part of the hemelytra, and leaves a curved whitish band or 
uneven spot between the two patches of colour. 

CORYTHUCA, Stfll. 
CORTTHUCA DECENS, Stal. 

Tingis deccns, Stal, Stettin, ent. Zeit. xxiii. p. 324. 
A few specimens were found on the Mount Gay estate, Oc- 
tober 16, on low herbage. 

Phymatid^:. 

Phymata, Latr. 

Phymata angulata, sp. nov. 

Pale fulvous (no doubt green when alive), narrow, marked with 
rich dark brown on the pronotum, hemelytra, and sides of abdomen. 
Head of medium length and width, regularly narrowing towards 
the tip, the tip triangularly emarginate with the two processes 
short and subacute, the surface granulated, longitudinally and 
deeply depressed, with a curved, anteriorly tapering ridge each 
side conspicuously granulated, which carries the ocelli, the occiput 
truncated and sharpe-edged ; eyes of medium prominence ; the 
antennae long, with the apical joint (d) much longer than the 
three others united, ( $ ) on ly about one and a half times as long 
as the third, usually inf uscated on the apical half ; cheeks granulated 
in broken rows, neck remotely granulated. Pronotum pale fulvo- 
testaceous (when less mature pale testaceous), stained with pale 
brown across the base, on the lobes of the posterior division, and 
forming a diagonal spot on the side of the anterior lobes ; the an- 
terior division granulated, with the side-lobes subtriangular, a 
little curved, pale, bordered with granules ; the posterior division 
coarsely punctate, marked off laterally by a deep emargination, 
followed by a long lamellar Ming, which is deeply emarginate 
on the end, acutely produced at the posterior angle and more 
triangularly at the anterior angle, which also carries a slender 
diagonal carina ; cariuate lines of the disk spreading wider apart 
posteriorly, all the raised lines granulated ; the humero-posterior 
margin reflexed, white, slightly oblique, broadly sinuated, with 
the inner angles produced over the clavus. Scutellum pale 
brown, more closely granulated at base, the middle carina marked 
with a whitish tip. Corium and clavus more or less dark brown, 
sprinkled with remote, minute, yellow granules, the veins and costal 
margin pale yellowish ; membrane dark brown with a brassy tinge. 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 205 

Legs testaceous yellow ; the anterior femora more or less rufous, 
granulated, wide, strongly compressed and smooth on the lower 
anterior border ; middle and posterior femora granulated, marked 
with a brown band, with rows of spines beneath and a small tooth 
near the apex ; tibiae of the same pairs more minutely granulated, 
with a small tooth beneath near the basal end; tarsi sometimes 
piceous and with black nails. Abdomen pale, widely expanded 
into long triangular lobes, which are brown spotted with white 
exteriorly, and pale with dark marks posteriorly, the outer extremity 
of these lobes acute, and on the underside reddish brown and 
carinate. Meso- and metapleura marked with a common reddish 
brown patch. 

Length to end of renter 5^-6 mm. ; width across humeral 
wings 2|-3 mm. ; width across abdominal lobes 3-3g mm. 

The specimens were secured on the La Force estate on May 5 and 
August 7, at an altitude of 250 feet, and were swept from herbage 
in open swampy and weedy places ; others were taken on the 
Mount Gay estate, September 28, October 3 and 12, in open 
places among herbage. 

Nabida 

Coriscus, Schrank. 

1. Cobisctts crassipes (Eeuter). 

JVabis crassipes, Eeuter, Ofv. Yet.-Akad. Ebrh. 1872, no. 6, p. 83. 
One specimen was found on the Lake Antoine estate, March 24, 
where it was swept from herbage. 

2. Coriscus sericans (Eeuter). 

Nabis sericans, Eeuter, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Eorh. 1872, no. 6, p. 83. 
Only one specimen was obtained. It was taken at Beaulieu, 
March 24, upon herbage, on an open place. 

3. Coriscus capsieormis, Germar. 

Nabida capsiformis, Germar, Silb. Eev. v. p. 132. 

A fine series of this insect was secured at St. George's, 
August 22, upon open swampy spots on herbage. Other speci- 
mens were found on the Mount Gay estate and Grand Etang, in 
September, upon herbage. 

4. Coriscus sigknatus, sp. nov. 

Eorm very nearly that of O. capsiformis, but a little narrower, 
luteo-testaceous, marked with fuscous or clearer brown. Head as 
in G. capsiformis, with the middle of the gula fuscous ; the first and 
second joints of antenna) long, brown at base and tip, and marked 
with obscure annulations ; the rostrum pale testaceous, with a 
dark ring on the apex of the basal joint, which is followed by a 
pale ring on the next joint ; middle line and margin of front 
more or less obscure ; occiput a little swollen, polished, sometimes 



206 prof. p. r. uhler on" thb [Mar. 6, 

pale piteous. Pronotum marked with a narrow fuscous line on 
the middle, which becomes double on the anterior lobe ; each side 
of this several short streaks of the same colour are distributed over 
the surface, and on the humeri and nearer the middle are two 
short, faint stripes of fuscous ; posterior margin decurved, with the 
extreme edge whitish. Legs pale testaceous sprinkled with fuscous, 
with a black band at tip of the middle and posterior femora, and 
a smaller black spot on the apex of the tibia? ; the tarsi and espe- 
cially the nails fuscous. The scutellum and inner edge of the 
clavus receives the continuation of the black stripe from the middle 
of the pronotum. Clavus and corium striped with obscure fuscous 
lines, some of which border the inner edges of the strong veins ; 
the cuneus is also marked with a fuscous abbreviated stripe ; mem- 
brane marked with fuscous lines, most of which are confined to the 
veins. Meso- and metasternum piceous black, the venter pale on the 
middle, darker on the side, and with the connexivum marked with 
black, irregular spots. Genital segment of male a little clavate, 
subtruncate at tip, and bent back. 

Length to tip of venter 6-6| mm. ; width of pronotum 1-1| mm. 

Numerous specimens were obtained at Balthazar, April 7 and 
August 15, at an altitude of 250 feet, on open weedy places 
near a stream. It was also taken at St. George's and on the 
Veudome estate. A few specimens were beaten from herbage 
at night. 

Velidia, gen. nov. 

Aspect of a robust Metacantlms, but a genuine Nabid, with 
certain elements of structure, such as a blunt vertical head and 
deep pronotum, quite out of keeping with the ordinary members 
of this group. Head short, with a polished swollen base, which is 
separated from the space in front of the eyes by a transverse groove ; 
the eyes oval, vertical, projecting but little beyond the occipital 
swelling ; front short, but slightly convex. Rostrum conical at base, 
beyond this slender and reaching upon the posterior coxae ; the tylus 
vertical, narrow,tapering, the cheeks also narrow. Antennae slender, 
the basal joint a little longer than the head; the second joint more 
slender, nearly twice as long as the basal one ; the third equally 
slender, a little longer than the second ; the fourth shorter than 
the second. Pronotum short, blunt, subtrapezoidal, having a 
recurved collum which caps the base of the head ; the anterior lobe 
almost entirely occupied by the smooth, swollen, transverse callo- 
sities, the lateral margins carinated along the upward curve of the 
callosities ; the posterior lobe high, sloping forwards, almost flat, a 
little wider than long, with the posterior border detlexed and the 
edge sinuated and re flexed ; the pleural flaps wide, almost abruptly 
detlexed, forming a cap, the edges widely reflexed. Scutellum sub- 
lunate, very short, almost covered by the pronotum, with the apex 
acuminate. Legs of median length, the posterior femora a little 
clavate at tip ; the anterior pair thickest, tapering at both ends 



1894.] HEMIPTEBA-HETEEOPTERA OE GBENADA. 207 

armed beneath with two series of fine teeth ; the middle ones 
scarcely longer than the anterior, also thicker in the middle ; the 
tibiae all filiform, very slender. Hemelytra a little narrowed in 
the middle, with the membrane long, bluntly rounded at tip, and 
a little notched on the outer margin at base ; the discoidal areole 
very large, with the apical veins very slender, radiating like the 
rays of a fan. 

Velidia bebytoides, sp. nov. 

Long, subcylindrical, griseo-fuscous, widest at the base of the 
pronotum. Head highly polished, black at base and between the 
eyes, the face, cheeks, and rostrum yellow ; the antennae dusky 
testaceous, annulated with black at the ends of the joints, and with 
a white band at the base of third and fourth joints, the basal joint 
with a broader black band a little way behind the tip. Pronotum 
greyish testaceous ; the posterior lobe strongly punctate, the cal- 
losities black and polished, with a groove in the middle between 
them ; the collum in front of these polished, yellow ; the intra- 
humeral and the posterior border black, with the edge yellow ; the 
pleural flaps punctate, pale yellow ; humeri with a small whitish 
callosity in the angle. Scutellum mostly greyish yellow, with the 
apical point white. Legs j^ellow, all the femora with a black band 
before the tip, and the middle and posterior pairs, especially, 
marked with about three narrow black bands ; the tips of tibia? and 
of tarsi also black, Venter smooth, dull fulvo-testaceous, with a 
large black spot each side of base and the last two segments mostly 
black. 

Length to tip of venter 2| mm. ; width of pronotum § mm. 

Only one specimen was obtained. It was found at Balthazar, 
on April 27, at an elevation of 250 feet above tide-level, near the 
shady bank of a stream ; beaten from a mass of bush and decaying 
leaves. 

All(eoehynchus, Fieber. 

ALLffiOEHTKCHUS AEMATUS, Sp. nOV. 

Form similar to that of A. flavipes, Fieb., but rather narrower, 
invested with erect pubescence. Colour above mostly piceous black ; 
abdomen, underside of body, and the legs honey-yellow, more or 
less tinged with piceous. Head short, black, highly polished, rufo- 
piceous from the eyes forward, the width across the eyes but little 
more than the front of the pronotum ; antennae slender, the basal 
joint hardly longer than the bead, dull yellow, darker on the base 
and tip, hairy ; the second fully twice as long, hairy, about as stout 
as the basal one, dusky ; the apical joints long, much more slender, 
pubescent, fuscous ; rostrum honey-yellow, reaching upon the 
middle coxae, the base stout, following which the next joint is thick 
and extends behind the middle of the prosternum, the following 
one is compressed and shorter. Pronotum campanuliform, highly 
polished, deep black, with a row of coarse, remote punctures along 



208 peof. p. e. uhlee on the [Mar. 6, 

the middle line; the anterior lobe about twice as long as the 
posterior, strongly convex, indented each side anteriorly, with a 
distinct contracted double collum in front, the incision behind it 
deep and distinct ; the posterior lobe a little more than half as 
long as the anterior, but much wider, arched, with the lateral mar- 
gins almost abruptly oblique, indented next the humeri. Scutellum 
dull black, depressed, with the margins and tip a little raised. Legs 
stout, bristly, the femora thick, the anterior pair armed behind the 
middle with a sharp piceous tooth, before which rows of very fine 
teeth run out to the tip ; tip of tarsi piceous. Sternum and pleural 
pieces blackish piceous, remotely pubescent. Hemelytra pubescent, 
bright yellow from base to near the apex of corium ; the clavus, 
inner margin and tip of the corium, and the cuneus piceous black ; 
membrane tinged with smoke-brown. Tenter closely yellowish 
pubescent, margined on the submargin with a piceous curved 
line. 

Length to tip of venter 3| mm. ; width of pronotum 1| mm. 

Only one specimen of this interesting species was obtained. It 
was captured at Balthazar, on August 8, at an altitude of 250 
feet, in an open field, where it was shaken from piles of decaying 
weeds. 

Aphelonotus, gen. nov. 

Oblong-oval, acute at both ends, pubescent. Closely related to 
Pachynumus, Klug, but having minute ocelli deep-seated and placed 
inside very near to the eyes. Head hardly longer than the pro- 
notum, subcylindrical before the eyes, the vertex between the 
eyes forming a stout convex lobe, inserted in the thorax almost to 
the base of the eyes. Rostrum wide and depressed at base, reach- 
ing but a little way upon the sternum, the second and third joints 
much less thick. Antennae about as long as the hemelytra to tip 
of membrane ; the basal joint fusiform, shorter than the head ; 
the second cylindrical, about twice as long as the first, a little 
more slender ; the third shorter, about equally thick, attenuated at 
base ; the following joints setaceous, set with erect long hairs. 
Prothorax transverse, subluniform, with a broad, contracted, collar- 
like apex, which is followed on the middle by a clearly bounded 
wedge-shaped callosity, behind this an impressed line continues to 
the transverse posterior suture ; middle lobe moderately convex, 
with the sides a little decurved and bordered with a blunt carina, 
the sides before this contracted and indented ; the posterior division 
is quite narrow, flat, less coriaceous than the other parts, and on 
the sides separated from the preceding lobe by a deep incision 
behind which the margin is callous ; posterior margin broadly 
sinuated, with the humeral angles a little produced backward. 
Scutellum triangular, longer than wide, a little reflexed at tip. 
Anterior femora sublenticular, compressed, armed beneath with 
rows of short teeth ; the tibia of this pair slender, curved, carrying 
a little spongiole beneath the tip, the other legs simple, bristly. 
Prosternum simple ; mesosternum with a short carina, followed 



1894.] HEHIPTEEA.-HETEEOPTERA OE GRENADA. 209 

by a knobby prominence. Corinm provided \vitb an embolium, 
and having a triangular open space behind the apex of the 
scutellum ; the clavus subhnear. Abdomen depressed, closely 
pubescent. 

Apheloxottts simplus, sp. nov. 

Obscure pale fusco-fulvous, with the head piceous and the eyes 
black. Antennae sometimes infuscated beyond the second joint. 
Pronotum bilobate in the middle, not evidently punctate, polished, 
paler on the posterior border. Scutellum dull fulvo-piceous, obso- 
letely punctate at base. Legs paler than the upper surface, with 
the spines dark piceous. Corium coarsely punctate in rows, the 
colour dull piceous on the disk, with the border and embolium paler. 
Abdomen pale fulvous, closely sericeous pubescent ; the genital 
segment of the male tumid. 

Length to tip of venter 3| mm. ; width of pronotum 1 mm. 

Seven specimens were taken on the Mount Gay estate on 
August 28, at an elevation of 200 feet above the sea. They were 
found under leaves in a thicket upon a dry hillside. 

Kedtjyiid^e. 
Peioxedtts, Uhler. 

Peionidus caben t atus (Porst.). 

Cimex carinatus, Porst. Nov. Spec. Ins. p. 72. 

This is the most beautiful variety of this remarkable species. 
Specimens were found on the Lake Antoine estate as early as 
March 24, on herbage, in littoral thickets ; and late in August at 
St. George's and on the Mount Gay estate, at both of which places 
they were beaten from herbage. 

The form P. cristatus, Linn., which is rapidly being connected 
with the above by the discovery of intermediate varieties, is found 
in the United States late in summer and in the autumn until the 
chilling frosts become settled. 

SlRTHEKEA, Sphiola. 
SlRTHE> T EA STRIA (Pabr.). 

Reduvius stria, Pabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 201. 
Three specimens were taken at Balthazar, in April, where they 
were found in cocoa orchards, or came to the light at night. 

Easahus, Am. et S. 

1. Easahus hamatus (Pabr.). 
Reduvius hamatus, Fabr. Spec. Ins. ii. p. 3S1. 
Five specimens were taken at Balthazar, in April, where they 
came to the light at night. 



210 prof. r. r. uiiler on the [Mar. 6, 

2. Kasaiius sulcicollis, Serv. 

Peirates sulcicollis, Serv. Ann. Sci. Nat. xxiii. p. 219 (1831). 
One specimen was secured at Balthazar, April 25, where it 
came to light at night. 

Stenopoda, Lap. 

1. Stenopoda crLiciFORMis (Fabr.). 
Cimex culiciformis, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 728. 

Three specimens were found on the Mount Gay estate and at 
Balthazar, April 5, in cocoa orchards, upon herbage. 

2. StENOPCvDA CANA, StSl. 

Stenojpoda cana, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1859, p. 384. 
One adult and a nympha were taken at Balthazar, March 19, 
in an open place upon herbage. 

Narvesus, Stal. 
Narvesus carolinensis, Stal. 

Narvesus carolinensis, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1859, p. 385. 
One specimen was found at Balthazar, May 16 ; it came to 
the light at night. 

Saica, Am. et S. 

1. Saica recurvata (Fabr.). 

Zelus recurvatus, Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. p. 286. 
Two specimens were taken at Balthazar, April 5-7, in open 
places upon herbage. 

2. Saica annulipes, sp. nov. 

Small in this genus and with the pronotum somewhat longer 
than usual, pale fulvo-testaceous, pubescent, rufous on most of the 
tergum, the legs and antennae more especially testaceous. Head 
highly polished, short, rufo-testaceous, darker on the face and 
front ; eyes large, black, prominent, but not rising as high as the 
posterior lobe ; the posterior lobe deeply cleft, the two members 
almost orbicular ; the neck short, strongly contracted ; rostrum 
stout, reaching to the anterior coxae ; antennae a little infuscated, 
fully as loug as the head and prothorax united. Prothorax long ; 
the anterior lobe high, very convex, sulcated, excavated in front, 
with a collum in front of the cavity, the upper surface tumid each 
side, the lateral margin composed of an arched carinate edge, and 
the anterior angles callous ; the posterior lobe subtrapezoidal, 
deeply separated by the incision in front, with the middle line 
broadly, not deeply, grooved, the lateral margins thick, followed 
by a long callosity on the humerus ; the posterior border steeply 
deflexed, slightly waved, with the posthumeral edge slenderly 
reflexed. Scutellum tumid and uneven at base, with the apical 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 211 

member dark piceous, wrinkled and armed with a small process at 
tip. The anterior femora closely spined beneath, the tibiae with a 
few remote long teeth ; middle and posterior femora unarmed, 
having a dark band next the tip, the corresponding tibiae slender 
and simple. Hemelytra smoke-brown throughout, with the veins 
darker. Tergum rufous, infuscated on the middle; the venter 
highly polished, obscure luteous. 

Length to tip of venter 5 mm. ; width of pronotum 1 mm. 

Only a single specimen ( 2 ) was obtained. It was found at 
Balthazar, at an elevation of 250 feet above the sea, on March 
18, in second growth, and was beaten from vines. 

Oncerotrachelus, St§I. 

Oncerotrachelus coneormis, sp. nov. 

Fusco-luteous, pubescent. Form narrower than O.acuminatus, Say. 
Head behind the eyes suborbicular, polished, minutely denticulated 
beneath ; eyes black, large, round, coarsely granulated, carried a 
little above the surface of the front ; rostrum reaching to the 
posterior end of the anterior coxae, bristly rather than denticulated 
beneath the joints, the basal joint as long as the head ; antennae 
pale fuscous, set with erect bristly hairs, the basal joint about as 
long as the head, pronotum, and scutellum united. Pronotum 
clothed anteriorly with erect hairs, darker on the anterior lobe ; the 
posterior lobe almost bald above, highly polished, with the latero- 
posterior margin callous, erect, pale testaceous, and endiDg above 
in a tooth ; the posterior margin pale, a little sinuated each side 
and marked with a short suture behind each sinus. Scutellum 
with a pale, scarcely elevated, spine at the apex. Legs pale f usco- 
testaceous, distinctly pubescent. Hemelytra a little narrower than 
the posterior part of the abdomen ; the clavus and costal margin 
pale yellowish, the rest of the surface dusky. Underside, including 
the venter, with an uneven stripe each side extending from the 
propleura to the tip of the venter. 

Length to tip of venter 4 mm. ; width of pronotum scarcely 
1 mm. 

Three specimens were captured at Balthazar, April 1 and 
August 6-10, at an elevation of 250 feet above the sea. They 
came to the light at night. 

This species is very closely related to 0. acuminatus, Say ; it 
differs, however, in being narrower and smaller, in having erect 
sharp-pointed humeri, and in the absence of the stouter teeth 
on the surface of the basal joint of the rostrum. 

ElIESIDiE. 

Stenolemus, Signoret. 
Stenolemtjs, sp. ? 
A larva of this genus was taken at Balthazar. 



212 prof, p. e. rnLEE ox tiie [Mar. G, 

Emesa, Fabr. 
Emesa axgf/lata, Uhler. 
Emesa n,u/,<h,t,i, Uhler, P. Z. S. 1S93, p. 717. 
Three specimens of this insect were found at Balthazar, April 
7-20, in open weedy places upon herbage. 

Lute v a, Dohrn. 
Eeteva Guyj'LACiiii, Dohrn. 

Luteva guneUacihii, Dohrn, Linnsea Ent. xiv. p. 244, pi. 1. fig. 19. 
.Seven specimens, more or less mutilated, are in the collection. 
They were taken at Balthazar, August 7, on vines and brush. 

Emesofsis, Uhler. 
Emesopsis KrBiLrs, Uhler. 
Emegopsis nubUig, Uhler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 718, 

Several .specimens of this delicate insect were taken at Balthazar 
in August. They came to the light at night. 

S A L D I D -E. 

Salda, auctores. 

Salda humilis (Say). 

Acanihia humilis, Say, Heteropt. Xew Harmony, p. 35. 

Specimens of this species were found on the Telescope estate, 
August 15, on the margins of pools of water. Two different 
Bizee occur at this locality: the one normal, such as is met with 
in the eastern United States and Cuba, the other longer and with 
a somewhat narrower abdomen. 

HlDEOBATIDI, 

LooroMBXBA. 

Limxometra margixata ( G-uo'rin). 

Gferris marginahu, Guerin, Sagra's Hist. Cuba, Ins. p. 41o. 

Xumerous specimen^ of this insect were captured on the Tele- 
scope estate, August 15, and later, on the margins of pools of 
water. 

Brachymetra. 
Braciiymetra albixeryis (Am. et S.). 
Halobatea albinervig, Amyot et Serv. Hc'mipt. p. 412. 
Many specimens, mostly of the winged form, were taken on the 
Mount Gay estate, both in Aprd and August. Others were 



1894.] HEMIPTEKA-HETEKOPTERA OF GRENADA. 213 

found on the Mirabeau estate, at Woburn and at St. George's, on 
the surface of streams of water, as also on springs of water. 

In the un winged form the scutellum is not distinctly differ- 
entiated, bat in the winged one it is covered by the valvular end 
of the pronotum. 

This species has an extensive distribution from south to north. 
It occurs at Rio and at other places near the coast of Brazil, but 
the most northern limit at present known for it is the island of 
St. Vincent. No specimens have yet been obtained in Cuba, and 
I did not discover it in the island of San Domingo, where my 
work was particularly directed to obtaining the insects from the 
springs and streams of fresh water, both of the highlands and the 
coast. The close collecting of Prof. Poey and Dr. G-undlach, 
throughout a period of more than forty years, should have secured 
this insect if it existed in Cuba, but no specimens have been re- 
ported by either of those gentlemen. 

It varies somewhat in colour and degree of marking upon the 
head, pronotum, and sides. The medial carina and transverse 
impression are not absent, as stated by Dr. Mayr (Novara-Reise 
p. 178) ; but the slender cariua is not always very distinct, aud it 
is rendered much less conspicuous through simulating the colour 
of the surface. 

Teepobates, Uhler. 

Trepobates pictus (H.-Schf.). 

Halobates pictus, H.-Schf. Wanz. Ins. viii. p. Ill, t. cclxxxvi. 
figs. 882, 883. 

Stephania picta, B. -"White, Challenger Pep., Zool. vii. pt. 19, 
p. 79. 

Several varieties of this species, precisely like those which are 
common in Maryland and farther south, were secured at St. 
George's, August 28-31, on the surface of brackish water. A 
single specimen was found at Woburn, August 30, on a sluggish 
stream in the open flat country near sea-level. On the Telescope 
estate a pair were taken while in sexual connection, August 12, 
on a brackish pool next the sea-shore. The male of this pair is 
winged and the female unwinged. In the eastern United States 
this species frequents the bayed out parts of streams and the mill- 
ponds, and is distributed inland to near the head-waters of creeks 
which rise in the western portion of the Piedmont country, as in 
Frederick county, Maryland, and Spottsylvania, Virginia. 

As the name of this genus is preoccupied, and the genus has 
not yet been fully described, for lack of winged specimens, it 
becomes necessary to give the following characters, which are in aug- 
mentation of those given by Dr. Buchanan-White : — Anterior tarsi 
normally three-jointed (exceptionally two-jointed) ; the hemelytra 
curved and tapering at base, gradually becoming wider towards 
the tip, at which point it is a little triangular and rounded ; the 
corium subtriangular and about one halt: as long as the membrane, 
with three stout longitudinal veins, of which the costal is more 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XV. 15 



214 prop. p. e. dhler ok the [Mar. 6, 

bristly towards the base ; the membrane has a pale longitudinal 
suture throughout, with a thick vein on the middle which docs not 
quite reach the end of the loop that is formed by the two veins 
which run parallel to the margins and which converge on the tip ; 
no transverse veins as in Brachymetra. In some specimens the 
acute tip of the scutellum projects from between the metanotal 
plates, in others it is atrophied. In two specimens the basal joint 
of tarsi was present on one side, and not on the other. 

Hymenobates, gen. nov. 

Narrower and somewhat more elongate in form than the male 
of Halobates pictq, H.-Schf. Head with the front of the same 
form as in Mdrubates, Uhler. Antennae tapering in the direction 
of the tip ; the basal joint long, fusiform, tapering narrowly 
on the apical third, armed beneath near base with a group 
of long spines and at the tip with a stronger spine ; the second 
joint exceedingly short ; the third less than one half as long as the 
first, armed with a stout triangular tooth which is followed by a 
bundle of bristles ; the fourth shorter, curved and pointed like a 
claw. Rostrum short and stout, extending between the anterior 
coxae, the first and second joints exceedingly short, the third very 
long and acutely tapering. Pronotum longer than wide, mode- 
rately convex, ending ovately above the scutellum ; the humeral 
angles almost obsolete, and the narrow reflexed margin sloping 
anteriorly away from them. The anterior legs short, with the 
tibiae thick and expanded ; the middle pair very long and slender ; 
the posterior pair shorter, with long thick coxae ; the femora a 
little less thick than the coxae, but curved, and like them set with 
bristles, also with two long spines near the tip and a knob-like 
callosity at base ; the tibia? a little longer, tapering at both euds, 
fringed with two bundles of stiff bristles between the middle and 
tip ; tarsi about half as long as the tibiae, very slender, tapering 
almost to a bristle towards the tip. Hemelytra, including the 
membrane, twice as long as the pronotum ; the corium narrow, 
almost linear, with the costa thick and the costal cell not conspicu- 
ous, but the discoidal cell very loug and narrow, triangular at tip 
and sending off from the inner angle a single vein obliquely 
across the membranous part of this organ ; a transverse suture 
with a vein forms the boundary for the base of membrane ; the 
clavus is minute and almost concealed, the remainder of the corium 
is thin like a membrane; the membrane is much longer than the 
corium, elongate-oval, with two long veins which unite at tip to 
form a loop. The abdomen is short and subcorneal. 

Hymenobates imitator, sp. nov. 

Yellow beneath, black above, with the base of antennae, a band 
near their tip, and a transverse spot in front of pronotum, as also 
the coxae, yellow. Membranous part of the corium bluish, the 
membrane smoke-brown ; the sutures, a curved line on the side of 



1894.] HEMIPTEBA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 215 

rnesopleura, border of metapleura, bands on ventral segments, 
antenna?, and legs black. 

Length to tip of venter 2^ mm., to tip of membrane 3| mm. ; 
width of pronotum 1 mm. 

South of Grenville, windward side of island, August 4, on 
stagnant water. Only one specimen of the winged form is pre- 
sent in the collection. The others are either young specimens, or 
undeveloped females without indications of wings. The measure- 
ments are taken only from the winged male specimen used for 
description. The females have the simple antennae and hind legs, 
as in Rheumatobates, Bergr., and MetrobaUs, Uhler. In the female, 
however, the antennas are very much shorter than in either of the 
genera just mentioned. 

Veliid m. 

Velia, Latr. 

Velia stagnalis, Burm. 

Velia stagnalis, Burm. Haudb. ii. p. 212. 

Several specimens were collected on the Mount Gray estate, 
late in August, on the surface of shady pools of small streams, on 
the grass growing in the water, and also gliding over the surface. 
Other specimens were secured about the same time and early in 
September at Woburn and Mount Maitland. The larval form was 
found at Woburn, August 30, on a sluggish stream near the sea- 
level. These specimens are more clearly marked with the silvery 
white streak at base of corium, and with similarly coloured dots 
on the connexivum and spots on the membrane, than is usual in 
specimens from the southern United States, Cuba, and Mexico. 
The large silvery area near the end of the tergum is evanescent, 
and not present in weather-beaten individuals. 

Bhagovelia, Mayr. 
Khagovelia angusxipes, sp. nov. 

In form similar to R. obesa, Uhler ; black, opaque, closely pubes- 
cent. Head including the eyes a little wider than the front of the 
pronotum, the middle line elevated into a callosity which runs 
back, tapering, to near the occiput ; eyes prominent, coarsely 
granulated ; antennae black, set with remote, erect bristles, with 
the basal joint curved, yellow at base, and the second and third 
joints shorter, subequal in length ; rostrum piceous black, extend- 
ing to behind the anterior coxae. Pronotum moderately convex, 
yellow back of the head, trapezoidal in front of the humeral angles, 
triangular and a little shorter behind them, with the posterior 
margin flat, a little reflexed on the edge, and with the tip a little 
bent and almost acute ; the humeral angles a little ridged, the 
lateral margins feebly acute, a little sinuated. Underside plum- 
beous. Scutellum concealed. Legs hairy ; the coxae, trochanters, 
and base of anterior femora bright yellow, the posterior femora 

15* 



216 peof. p. b. uhlbb ox the [Mar. 6, 

very slightly thickened, armed beneath with a row of very fine 
teeth; the tibire especially clothed with stiff hairs. Hemelytra 
long and rather narrow, the costal vein stout, clothed at base with 
stiff bristles. Tenter smooth, plumbeous, with the genital pieces 
and the middle of the border of the apical segment orange. 

Length to tip of venter 3-3^ mm. ; width of pronotum 1| mm. 

Numerous specimens were obtained at Balthazar, August 7, at 
an altitude of 250 feet on running water ; also on the Mount Gay 
estate, April 5, at the same altitude ; and at Mount Maitland, 
August 20-25, at an altitude of 150 feet, on the surface of a 
stream of spring-water. 

2. Ehagovelia elegaxs, sp. nov. 

Larger and more robust than R. anf/ustipes. Fuscous or dark 
rusty brown, hairy. The head short, across the eyes hardly wider 
than the front of pronotum, the callous ridge between the eyes not 
tapering posteriorly, almost touching the pronotum ( $ ) ; the eyes 
wider apart, with the space between them broad, coarseiy granulated, 
and destitute of a callous ridge ( c? ) ; the cheeks and most of the 
face yellow ; antennae of medium thickness, remotely set with long 
bristles, with the basal joint yellow at base, about one third longer 
than the second, the second a little less thick, much longer than 
the third, the third and fourth a little more slender, both contracted 
at base, the third with a slender tooth at tip, the fourth much 
shorter and acute on the apex ; the rostrum yellow, piceous at tip, 
reaching behind the anterior coxae. Pronotum stout, convex, 
coarsely transversely wrinkled, bordered all round with yellow, 
this colour covering the anterior lobe as a broad band and extend- 
ing down over the pleura ; the propleura constituting a thick and 
broad callous smooth segment to carry the front legs, the surface 
behind this punctate in a curved line ; middle line obsoletely cari- 
nated, the posterior margin almost equilaterally triangular, with the 
edge recurved and the space before the tip usually depressed ; the 
humeral angle bluntly reflexed, obtuse, cut apart from the side 
below by an incised line ; pleura and sternum yellow, with piceous 
streaks running down upon the coxae. Legs stout, pubescent, 
dark brown, with the coxal plates mostly yellow ; the posterior 
femora thick, clavate, tinged with bronze, polished, paler beneath, 
and armed there with about seven, chiefly long, teeth, of which the 
two inner ones are longer and thicker. Hemelytra dark fuscous 
brown, long, almost parallel-sided, and with thick prominent veins. 
Venter yellow, sometimes dusky, polished, with a stripe of brown 
each side running parallel with the outer margin ; the border of 
connexivum brighter yellow, as also the genital segments. 

Length to tip of venter 4^-5 mm. ; width of pronotum 
lf-2 mm. 

The prothorax is much shorter and more blunt on the posterior 
margin in the unwinged individuals. 

Specimens of this form were met with at several localities. 
At Balthazar they were taken in April, on water ; also on the 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 217 

Mount Gay estate during the same month on spring-water ; like- 
wise on the Grand Etang, at an altitude of 1900 feet, on water. 

It differs from R. collaris, Burm., in the coloured margins of 
pronotum, the more numerously denticulate femora, colour of 
venter, and size. 

3. Khagovelia pltthbea, sp. nov. 

Only the unwinged form is at present known. It is short and 
thick, subcorneal posteriorly, bluish plumbeous, opaque, minutely 
hairy, with the sides of the abdomen broadly reflexed. The head 
wide, convex, with a slender black line on the front, the orbits of 
the eyes bordered with yellow ; the rostrum testaceous, reaching 
considerably behind the anterior coxae ; antennas moderately long, 
brownish, finely pubescent, the basal joint yellow at base, much 
longer than the third, which is also much longer than the second, 
the fourth about as long as the second, thick, distended in the 
middle. Pronotum very moderately convex behind the middle, 
sloping posteriorly ; the anterior lobe short, collar-like, with oblique 
sides, a yellow spot on the middle, and feebly carinate lateral 
margins, it is separated from the posterior lobe by a deeply incised 
line ; the posterior lobe is somewhat abruptly wider, with strongly 
reflexed lateral margins and subacute humeral angles, with the 
posterior margin abruptly deflexed ; a broad segment behind this 
has in the depressed outer corner a tumid callosity which occupies 
the position of the wing-pad. The propleural flap is mostly yellow, 
as is the cap of the intermediate and posterior coxae and also the 
coxae, trochanters, base of anterior femora, and the immediate base 
of posterior femora ; other parts of legs fuscous, sericeous pubescent, 
and the posterior femora unarmed. The posterior border of last 
ventral segment and sometimes the genital segment yellow. 

Length to end of abdomen, d 2|, $ 3| mm. ; width of pro- 
notum, c? 1, $ 1| mm. 

This is a common species on the surface of salt-water around 
the inlets of the Florida Keys. Several specimens were secured in 
the Bay of St. George's, on the leeward side of Grenada, Septem- 
ber 6, on the surface of the sea. Only specimens taken in copula 
were kept. 

Others were captured at the southern end of the island of 
St. Vincent, May 24, swimming on the sea, in a sheltered and still 
place near the shore. Gregarious inhabits, 50-60 together. They 
were also taken in copula at this time. 

The male is very much smaller than the female, and the latter is 
usually marked by a carinate line on the middle of the contact of 
the two lobes of the pronotum. 

Mesovelia, Muls. 
1. Mesovelia BisiGNAT a, Uhler. 

Mesovelia bisignata, Uhler, Standard Nat. Hist. ii. p. 273, fig. 324. 
A fine series of this insect was secured at Woburn, Granville, 



218 peof. p. e. uulee os tiie [Mar. 6, 

Beaulieu, Grand Etang, and on the Mount Gay estate. It was 
found in the young stages on the Grand Etang, March 2, along 
the mai^gin of running water, and in August it was found fully 
developed on the surface of stagnant ponds and on a sluggish stream 
near the sea. In the eastern United States along the seaboard its 
habits are essentially the same as in Grenada. Near Baltimore it 
lives on the ponds and around the overflowed freshwater marshes 
among the cat-tails and rushes, where it creeps stealthily about in 
search of small insects which fall into the water. 

2. Mesovelia amcexa, sp. now 

Dark brown, almost black in some specimens ; beneath pale 
brown with a plumbeous tinge, except the venter, which is yellow 
with transverse cloudings of darker colour on the segments, sides, 
and tip. Head broader in the female than in the male, obscure 
yellow, the vertex with a brown stripe each side and the middle 
line grooved, the tylus and borders of cheeks piceous ; antennae 
long and slender, rusty brown, paler on the basal portion of the 
first joint, the second joint about two thirds the length of the first 
and not quite as thick, the following joints long and more slender ; 
rostrum testaceous, piceous at base and tip, reaching between the 
middle coxa?. Pronotum opaque, velvety brown, marked with a 
whitish transverse spot on the middle of the collum ; the posterior 
margin widely sinuated ; the lateral margin with the carinate edge 
but slightly elevated, marked with two or three small pale spots ; 
the humeral margins more distinctly reflexed. Scutellum almost 
black, a little rough, opaque. Coxae and legs ivory whitish, more 
or less infuscated on the tibiae and tarsi. Pleural pieces more or 
less tinged with plumbeous on a brown ground. Hemelytra velvety 
brown, opaque, the base and a long streak each side white ; behind 
the white band the surface is pale brown, and behind this, including 
the posterior part of the membrane, it is pale smoke-brown ; the 
base of the membrane and a stripe at its tip obscure whitish. 
Venter glossy, often with a dark stripe each side near the lateral 
border. 

Length to tip of venter 2 mm. ; width of pronotum J mm. 

From Mount Maitland and Mount Gay estate, August 26-31, 
on the surface of a stream, and September 6, at 50 feet above the 
sea, on a pool of water among grass and weeds. 



Michovelia, Westw. 

1. Miceotelia Capitata, Guerin. 

Microvelia capitata, Guerin. Sagra's Hist. Cuba, Ins. p. 417. 

A few specimens were collected at Balthazar in June and 
August, on ponds of stagnant water; and others were found on 
the Telescope and Mount Gay estates, in August and September, 
on the surface of freshwater pools. 



1894.] HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OE GRENADA. 219 

2. MlCROYELIA ROBUSTA, Sp. nOV. 

Shorter and comparatively more robust than M. modesta. Colours 
about the same, except that there is an absence of pale colour from 
the venter aud no yellow border on the connexivum. The head 
is immersed nearly up to the eyes in the pronotum ; the eyes are 
bordered iuternally with prostrate white pubescence ; the front of 
the pronotum is shorter and less contracted, densely covered with 
white pubescence, which is laid upon a faintly yellow band ; the 
pleural pieces are not broadly bordered with testaceous, and the 
posterior femora are only a little longer than the middle ones ; the 
last joint of antennas more than one third longer than the third 
joint. The hem elytra are smoke-brown, often pale, with two white 
diagonal streaks at base, pale spaces in the areoles, and a white 
pyriform spot in the apical areole ; the costal area is almost linear, 
deflexed, pale, and marked with a row of remote brown dots. 

Length to tip of venter 2 mm. ; width of pronotum ^ mm. 

A few specimens were collected at Woburn and Beaulieu, 
August 25, at an altitude of 700 feet above the sea, on the surface 
of a stagnant pond : another specimen was taken on the Mount 
Gay estate, in September. 

3. MlCROYELIA MARGISTATA, Uhler. 

Microvelia marginata, Uhler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 719. 

Several specimens were secured on the Grand Etang, August 9, 
at an elevation of 1900 feet above the sea, on pools of water in a 
swampy forest. 

This beautiful little species has a very extended distribution, as it 
is now known to occur in Trinidad, St. Yincent, Central America, 
Mexico, Cuba, and in the United States, from Florida to northern 
New Jersey. In Maryland it lives on the quiet pools beside 
streams of water near the cities of Baltimore and Washington. 

4. Microvelia longipes, sp. nov. 

Long and narrow, dark brown or fuscous, paler beneath, covered 
with plumbeous. Head long, dark brown, sericeous pubescent, 
with the orbits of the eyes and the slender line on the vertex, the 
throat and cheeks testaceous ; middle of vertex oblong-ovate, pro- 
minently elevated; rostrum pale testaceous, piceous towards the 
tip, reaching to the middle coxae ; antennas slender, pale rufo- 
piceous, a little darker at ends of the joints, the base of first and 
second joints testaceous, second joint shortest, third longest, about 
one and a half times as long as the second, the fourth a little 
shorter than the third. Pronotum a little longer than wide, steeply 
sloping anteriorly, velvety, powdered with pale grey, with a slender 
whitish-yellow collum interrupted in the middle by the slender 
black carina which runs back towards the base ; the humeri tri- 
angular, a little recurved at the margin ; the posterior division 
triangular, rounded at tip, feebly recurved, bordered with yellow; 



220 peof. p. r. tthlee ox the [Mar. 6, 

the pleural flaps strongly curved, margined with yellow. Scutellum 
concealed beneath the end of pronotuna. Legs slender, tinged 
with fuscous, paler at base ; the anterior femora dull testaceous, 
about half as long as the middle pair, the posterior pair nearly 
twice as long as the middle one, and likewise the same in the tibiae. 
Hemelytra whitish translucent, with the veins black and thick; when 
the wings are closed the submarginal areole forms a long silvery 
streak which is followed behind by an oval areole of like colour, 
and this in turn is followed at tip by a similar spot which does 
not fill the areole : wings milk-white. Tergum dark brown, venter 
at tip and coxa? pale testaceous, the connexivum bordered with 
pale yellow. 

Length to tip of venter 3-3| mm. ; width of pronotum 1 mm. 

Several specimens of this remarkable insect were taken on the 
Mount Gay estate, September 21-26, on water in a large iron 
kettle. 

This species stands by itself as regards the remarkable elongation 
of its posterior legs. It thus helps to bridge over the gap between 
this group and the HydrobaUdos, although but few of the other 
elements of its structure have undergone important modification. 

5. MlCROTELIA MODESTA, Sp. nOV. 

Similar to M. longipes, but much more robust, dark brown or 
fuscous, velvety opaque above, paler fuscous beneath and spread 
with plumbeous bloom. Head long, tapering at tip, with a convex 
ridge on the middle line ; the throat, cheeks, and border of the 
orbits of the eyes testaceous ; antennae of medium thickness, dull 
testaceous, more infuscated on the ends of the joints, the fourth 
joint longest, the second shortest, and the basal one a little shorter 
than the third ; rostrum testaceous, piceous at base, on the 
middle line, and at tip. Pronotum steep anteriorly ; the collum 
marked each side with yellow, spread with whitish bloom, and 
1 laving the slender carina on the middle black ; this carina runs 
back to the apex of pronotum ; humeral border triangular, a little 
elevated at tip ; apex of the pronotum triangular, feebly curved ; 
border of the posthumeral sinus and the posterior margin of the 
epipleural flap testaceous ; underside of collum, sternum, coxoe, and 
femora testaceous, remainder of legs dusky testaceous, more infus- 
cated near the articulations and on the tarsi. Scutellum blackish, 
all but the tip concealed. Hemelytra wider than in M. longipes, 
milky whitish on the clavus and in all the areoles, the veins dark 
brown, and the costal border black or fuscous, sinuated, the apical 
areole with a large, ovate, white spot. Connexivum yellow ; middle 
line of the venter and the genital segments dull fulvous, the middle 
sometimes with a slender black line. 

Length to tip of venter 2j-3mm. ; width of pronotum 1| mm. 
The middle femora are about one third longer than t he anterior 
ones, and the posterior femora are nearly one third longer than 
the middlo ones. One female is shorter and darker than the 
others. 



1894.] HEMIPTEBA-HETEEOPTEEA OF GBENADA. 221 

Specimens of both sexes were taken on the Mount Gray estate, 
between September 21 and 26, on the surface of water. 

6. Miceotelia, sp. ? 

A small insect, numbered 112 and 122, belonging to this genus 
was found on stagnant water at Beaulieu and Woburn ; but the 
specimens are possibly nymphs and too undeveloped for specific 
definition. 

Hebeus, Curtis. 

1. Hebeus concinnus, sp. nov. 

Form of H. pusillus, Fallen. Fuscous or rust-brown above, 
minutely pubescent, with the disk of pronotum moderately flat 
and the collum well defined and fulvous. Head nearly as long as 
the pronotum, dark brown, minutely scabrous, tinged with rufous 
at tip ; antennae dusky testaceous, sometimes fuscous on the tips 
of the two basal joints, the first of these a little longer than the 
second, generally paler at base, the three following ones very 
slender, set with erect pubescence, the third longer than either of 
the following ones, the fourth and fifth subequal ; underside of 
head and the bucculse testaceous; the rostrum pale testaceous, 
reaching to the posterior coxae. Pronotum with a depressed, 
curved, rufous margin extending a little over the base of the scu- 
tellum ; the lateral margins notched behind the swollen anterior 
lobe ; the humeral angles prominent, rounded, with a callous long 
submargin ; the middle line impressed, and each side of it with a 
few coarse punctures anteriorly and with a group of less coarse 
ones posteriorly ; the reflexed lateral margin and underside of 
collum rufous. Scutellum dull fuscous, rough and uneven ; legs 
testaceous, a little dusky on the knees, tibiae, and tarsi. Hemelytra 
scarcely longer than the abdomen, obscurely sericeous pubescent, 
pale smoke-brown at base, fuscous at tip, with a stripe of white 
running out from the base of the clavus, and a longer pale streak 
on the subcostal long areole ; the membrane pale fuscous, with a 
pale spot each side next the cuneus; the margin of the entire 
wing-coverts, including the membrane, also pale next the tip ; 
there is in some specimens a faint trace of another spot. Venter 
polished, fuscous black, minutely sericeous pubescent, with a 
slender black stripe along the middle. 

Length to tip of venter 2|-2£ mm. ; width of pronotum 
1 mm. 

Three specimens of this insect were captured on the Mount 
Gay estate and Balthazar in June and August. During the latter 
month they occurred at the roots of grass, on muddy ground near 
pools of water. This species is a common one which has been 
met with in the Atlantic States and the West Indies, and it also 
occurs in California and Washington State. In Maryland it lives 
on the damp sand or mud of small pools beside streams of water, in 
spring and late summer. The unwinged individuals may be found 



222 pbof. p. b. miLER ox tiie [Mar. 6, 

skimming over the surface of quiet water from spring until the 
end of summer. 

2. Hebbus consolidtts, sp. nov. 

A little more compact than //. aobrinus, Uhler, with the trans- 
verse suture separating the lobes not so deep ; colour fuscous, the 
surface above finely pubescent, more or less spread with whitish 
bloom. The head moderately produced before the eyes, somewhat 
tinged with rufous, a little rough between the eyes ; the throat 
pale rufo-testaceous ; antennae dull rufo-testaceous, usually darker 
at the points of articulation, the first and second joints paler, sub- 
equal in length, thickened and black at tip ; rostrum yellowish 
testaceous, reaching the posterior coxas ; the bucculae, coxa", tro- 
chanters, and legs pale testaceous, with the knees and tarsi some- 
times infuscated. Pronotum broad, moderately siuuated before 
the posterior lobe, with the lateral margins reflexed, and the humeri 
prominent and blunt; the coll um exceedingly narrow and almost 
obsolete; the posterior margin deflexed, broadly rounded. The 
base of the scutellum lunately tabulated, with the posterior portion 
triangular and depressed. Hemelytra chestnut-brown, minutely 
pubescent, the corium marked at base with a white wedge-shaped 
spot, basal half of the costal border dull yellowish ; the membrane 
long, dusky, marked at base with a short curved streak, also eacL 
side with a bent spot, and on the middle towards the tip with an 
oblong spot, allot which are obscure whitish. Venter rufo-piceous 
margined with yellow. 

Length to tip of abdomen 1J mm. ; width of pronotum | mm. 

Several specimens were collected on the Mount Gay estate, 
August 26, at the roots of grass on muddy soil adjacent to pools 
of water, and September 6, at an altitude of 50 feet, on grass and 
weeds growing out of a pool of water ; also on the Telescope 
estate, and at Balthazar, March 5, on the open sandy shore of a 
stream, under decaying leaves. 

fJALGULIDJ. 

Pelogonus, Latr. 

Pelogonus margixatus (Latr.). 

Acanthia marginata, Latr. Hist. Xat. Ins. xii. p. 242. 

Several specimens of different sizes and more than one pattern 
of marking were found at Balthazar, AVindsor, and on the Mount 
Gay estate. They were found mostly in March and April, at 
which time they were also in the larval stage, on wet mud and 
sand near the river. Numerous specimens were observed, and 
they were found to fly quickly when disturbed. A very small 
specimen, with the broad yellow mark on the margin of pronotum, 
was found, August 26, on the Mount Gay estate, at the roots of 
grass, on mud, near pools of water. 



1894.] HEMIPTEEA-HETEBOPTEEA OF GEEK ADA. 223 

Moncxntx, Lap. 

Monontx bapxobius (Fabr.). 

Naucoris raptoria, Fabr. Syst. Bhyng. p. 111. 

A nympha of this species, the only specimen in the collection, 
was found on the Mount Gay estate, September 6, near a pool 
of water where the grass and weeds grew thick. 

NaUCOKIDjE. 

Pelocobjs, Stal. 
Pelocoeis eemoeata (Pal. Beauv.). 

Naucoris femorata, Pal. Beauv. Ins. Afr. et Amer. p. 237, pi. 20. 
% 4. 

A few specimens both of adults and nymphs were captured at 
Woburn and on the Mount Gay estate, in August, in pools and 
in a sluggish stream of water near the level of the sea. The 
species is quite common in Canada, the United States, both east 
and west, and it has also been taken in the Antilles, Mexico, and 
Central America. 

Belostomatid^e. 
Zaitha, Am. et S. 

Zaitha anuea, H.-Schf. 

Zaitha anura, H.-Schf. Wanz. Ins. viii. p. 26, pi. 257. fig. 799. 

Eleven specimens of this common insect were found at the 
several localities on the island. They were taken on the Mount 
Gay estate, and at Woburn and Chantilly in April, August, and 
September, from streams and pools of fresh water. The habits 
of this species in Grenada seem to be the same as in Florida and 
the South-western States, and in Cuba, San Domingo, Mexico, 
and Central America. This form is sometimes very common in 
Southern and Lower California. 

NOTONECTIDjE. 

Notokecta, Linn. 

NOTONECTA AMEEICANA, Fabr. 

Notonecta americana, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. p. 58. 
A single nympha only was obtained. It was found at Woburn, 
August 20, in a sluggish stream in an open flat near sea-level. 

Anisops, Spin. 
Anisops elegans, Fieber. 

Anisops elerjans, Fieber, Bhynchotograph. p. 61. 
Many specimens, of both forms, were found on the Mount Gay 



224 ON THE HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF GRENADA. [Mar. 6, 

estate and at Woburn, in March, April, and August, in spring- 
water. These insects vary in the width and proportion of the 
body, as well as in the extent of black on the tips of the wing- 
coverts, just as we find to be the case in our smaller species of 
Notonecta. This we know to be the case from frequent observa- 
tion of the various forms taken in sexual connection. 

Plea, Leach. 

Plea striola, Pieber. 

Plea striola, Pieber, Entom. Monogr. p. 18, pi. 2. figs. 1-3. 

Several specimens of this small insect were found at Woburn, 
August 30, on a sluggish stream, in a flat open country near sea- 
level. This species is sometimes common in ponds of stagnant 
water in most parts of the United States ; it inhabits also Mexico, 
Cuba, Central America, and California. 

CORISID.E. 

Cobjsa, Geoff. 

1. Corisa cuBiE, Guerin. 

Corisa cubce, Guerin, Sagra's Hist. Cuba, Ins. p. 422. 

Two specimens, both males, were secured at Woburn, August 
30, in a sluggish stream in the open flat country near sea-level. 
This species is also now known from Plorida, Texas, and Mexico, 
besides the island of Cuba. 

2. Corisa reticulata, Guerin. 

Corisa reticulata, Guerin, Sagra's Hist. Cuba, Ins. p. 423. 

More than a dozen specimens, including both sexes, were found 
at St. George's and on the Mount Gay estate, in August and 
September, in pools of fresh water, and also in brackish water. 
A specimen from the Caliveny estate was found near the sea, 
in a pool of fresh water. 

Sigara, Pabr. 

Sigara socialis, B.-White. 

Sigara socialis, B.-White, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loudon, 1879, p. 274. 

Nearly two dozen specimens of this species, including some 
varieties in size and colour, were collected on most parts of the 
island. At Balthazar it was found June 11, flying at sunset 
after a heavy rain. On the Mount Gay and Telescope estates it 
was taken in August from spring-water ; but at Woburn it was 
more common, August 30, in a sluggish stream in the open 
country near sea-level. This species occurs also in Mexico and 
California, but it has not yet been taken in the eastern part of the 
United States. 



1894.] ON NEW HETEROCERA FROM TROPICAL AMERICA. 225 

3. On new Species of Heterocera from Tropical America. 
By W. Schaus, F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived February 9, 1894.] 
Earn. SyntomidjE. 

1. PSOLOPTERA BASIEULVA, Sp. nOV. 

Antennae black. Head, thorax, and base of wings reddish ; the 
wings otherwise and abdomen black, slightly tinged with dark 
blue ; a small white lateral spot at the base of the abdomen. Exp. 
32 miUim. 

Hab. Peru. 

Obs. Allied to P. ihoracica, Wlk., but differs in the reddish base 
of the wings. 

2. HOM030CERA CINCTA, Sp. nOV. 

Antennae black, tipped with white. Head black, frons white. 
Collar black, a central orange spot and lateral metallic blue spot. 
Thorax black ; patagia orange, margined with black. Abdomen 
dorsally with first segment yellow, otherwise black with metallic 
blue transverse lines, orange between the segments ; anus orange ; 
underneath black with some transverse white marks. Legs black. 
Primaries hyaline ; the veins black, except the costal vein, which is 
reddish brown ; an orange streak at the base above the submedian 
vein and another below it ; the inner and outer margins narrowly 
black, the apex broadly black ; a narrow black discal line. Second- 
aries hyaline, the outer margin finely black, the inner margin and 
anal angle broadly black. Exp. 28 millim. 

Hab. Aroa, Venezuela. 

3. Sphecosoma simile, sp. nov. 

Antennae yellow, the tips black. Head yellow, a black spot 
posteriorly. Collar yellow, edged with black. Thorax yellow, 
the patagia inwardly edged with black. Abdomen yellow, with 
dorsally six broad black transverse bands. Legs yellow. Wings 
yellowish hyaline ; the subcostal and median veins yellowish, the 
other veins black ; the fringe blackish ; a small black border at 
the apex of the primaries. Exp. 26 millim. 

Hab. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Obs. Very closely allied to S. arctata, Walk. 

4. Gymnelia aroa, sp. nov. 

Antennae black. Head and thorax black ; a few dark bluish 
scales on the collar. Abdomen black ; a subdorsal dark blue line, 
interrupted posteriorly on each segment ; lateral orange streaks 
between the segments, and a lateral row of blue spots ; underneath 
an outer row of yellow spots. Legs black ; fore coxae white. 



226 ME. W. SCHAUS ON SEW HETEEOCEEA [Mar. 6, 

Wings hyaline, the margins broadly black, especially the outer 
margins ; a black spot at the end of the cell on the primaries. 
Exp. 33 millim. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

5. L.E.UOCHAEIS MULTIGUTTA, Sp. nOV. 

Antennae black. Head black, with a crimson lateral spot. 
Collar black, with two crimson spots. Thorax black. Abdomen 
black ; two basal segments with crimson spots, the other segments 
banded with red, interrupted subdorsally. Underneath a white spot. 
Legs black, fore coxae white. Wings smoky hyaline, the reins and 
margins black ; some crimson streaks at the base of the primaries, 
and on the same wings a black spot at the end of the cell. Exp. 
23 millim. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

6. Thelnaci.v salta, sp. nov. 

Antennae black. Head black, frons white. Thorax crimson ; 
tips of patagia black. Abdomen black. Legs black, fore coxae 
white. Wings black; the basal half of the primaries semi-hyaline 
except the costal and inner margin. Exp. 20 millim. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

7. PsEUDOMYA PICTA, Sp. nOV. 

Antennae black. Head black, with a large crimson spot. Collar 
yellow. Thorax black, a crimson spot laterally on patagia. Abdo- 
men dorsally crimson at the base, followed by a broad yellow space, 
the terminal half brownish ; underneath brownish yellow. Legs 
black. Wings smoky brown, semi-hyaline, the margins a little 
darker. Exp. 22 millim. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

8. COSMOSOM A TIGEIS, Sp. nOV. 

Antennae black. Head black, streaked with metallic blue. 
Collar yellow, laterally metallic blue. Thorax with a metallic blue 
spot posteriorly ; patagia yellow, outwardly edged with blue. 
Abdomen bright yellow, with a narrow black transverse band on 
the posterior portion of each segment ; segments 2 and 3 laterally 
blackish ; a lateral row of metallic blue spots. Legs yellow with 
smoky streaks. Wings hyaline With narrow black margins, and 
the apex of the primaries broadly black : some yellow at the base 
of the inner margin, and a yellow streak on the costal margin. 
Underneath, the costal margin of the secondaries broadly orange- 
yellow. Exp. 34 millim. 

Hub. Aroa, Venezuela. 

9. COSMOSOMA PLUTONA, Sp. UOV. 

Head and thorax black. Collar dark metallic green. Abdomen 
dorsally very brilliant crimson ; underneath black with a white 



1894.] FROM TROPICAL AMERICA. 227 

mark. Wings hyaline, narrowly and evenly bordered with black ; 
all the veins black and a black line at the end of the cell. Exp. 
30 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

10. Dycladia ciitola, sp. nov. 

Palpi yellow. Head black, irons grey. Collar yellow. Thorax 
yellow, with three black stripes and a metallic blue spot posteriorly. 
Abdomen yellow ; the third segment dorsally black, with three blue 
spots and two minute yellow spots ; the following two segments 
with a black subdorsal spot each ; last segments black, with a sub- 
dorsal and lateral blue spots. Wings hyaline, narrowly margined 
with black ; the apex of the primaries broadly black ; the costal 
vein yellow; the inner margins yellowish. Exp. 26 millim. 

Hab. Aroa, Venezuela. 

11. Marissa regia, sp. nov. 

Antennae black, tipped with white. Head black, frons whitish, 
two metallic blue spots posteriorly. Collar black, two metallic 
blue spots. Thorax black, a broad white streak on patagia ; a 
posterior blue and whitish spot. Abdomen, first three segments 
crimson, the second spotted Avith black and blue ; the other 
segments black, with a subdorsal, two lateral, and two ventral rows 
of white spots. Legs black ; tarsi, joints, and fore coxae white. 
Primaries hyaline, the margins broadly black, still more so at the 
apex and inner angle ; a small vitreous elongate spot on the costal 
margin at the base ; a basal transverse black mark ; a large black 
spot at the end of the cell, and connected by a broad black mark 
on vein 2 with the inner angle. Secondaries hyaline, the margins 
irregularly bordered with black. Exp. 34 millim. 

Hab. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Obs. Allied to M. eane, Hiibn. 

12. iETHRIA PAULA, Sp. UOV. 

Body velvety black ; the last three segments of the abdomen 
dorsally and laterally crimson ; a round whitish spot on either 
side of the collar. Wings hyaline, the veins black and all the 
margins broadly black; at the end of the cell on the primaries 
a broad black spot from the costa to nearly the black border 
of the inner margin. Exp. 46 millim. 

Hab. San Paulo, S.E. Brazil. 

Obs. Closely allied to JE. hamiorrlioidalis, Stoll, which has, 
however, the basal segment of the abdomen crimson, and has 
a black spot on the costal margin of the secondaries near the 
apex. 

Ptychotricos, gen. nov. 

Antennas pectinated in both sexes, more so in the male than in 
the female. Primaries long and narrow, the outer margin very 



228 MR. W. SCHAUS OK WBW HETEEOCERA [Mar. R, 

oblique ; veins 4 and 5 stalked ; vein from upper angle of cell ; 
veins 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 stalked. Secondaries in the male with the 
outer margin very oblique, slightly excavated, the anal angle very 
acute; on the inner margin a fold enclosing a long tuft of hairs. 
The female has the outer margin slightly rounded, the anal angle 
also rounded ; veins 3 and 4 stalked ; 5 absent ; G from upper 
angle of cell ; 8 absent. Abdomen extending far beyond the 
secondaries, moderately stout. 

13. Pttchotricos zeus, sp. nov. 

Head black, bordered behind with orange. Thorax brownish 
black. Abdomen dorsally blackish ; a subdorsal small orange 
basal spot ; laterally and dorsally on the last segments brilliant 
metallic blue; underneath black with white bands. Fore coxa) 
white. Primaries above dark brownish black ; the veins brownish ; 
some brown streaks at the base, and a terminal row of oval lanceo- 
late spots with dark centres ; two semi-hyaline spots in the cell, 
and three transverse similar spots beyond the cell ; a diaphanous 
shade below the median vein ; a minute metallic blue spot on the 
inner margin. Secondaries black ; a small hyaline spot at the 
base crossed by the black median vein ; a tuft of long yellow hairs 
on the inner margin near the base. Underneath black, with all 
the semi-hyaline spots more distinct. Exp., J 49 millim., 5 48 
millim. 

Hob. Aroa, Venezuela. 



Fam. ArctildjE. 

14. ACLTTIA BUI IVEXTRIS, Sp. UOV. 

Palpi black, crimson at the base. Head black, with two crimson 
spots behind the antennae. Collar black, with a lateral crimson 
spot. Thorax black. Abdomen black dorsally, crimson under- 
neath and apparently between the segments above also; the anal 
segment entirely black. Coxa? and trochanters crimson. Primaries 
above dull brown. Secondaries with the margins broadly smoky 
black and the disk vitreous. Underneath, the wings are similar, 
but more thinly covered with scales. Exp. $ 41 millim. 

Hob. Jalapa, Mexico. 

Mach^raptekus, gen. nov. 

Antennae toothed. Body stout. Palpi very short. Primaries 
long and narrow; apex rounded; outer margin very oblique; 
inner angle rounded; inner margin slightly sinuate; vein 6 from 
upper angle of cell; veins 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. Secondaries tri- 
angular, costal margin rounded ; outer margin excavated ; disco- 
cellular straight ; vein 5 absent ; veins 6, 7, 8 stalked, 

Obs. Allied to Cratoplastis, Feld. 



1894.] FROM TROPICAL AMERICA. 229 

15. Macbuerapte> t fs yentralis, sp. nov. 

Head black. Collar creamy yellow edged with black. Thorax 
black ; patagia creamy yellow tipped with black. Abdomen 
dorsally black, shaded with blue on the posterior half ; underneath, 
coxae and abdomen orange. Primaries yellowish white ; the costal 
margin black; the base narrowly black; the inner angle finely 
black. Secondaries whitish. Exp. 42 millim. 

Hab. Aroa, Venezuela. 

16. Idales E]stervis, sp. nov. 

Palpi white, pink at the base. Head white, with a transverse 
pink streak. Collar white, laterally shaded with pink. Abdomen 
crimson dorsally, white underneath. Legs white, coxae crimson. 
Primaries above bright yellow ; the costal and inner margins 
finely white, the costa otherwise pinkish ; a purplish shade con- 
tiguous to the white on the inner margin ; a small purplish spot 
in the cell, and a large spot of the same colour at the end of the 
cell and extending beyond it ; an outer transverse row of small 
purplish spots. Secondaries above white, with a few rosy hairs at 
the base. Underneath, the primaries are bright yellow, with the 
cellular spots crimson instead of purplish ; secondaries white. 
Exp. 31 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

17. EECERON" AROA, sp. UOV. 

Head brown, two orange spots behind the antennae. Collar 
brown. Thorax brown ; a yellow streak on patagia. Abdomen 
greyish brown ; anus orange ; underneath banded with white. 
Primaries whitish grey ; all the veins and apex dark grey ; a sub- 
apical transverse white shade. Secondaries light greyish hyaline, 
the margins dark grey. Underneath, the primaries are of a uniform 
grey, with only the subapical white shade. Exp. § 31 millim. 

Hab. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Obs. Closely allied to E. costulatum, H.-S. 

18. ECCEREON DESTTATUM, Sp. nOV. 

Head grey, posteriorly crimson. Collar and thorax grey, 
streaked with black. Abdomen with the first segment grey ; 
otherwise crimson dorsally, white below, black laterally ; anus 
tipped with black. Primaries light grey ; a basal and an inner 
dentate transverse darker line ; beyond the latter a dark spot in 
the cell ; a median dentate line followed by a large dark blotch at 
the end of the cell, which reaches from the costa to vein 2 ; an 
outer dentate line crossing a dark spot between 2 and 3, and 
followed by a similar line which does not reach the inner margin ; 
a terminal row of dark spots, the largest one being just above the 
inner angle. Secondaries grey, the disk faintly hyaline. Under- 
neath, the wings are dull grey. Exp. 31 millim. 

Hab. Coatepec, Mexico. 
Proc Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XVI. 16 



230 ME. W. SCHAUS ON NEW HETEEOCEEA [Mai*. 6, 

19. Ophaeijs gemma, sp. nov. 

Palpi, legs, and abdomen below blackish. Antennae black. 
Head, collar, and thorax light greyish brown ; two minute black 
points on the collar. Abdomen dorsally orange, with a broad sub- 
dorsal brownish line tapering towards the anal segment. Pri- 
maries light greyish brown ; an indistinct dark median shade not 
reaching the margins ; beyond the cell a large dark brown spot 
cut by vein 5. Secondaries greyish brown. Exp. 55 millim. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

20. Pseud apistosia oedinaeia, sp. nov. 

Palpi, head, thorax, and primaries light brown. Secondaries 
whitish. Abdomen dorsally brown at the base, otherwise yellow 
with a subdorsal and a lateral row of short black streaks ; under- 
neath brown. Exp. 41 millim. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 

21. Halisidota pagana, sp. nov. 

c? . Palpi orange, tipped with black. Head, collar, and thorax 
black ; the patagia black bordered with orange. Abdomen dorsally 
black ; some small yellow marks laterally and underneath ; the 
anal segment entirely yellow. Primaries above dark brown with 
the veins very distinct. Secondaries dull brown. Underneath, the 
wings are dull brown, yellow at the base. Exp. 36 millim. 
. Hah. Castro, Parana. 

Ohs. The 5 differs in having the last three segments of the 
abdomen yellow, with an interrupted subdorsal brown line. 

22. Halisidota lineata, sp. nov. 

Palpi, head, and collar black. Thorax brown, shading to light 
buff posteriorly. Abdomen dorsally yellow, paler at the base ; 
underneath whitish, with a ventral and lateral black line. Pri- 
maries above light buff, with a broad blackish streak extending 
from near the base on the median vein to the outer margin just 
below the apex ; a marginal row of dark points. Secondaries 
white. Underneath whitish ; the primaries with the costal margin 
buff, and a small subapical dark streak. Exp. 35 millim. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 

23. PhjEgopteea jonesi, sp. nov. 

Palpi black, orange at the base. Head and collar buff, with two 
black spots on the latter. Thorax buff, with a few dark streaks. 
Abdomen dorsally orange ; white below, with a ventral row of 
black marks, and a lateral row of small black spots. Primaries 
above buff ; the veins brown ; the outer margin broadly brown, 
inwardly very dentate towards the apex ; a large brown spot at 
the end of the cell ; an outer broad, irregular, transverse brown 
band, interrupted between veins 3 and 4, and not quite reaching 
either the costal or inner margins. Secondaries above whitish, 
narrowly margined with brown at the outer angle ; a transverse 



1894.] FROM TROPICAL AMERICA. 231 

brown line at the end of the cell. Underneath, the markings are 
indistinctly repeated. Exp. 50 inillim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

Obs. I take pleasure in naming this fine species after its dis- 
coverer, E. Dukinfield Jones, Esq. 

24. Pb^egoptera arpi, sp. nov. 

Antennae black, spotted with white ; tips white. Palpi grey. 
Head yellow. Collar dark grey, laterally yellow. Thorax dark 
grey anteriorly, shading to yellowish posteriorly. Abdomen : base 
and last two segments dark grey ; other segments bright yellow, 
black between the segments, only noticeable subdorsally ; anus 
tipped with creamy hairs. Primaries whitish ; a dark grey spot 
on the base of the inner margin ; an inner and a median wavy 
grey line, the latter crossing a conspicuous round grey spot in the 
cell ; beyond this a group of six large grey spots, two in the cell, 
the others between veins 2-6 ; an outer irregular grey line out- 
wardly shaded with grey, dentate, extending on each vein towards 
the outer margin ; a terminal row of large grey spots between the 
veins. Secondaries dark grey. Underneath grey, somewhat mottled 
with white. Exp. 42 millim. 

Hab. Kio Janeiro. 

Obs. Named after its discoverer, Mr. J. Arp. 

25. Arachistis tenebra, sp. nov. 

Head black, white posteriorly. Collar black. Thorax white 
with a large black spot ; patagia black, broadly edged with white. 
Abdomen black. Primaries above black ; some irregular quadrate 
white spots at the base ; beyond this three large and one small 
white spot on the costal margin ; two white blotches on the outer 
margin ; a white spot at the origin of veins 3 and 4 ; a small white 
streak at the inner angle, and a large ><-shaped white mark on 
the inner margin. Secondaries black. Underneath, wings black ; 
fewer white marks on the primaries. Legs black ; tarsi with white 
hairs. Exp. $ 40 millim. 

Hab. Orizaba, Mexico. 

Lampruisa, gen. nov. 

Antennas pectinated. Primaries short and broad ; the outer 
margin slightly oblique. Secondaries broad oval ; veins 3 and 4 
from lower angle of cell ; veins 5 and 6 absent ; vein 8 from just 
beyond middle of cell. 

Allied to Synvphlebia, Felder. 

26. Lampruna rosea, sp. nov. 

Head red. Collar orange, mottled with red ; thorax reddish ; 
patagia orange, edged with red. Abdomen red. Legs yellow, 
broadly banded with grey. Primaries above yellow, the veins red ; 
a broad inner and outer transverse grey band, uniting above the 

16* 



232 ME. W. SCHATJS OX HEW HETEEOCEEA [Mar. 6, 

submedian vein, leaving on the inner margin a large yellow spot 
edged with red ; on the yellow basal portion some small red spots ; 
the inner transverse band bordered with red ; some greyish spots 
on the costa and in the cell between the two bands ; a terminal 
row of grey spots between the veins ; fringe yellow, spotted with 
grey. Secondaries red. Underneath, wings yellow ; an outer row 
of black spots on the primaries. Exp. S 36 millim. 
Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Geapiiea, gen. nov. 

Antenna? finely pectinated. Abdomen fairly stout. Primaries 
long, narrow ; apex slightly acute ; outer margin rounded, then 
oblique ; vein 6 from upper angle of cell ; veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. 
Secondaries long, narrow ; veins 4 and 5 stalked ; 6 and 7 from 
upper angle of cell ; 8 from end of cell, nearly touching 7 in its 
entire length. 

27. Geapiiea maemoeea, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax brownish yellow ; the collar and patagia edged 
with brown ; two brown points on the collar. Abdomen pink 
dorsally, yellow underneath. Anterior portion of primaries from 
base of inner margin to apex yellowish, covered with rows of 
small, irregular orange spots, interrupted by an inner broad brown 
band and a large black spot at the end of the cell, connected with 
the costal margin by a brown shade ; the posterior portion of the 
wing brownish mottled with lilacine ; a terminal white line ; the 
extremities of the veins whitish lilacine. Secondaries pink, slightly 
hyaline. Underneath yellowish pink, showing indistinctly the 
markings of the upper surface. Exp. 45 millim. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Ceeseea, gen. nov. 

Antennae finely pectinated. Primaries long : the outer margin 
oblique ; the inner angle rounded ; veins 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. 
Secondaries with the outer margin well rounded. Veins 3 and 4 
from lower angle of cell ; 5 absent ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 from half 
the length of cell. 

28. Ceeseea attntjlata, sp. nov. 

Head and collar buff, the latter brown laterally. Thorax buff ; 
patagia outwardly brown. Abdomen pink dorsally, yellowish 
underneath. Primaries above brown ; the costal margin and 
apical third of the wing, except the outer margin, buff, with a 
number of ring-shaped brown spots, those on the costal margin 
with only a minute central buff point, the others consisting of fine 
rings ; a subapical transverse brown line ; the outer margin and 
inner angle lilacine. Secondaries pink. Underneath yellowish ; 
the primaries showing the marks of the upper surface ; secondaries 
with a brown discal spot. Exp. 44 millim. 

Hah. Pdo Janeiro. 



1894.] FROM TROPICAL AMEEICA. 233 

Mttkoka., gen. nov. 

Antennae pectinated in both sexes. "Wings long, fairly broad, 
the outer margin oblique. Primaries with vein 6 from upper 
angle of cell ; 7, 8, 9 stalked. Secondaries with veins 4 and 5 
from lower angle of cell; 8 short, from near the end of cell. 
Secondaries in the tf triangular, the inner margin and anal angle 
rounded. 

29. Miotona iridescens, sp. nov. 

Body pale yellow ; the collar posteriorly edged with orange ; 
three orange streaks on the thorax. Fore coxa? orange. Primaries 
silvery yellow, all the veins slightly darker ; an orange point at 
the base. Secondaries yellowish white, semi-hyaline. Exp., S 
52 millim., $ 65 millim. 

Sab. Aroa, Venezuela. 

30. AtfTARCTIA VEXATA, Sp. nOV. 

Head and thorax reddish brown. Abdomen dorsally yellowish 
brown, ventrally black. The wings are rather thinly clothed with 
scales. Primaries greyish brown ; all the veins white. Second- 
aries paler, with the white veins less distinct. Underneath, the 
same. Exp. $ 30 millim. 

Sab. Castro, Parana. 

Earn. Eupterotid^!. 

31. Apatelodes parvula, sp. nov. 

Palpi brown. Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish grey, the 
base of the abdomen and two transverse shades on the thorax 
darker. Primaries grey, irrorated with brown scales ; a large dark 
brown spot on the interior half of the inner margin, but not 
reaching the base, and outwardly crossed by a slightly oblique 
light shade ; from near the middle of the costal margin a brownish 
indistinct band extends towards but does not reach the inner 
angle ; from this band to the outer margin all the veins are 
distinctly paler ; a light shade crosses the end of the cell ; the 
outer line prominent, whitish, and anteriorly slightly curved 
outwardly ; two subapical dark brown spots followed by two semi- 
hyaline spots. Secondaries above brown ; the inner margin and 
anal angle greyish brown, darker; an outer transverse whitish line. 
Underneath brown, shaded with grey on the costal margins of both 
wings and on the inner margin of the secondaries, where there 
are also some brown marks ; the outer transverse white line 
indistinct on the primaries, more distinct on the secondaries. 
Exp. 28 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

32. Olceclostera castrona, sp. nov. 

Palpi dark brown. Head and thorax grey, with a central brown 



\ 

234 MR. W. SCHATTS ON NEW HETEROCERA [Mar. 6, 

line. Abdomen reddish brown. Primaries above light grey, 
thinly speckled with dark scales ; the inner and outer lines very 
indistinct, angular, and apparently geminate; the fringe dark 
brown ; between veins 5 and 6 a small hyaline spot ; on the costa 
near the apex a small dark shade. Secondaries light brown, with 
two indistinct wavy lines ; the fringe on the outer margin near the 
anal angle very dark brown. Underneath greyish brown ; the two 
lines on the secondaries distinct, and a minute black spot in the 
cell ; on the primaries only the outer line visible, which is distinct 
and touches the hyaline spot. Exp. 28 inillim. 
Hah. Castro, Parana. 

33. Olceclostera azteca, sp. nov. 

Body light grey ; two lateral white spots at the base of the 
abdomen. Primaries above light grey, with two inner and two 
outer very distinct, slightly wavy dark grey transverse lines ; the 
furthermost line touching a round hyaline spot between veins 5 
and 6 ; the outer margin from below the apex to the inner angle 
brownish, limited by a lunular dark line ; a dark point in the cell. 
Secondaries brownish, with two slightly curved conspicuous dark 
lines ; the extreme margin and fringe dark grey. Underneath 
brownish, with the transverse lines dark, the inner lines absent on 
the primaries ; a black discal point on each wing. Exp. 32 millim. 

Hah. Jalapa, Mexico. 

Dukinpieldia, gen. nov. 

Antennae pectinated in both sexes, but more so in the 3 than 
in the § . Body stout ; abdomen extending beyond the secondaries. 
Primaries with the costal and inner margins straight, the outer 
margin and inner angle rounded ; discocellulars inwardly and 
deeply curved below vein 5 ; vein 6 from upper angle of cell : 7, 8, 
9, 10 stalked. Secondaries broad, the inner margin rounded ; 
discocellulars angled below 5, a veinlet extending from this angle 
to the base ; veins 6 and 7 stalked. 

34. Dtjkinfieldia suprema, sp. nov. 

Head reddish brown. Thorax mottled with long brown and 
and grey hairs. Abdomen dorsally black, with a few white hairs ; 
underneath banded orange and black. 

<5 . Primaries above white, all the veins dark reddish brown ; 
the subcostal, median, and submedian veins most heavily marked ; 
the costa finely black. Secondaries white, some orange hairs at 
the base. Underneath white, the extremities of the veins blackish. 
Exp. 53 millim. 

$ . Primaries reddish brown ; the costal margin grey ; the base 
and spaces between veins on outer margin irrorated with grey 
scales ; fringe white. Secondaries dull brown : fringe white. 
Underneath, wings dull brown, some orange scales at the base ; 
fringe white. Exp. 65 millim. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 



1894.] FBOM TROPICAL AMERICA. 235 

Earn. SATURiniD.E. 

35. HeMILEUCA DEKENEIELDI, Sp. nOV. 

Head, collar, and thorax dark buff ; patagia black. Abdomen 
orange dorsally; underneath black, with a lateral row of small 
white spots. Primaries above dark brown, with all the veins finely 
outlined in orange ; an outer transverse narrow white band. 
Secondaries similar, but the transverse band is less distinct, and 
the veins are not so distinctly marked towards the base of the 
wing, where there are also a quantity of long buff hairs, more 
noticeable in the male than in the female. Underneath, the wings 
are similarly but less distinctly marked. Exp., cf 60 millim., $ 
75 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

Earn. Cossid^e. 

36. Zeuzera masoni, sp. nov. 

<S . Head brown. Thorax and abdomen grey. Primaries light 
grey, with fine black transverse striae ; the basal third of the costa 
black ; the central third of the median vein anteriorly shaded with 
black ; a small dark space on the costa at two thirds from the base. 
Secondaries white ; the outer margin irrorated with black ; the 
fringe alternately white and grey. Exp. 51 millim. 

Hab. Jalapa, Mexico. 

Obs. Also in coll. Mason. 

37. Langsdoreia dekinfieldi, sp. nov. 

Palpi dark brown. Head, thorax, and abdomen light brown, 
the latter with a dark spot dorsally on the last segment. Primaries 
above fawn-colour shaded with smoky grey ; a large velvety brown 
spot near the base, not reaching the inner margin, and containing 
a bright silver spot ; just beyond this a pale V-shaped mark starts 
from the costal margin, nearly touches the inner angle, and then 
extends to the apex, turning in near the costal margin to form 
two curves in the direction of the cell ; the space within the base 
of this V is dull grey, the upper portion reddish brown towards 
the apex, fawn-colour towards the base ; on the outer margin the 
veins are slightly paler. Secondaries whitish, with smoky margins. 
Underneath, the primaries are dull brown, with two reddish-brown 
spots on the outer half of the costal margin ; the secondaries 
whitish, irregular spots on the margins and two large brown 
spots on the costal margin. Exp. 3 38 millim. 

Obs. The $ expands 48 millim. and has the secondaries brownish. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

38. Langsdorfia akoa, sp. nov. 

Abdomen dark brown; the patagia bordered with velvety 
brown. Primaries above the costa buff, spotted with dark 
velvety brown, each spot edged with whitish ; a small triangular 



236 mb. w. schaus oy new heteboceba [Mar. 6, 

buff space, speckled with black, on the inner margin, the base 
of the triangle formed by vein 2 ; the rest of tbe wing dark 
velvety grey, with large dark velvety brown spots, edged with 
lilacine, as follows : — a subapical irregular spot ; a five-sided spot 
at a third from the base and reaching tbe median vein; a small 
triangular spot in the cell, resting on the median vein ; a large 
oval oblique spot near the outer margin crossing veins 3 to 5 ; 
three spots between the median and submedian veins ; a terminal 
row of spots disappearing towards the apex ; the fringe reddish 
brown. Secondaries dull blackish brown. Underneath, primaries 
brown ; secondaries dark grey, irregularly spotted with a darker 
shade. Exp. 46 millim. 
Hab. Aroa, A f enezuela. 

Fain. Hepialid^;. 

39. Dalaca sebta, sp. nov. 

Body reddish brown. Primaries reddish brown, greyish along 
the inner and outer margins ; transverse lunular lines, interrupted 
by the veins, cover the wings with a mass of grey lunules out- 
wardly shaded with brown, and they are most numerous on the 
outer third of the wing. [Secondaries reddish brown. Exp. 3 
41 millim. 

Hab. Jalapa, Mexico. 

Obs. Allied to Dalaca assa, Druce. 

Earn. DioptidjE. 

40. POLYPOETES RUFIPUNCTA, Sp. nOV. 

Palpi black, orange at the base. Head black. Collar black, 
laterally white. Thorax black ; patagia orange, with a black and 
a grey streak. Abdomen dorsally black ; the posterior portion of 
each segment narrowly yellowish ; underneath white. Primaries 
above black ; all the veins on the basal half of the wing yellowish ; 
a round white spot just beyond the cell ; a round subapical orange- 
red spot. Secondaries above black ; a round white spot beyond 
the cell, connected with the base of the wing by a broad yellowish 
space. Underneath, the primaries are black with the two spots as 
on the upper surface, and a white streak at the base ; secondaries 
white, the outer margin broadly black. Exp. 25 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Novo Friburgo. 

Earn. LiMACODiDiE. 

41. Semyba cabdia, sp. nov. 

Palpi and head yellow. Thorax brown, mingled with yellow 
scales. Abdomen dark brown ; at the base laterally covered with 
long yellow hairs. Primaries above violaceous brown ; the costal 
margin for two thirds from the base narrowly yellow ; the base of 



1894.] FROM TROPICAL AMERICA. 237 

the costal vein dark brown ; a basal angular silver-white line from 
the median to the submedian vein, followed by an irregular golden- 
brown spot, outwardly shaded with dark brown ; a dark velvety- 
brown streak in the cell, followed by a golden-brown spot between 
veins 5 and 6, and separated from it by an indistinct whitish line 
which extends from the costa to vein 2, where it joins a sub- 
marginal white line extending from the apex to the inner margin ; 
this submarginal line is inwardly heavily shaded with dark brown, 
and is outwardly contiguous to some small brown spots. Second- 
aries yellowish white. Underneath, the primaries are light brown, 
the inner margin broadly white ; the secondaries yellowish, the 
costal margin broadly light brown. Exp. 20 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

Obs. Very closely allied to S. bella, H.-S. 

42. Trabala rubens, sp. nov. 

Palpi and head golden brown. The thorax purplish. Abdomen 
light golden brown, with a few purplish anal hairs. The primaries 
above golden brown, with the veins darker ; the costal margin 
broadly suffused with purplish ; an irregular dark line extends 
from the apex to the middle of the submedian vein, and is 
followed by an indistinct marginal shade. Secondaries above 
yellowish white ; the fringe on both wings very long, the inner 
half golden brown, the outer half purplish. Underneath, the 
wings are light golden brown. Exp. 26 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

43. Trabala (?) truncata, sp. nov. 

Palpi, head, and collar brown. Thorax and abdomen yellowish 
brown. Primaries above yellowish brown ; an indistinct basal 
and a median irregular transverse brown line ; an outer heavily 
marked straight brown line, closely followed by an irregular 
indistinct line. Secondaries above brownish yellow, with an 
indistinct median brown line. Underneath yellowish brown, the 
outer margins paler ; two distinct, irregular, outer brown lines ; 
on the secondaries a brown dot at the end of the cell. Exp. 28 
millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

44. PEROLA ALMIRAB1LIS, Sp. UOV. 

Palpi crimson, tipped with white. Head white, with all the 
scales around the eyes crimson. Thorax and body white; the 
patagia edged with crimson. Primaries above yellowish ; at the 
base some crimson scales on the costal margin and a few black 
scales scattered on either side of the submedian vein ; an indistinct 
curved band of blackish scales beyond the cell, and beyond this 
a short, indistinct crimson shade extends from the costal margin. 
Secondaries above white. Underneath, wings yellowish, the costal 
half of the primaries crimson. Exp. 22 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 



238 ME. W. SCHAUS ON NEW HETEKOCERA [Mar. 6, 

45. Dalmera fumata, sp. nov. 

Palpi and head orange. Collar whitish. Thorax and abdomen 
orange. Primaries above pinkish yellow, palest along the costa ; 
at the end of the cell an oblique black streak ; below this and from 
near the base of the subcostal vein to nearly the middle of the 
outer margin a heavy smoky-black shade, and from this a similar 
but smaller shade extends towards the inner margin. Secondaries 
above bright yellow ; orange along the inner margin. Underneath, 
the wings are orange, the primaries having the base of the costa 
and a mark at the end of the cell black. Exp. 31 millim. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 

Ohs. Closely allied to D. tijucana, Schaus. 

Pam. LasiocampldjE. 

46. OCHA BRUNNEA, sp. nOV. 

Above entirely dark brown. The primaries with two indistinct 
transverse median lines, slightly necked with white ; a submarginal 
irregular row of small black spots, almost imperceptibly necked 
with gi'eyish scales. Underneath lighter brown, with a few white 
scales on the costal margins of both wings at about two thirds 
from the base. Exp. 20 millim. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 

47. Ocha falsa, sp. nov. 

Above light brown. The primaries with the base and a broad 
shade through the cell darker ; a black discal point and a marginal 
row of conspicuous black points ; the basal lines indistinct ; the 
outer line geminate, angular ; a few black streaks between the 
end of the cell and the apex. Underneath light brown, with a 
marginal row of indistinct dark spots. Exp. 22 millim. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 

48. Ocha famata, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax light brown. Abdomen dorsally blackish, 
otherwise light brown. Primaries above light reddish brown ; a 
dark streak at the base of the cell ; the inner line fine, dark, 
geminate, wavy, and outwardly curved ; the outer line also 
geminate, wavy, and outwardly shaded with whitish ; veins 6-10 
distinctly whitish; from the cell to the outer margin between 
veins 4 and 7 a dark shade containing three clusters of reddish- 
brown scales, which are contiguous to an irregular, fine, white 
marginal line ; a small dark subapical spot between veins 9 and 10 ; 
the fringe pale, with dark spots. Secondaries above dark brown, 
with the costal margin broadly light brown, crossed by wavy white 
lines ; some paler scales along the inner margin ; fringe alter- 
nately buff and dark brown. Underneath dark brown ; the costa 
finely and the inner margin of the primaries broadly buff ; the 



1894.] ER0H TROPICAL AMERICA. 239 

fringe on the secondaries paler, and on both wings a marginal row 
of indistinct dark spots. Exp. 25 millim. 
Hab. Castro, Parana. 

49. OCHA MARGINATA, sp. nOV. 

Head and thorax brown, mingled with buff hairs. Abdomen 
brown. Primaries light brown, slightly hyaline, the veins all 
dark ; some dark violaceous striae at the base and on either side of 
a pale outer line, which forms a large wavy curve before reaching 
the middle of the inner margin ; a broad marginal greyish shade ; 
a terminal buff line ; the apex light grey : the fringe dark at the 
inner angle. Secondaries brown ; a greyish marginal line near 
the apex. Exp. 26 millim. 

Hab. Jalapa, Mexico. 

50. Hydrias castreusis, sp. nov. 

Palpi yellowish. Head and thorax grey, the abdomen lighter. 
Primaries above grey ; some brown scales at the base and also two 
contiguous transverse brown lines, the inner one wavy, the outer 
slightly dentate ; a brownish-black spot in the cell ; an outer 
indistinct transverse line, slightly dentate and outwardly shaded 
with buff ; a wavy submarginal dark grey shade. Secondaries 
above white ; the costal margin with the basal half brown, the 
outer half grey ; the fringe grey. Underneath, the primaries are 
smoky-brown, whitish along the inner margin, a submarginal 
dark shade ; the secondaries white, with two indistinct greyish 
lines on the costa. Exp. S 25 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

Earn. LithosildjE. 

51. LlTHOSIA PERUVIANA, sp. nOV. 

Head yellow, with a transverse grey band. Collar yellowish. 
Thorax pink. Abdomen yellowish, shading to deep orange at the 
anal segment. Primaries dark grey ; the costal and inner margins, 
also a central longitudinal streak, yellowish. Secondaries yellow, 
shading to orange at the anal angle ; the apex dark grey. Exp. 
20 millim. 

Hab. Peru. 

52. Lithosia venosa, sp. nov. 

Palpi and head orange, grey posteriorly. Collar, thorax, and 
abdomen greyish white. Primaries above light grey, all the veins 
and fringe white. Secondaries white, the costal margin tinged 
with grey. Underneath, primaries dark grey, fringe white ; 
secondaries white, the costal margin and apex dark grey. Exp. 
28 millim. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 



240 ME. W. SCHAUS ON NEW HETEROCERA [Mar. 6, 

53. Choria separata, sp. nov. 

Head deep yellow, with a transverse grey band ; collar yellow. 
Thorax dark grey ; patagia yellow, inwardly shaded with grey. 
Abdomen yellowish ; in the female a black dorsal spot on the 
last segment denuded of scales. Primaries above silvery white ; 
the inner margin broadly dark grey, anteriorly shaded with yellow ; 
the costal margin finely yellow. Secondaries yellowish white ; 
the apex broadly smoky grey. Underneath, the secondaries are 
the same ; the primaries are smoky grey, with two thirds of the 
costal margin, a streak beyond the cell, and a streak above the 
inner margin yellowish. Exp. 27 millim. 

Hob. Castro, Parana. 

Obs. In the female the secondaries are entirely yellowish 
white, and the primaries below are whitish with the inner and 
outer margins smoky. 

54. Crahbomobpiia marcata, sp. nov. 

Head, collar, and thorax dark grey ; the collar laterally and 
base of patagia yellowish. Abdomen whitish grey, shading to 
yellow at the last segment. The primaries above silvery white ; 
the costal margin chrome-yellow ; the inner margin broadly dark 
grey, with a whitish streak at the base. Secondaries white, faintly 
tinged with grey on the outer margin. Underneath white, the 
primaries tinged with grey, and the chrome-yellow costal margin 
very conspicuous. Exp. 34 millim. 

Hah. Eio Janeiro. 

Obs. I have a female absolutely similar from Peru. 

55. Crambomorpha Virginia, sp. nov. 

2 • Palpi luteous. Head dark grey. Collar and abdomen 
fawn-colour. Thorax white. Wings pure white, the primaries 
silvery ; secondaries thinly covered with scales. Exp. 31 millim. 

Bcib. Castro, Parana. 

Obs. Allied to 0. arrjentea, Feld., but smaller and a more 
delicate insect. The colour of the collar distinguishes the species 
at once. 

56. Crambidia corcovada, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax grey. Abdomen dorsally grey, underneath 
yellowish. Primaries above whitish, the inner margin greyish ; 
secondaries yellowish white. Underneath, the primaries are 
greyish, the basal half tinged with yellow ; the secondaries whitish, 
the costal margin yellow. Exp. 21 millim. 

Hab. Eio Janeiro. 

57. Crambidia petrola., sp. nov. 

d . Body grey ; anal segment of abdomen yellowish. Primaries 
white ; the costal margin finely chrome-yellow ; the inner margin 



1894.] FROM TROPICAL AMERICA. 241 

shaded with brownish grey. Secondaries white. Underneath, the 
primaries are yellowish white. Exp. 24 millim. 

Hah. Tijuca, Petropolis. 

Ohs. The female similar in every respect. 

58. Salopola vestalis, sp. nov. 

c? • Silvery white ; the inner margin of the primaries very 
light brown. On the costal margin of the secondaries a long 
tuft of yellow hairs. Underneath white ; a tuft of yellow hairs 
on the primaries just above the median vein, and curling over the 
origin of veins 2, 3, and 4. Exp. 33 millim. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 

Ohs. This species is closely allied to S. argentea, Walk., but 
differs in its white secondaries and tufts of hairs, which are longer 
in S. argentea and black on the underside of the primaries. 

59. Areva perpensa, sp. nov. 

S . Body white above, yellow underneath. Primaries white ; 
the costal margin pale yellow ; the inner margin faintly brownish. 
Secondaries white, with a few long yellow hairs in the cell. 
Underneath white ; the primaries with the outer margin slightly 
smoky, the costal margin orange, and there is a large oval cluster 
of long hairs. The primaries are a little longer than the second- 
aries and very broad. Exp. 31 millim. 
Hah. Jalapa, Mexico. 

Fam. Notodontid-E. 

60. (Edemasia tropica, sp. nov. 

Palpi, head, and collar brown. Thorax whitish. Abdomen 
light brown. Primaries above light grey ; the .costa and base 
shaded with brown ; a wavy, fine, geminate, black median line, 
inwardly shaded with brownish, and followed at the end of the 
cell by an inwardly curved black crescent-shaped line ; an outer 
geminate black line, interrupted and very indistinct ; a terminal 
black wavy line, with inwardly a short black streak on each vein. 
Secondaries brown. Underneath, primaries brown, secondaries 
whitish margined with brown. Exp. 39 millim. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

61. KlEARGIA MASTA, sp. nOV. 

Palpi, head, and thorax brown, thickly mottled with green 
scales. Abdomen dark grey, with still darker clusters of scales 
subdorsally. Primaries above moss-green, mottled with brown, 
and paler beyond the cell ; at the base a fine black streak 
surmounting a pale spot on the inner margin : the basal and 
median lines almost imperceptible ; a dark brown transverse streak 
at the end of the cell ; the outer line represented by two series of 
minute dark spots on the veins separated by white scales ; the 
submarginal line indistinct, forming towards the inner angle some 



242 ON NEW HETEKOCEEA FROM TROPICAL AMEEICA. [Mar. 6, 

brownish spots ; a terminal row of lunular green spots between 
the veins ; the fringe dark grey. Secondaries greyish, with the 
extreme outer margin much darker. Underneath greyish, the 
extreme margins brown. Exp. 40 millim. 
Hah. Jalapa, Mexico. 

62. Edema astuta, sp. nov. 

Palpi brown. Head dull yellow. Collar brown. Thorax light 
lichen-green. Abdomen brown above, dull yellow underneath, 
with a dark ventral line. Primaries above dark brown, with the 
inner margin broadly greyish ; the veins flecked with alternately 
dark and light scales ; the middle of the costal margin, a quadrate 
spot in the cell, and some surrounding shades of a very dark and 
dull brown ; a submarginal series of triangular dark spots, 
followed by a row of small clusters of black scales ; the apex 
yellowish white, with some subapical light brown streaks ; the 
fringe brown, spotted with yellowish. Secondaries above brown, 
with the fringe dull yellow. Underneath, the wings are brown 
with a pale shade at the apex of the primaries and a marginal row 
of brown dots. Exp. 48 millim. 

Hah. Jalapa, Mexico ; Aroa, Venezuela. 

Ohs. This species is very closely allied to E. mandela, Druce. 

63. Lirimiris (?) mephitis, sp. nov. 

Palpi, head, and thorax brownish grey ; the abdomen paler, 
except dorsally on the first segment, where there is a tuft of rich 
brown hairs. Primaries above greyish brown, slightly darker 
towards the outer margin, except a submarginal transverse shade 
which is very indistinct ; the inner margin irrorated with much 
lighter scales, amongst which a few small clusters of dark brown 
scales are very conspicuous ; at the end of the cell two dark brown 
spots, the lower one much thelarger. Secondaries above brown, with 
a few dark scales at the anal angle, surmounted by a small yellow 
spot. Underneath, the wings are light brown, with a few small 
black streaks on the costal margin of the primaries near the apex. 
Exp. $ 46 millim. 

Hah. Jalapa, Mexico. 

Ohs. Also in coll. Mason. 

64. LOPIIODONTA (?) PALLIDA, sp. UOV. 

Head and thorax greyish white. Abdomen greyish brown. 
Primaries above greyish white, the base shaded with brown ; an 
inner transverse, dark brown, geminate line, indistinct towards the 
costa ; a small brown shade in the cell, followed by a dentate 
brownish transverse line ; a geminate, dark brown, outer line, 
dentate, followed by two yellow spots between veins 2 and 3, and 
3 and 4, outwardly shaded with brown ; a dark greyish costal space 
beyond the outer line ; a terminal, fine, brownish line from the costa 
to vein 2. Secondaries brownish, the costal margin mottled w ith 



1894.] ON THE HABITS OE ANOMALURUS. 243 

white ; fringe white. Underneath, primaries brownish, secondaries 
greyish. Exp. $ 44 millini. 
Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

65. Heterocampa paranensis, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax grey, mottled with greenish scales ; the collar 
somewhat paler. The abdomen grey above, yellowish white under- 
neath. The primaries above light grey ; two thirds of the costa 
from base darker grey, and also the base of the inner margin 
darker ; a green shade extends from the base of the costal margin 
to the middle of the inner margin, and continues to the inner 
angle ; the outer margin greenish, the extremities of the veius 
black ; the apical third of the costa broadly amber-green, and an 
indistinct greenish shade from the costa, passing beyond the cell 
and extending to the outer margin. Secondaries above white ; the 
costal margin brown, with transverse white shades; the inner 
margin brown, and the extreme outer margin narrowly brown. 
Underneath, the wings are white ; the costal margin of the pri- 
maries yellowish, and the extreme outer margin and tips of the 
veins on the same wings brown. Exp. 35 millim. 

Hob. Castro, Parana. 

66. Bl/ERA BOLIYARI, Sp. nOV. 

S . Body greyish brown ; patagia white. Primaries above 
white ; a brown patch on the costa at a fourth from the base ; a 
similar spot on the costa at three fourths from the base, followed 
by two small brown spots ; the inner margin mottled with brown, 
forming in the female a triangular space connected by a brown line 
with the inner costal spot ; the fringe white, spotted with brown. 
Secondaries greyish brown ; fringe whitish. Underneath, pri- 
maries brown, the fringe and apical half of the costa spotted with 
brown ; secondaries whitish, the costal and outer margins broadly 
shaded with greyish brown. Exp. 52 millim. 

Hub. Aroa, Venezuela. 



4. On the Habits of the Flying- Squirrels of the 
Genus Anomalurus. By "W. H. Adams. 1 

[Received January 26, 1894.] 

Along the whole length of the Colony of the Gold Coast, and 
parallel with and some 15 miles from the sea-shore, runs a range 
of high hills with deep gorges and ravines covered with almost 
impenetrable bush. These hills vary from 500 or 600 feet to a 
much greater height, and it is in this bush that I obtained the 
specimens of the peculiar Plying- Squirrels of the genus Anoma- 
lurus which I have presented to the British Museum 2 . 

1 Communicated by Oldfield Thomas, F.Z.S. 

2 [With one single exception, the "small brown skin" mentioned on p. 245 
(which is A.fraseri, Waterh.), all the skins obtained by Mr. Adams belong to 



244 ME. W. H. ADAMS o> T the [Mar. 6, 

1 do not know what the indigenous native name for these 
Squirrels is, but they are called Flying-Foxes ,by the English- 
speaking natives and are very numerous. They live in hollow trees, 
not being particular as to their height or as to whether they are 
situated in the ravines or on the hills. Owing to the density of 
the bush it is very difficult for the white man to get at them, the 
only chance being to stand on a clearing and shoot them as they 
fly across, and this can only be done on a night when the moon is 
at the full. 

The first skin I ever saw was when I was at Accra. It was in 
the possession of a native who was brought before me for some 
offence, and, being struck with it, I asked if some more could be 
got. The native of the Coast, however, does not hurry himself, 
and, hearing nothing more of it, I quite forgot the matter. Some 
months after, in April 1893, I went to the Sanitarium at Aburi, a 
village situated at a height of some 800 feet among the hills before 
mentioned. The rains were just beginning and were very heavy. 
While watching a big cotton-wood tree being felled, I saw an 
animal which I mistook for a cat run out of a hole some 50 feet 
up and then return. When the tree fell, with the help of a native 
I extricated the occupant, which turned out to be one of these 
Squirrels. It was very fierce and bit and scratched savagely till 
killed. The hole was about 5 feet deep, and covered at the bottom 
with sticks and small branches to such an extent that it was 
evident some sort of a nest was intended. I took the skin, and 
the " boys " at once seized on the body, which they told me was the 
greatest delicacy that existed, and, as my servant said, " When you 
catch one man-fox you shut your door aud don't want your friend 
to come and see you," meaning that it was too good to be shared. 
Finding that these Squirrels were to be had on the hills, I set to 
work to collect them. 

They come out of their holes in the trees some hours after 
sunset, returning long before daybreak. They are only to be seen 
ou bright moonlight nights, and in fact the natives say they do not 
come out at all in stormy weather or on very dark nights. They 
live on berries and fruits, being specially fond of the palm oil-nut, 
which they take to their nests to peel and eat. The most I have seen 
in one hole is three, though the natives say five or six are sometimes 
found. They pass from tree to tree with great rapidity, usually 
choosing to jump from a high branch to a lower one, and then 
climbing up the tree to make a fresh start. The temperature on 
the hills varies considerably. During the time I was there — the 
rainy season, from the middle of Aprd to the middle of June — it 
was never very hot, and one night I remember the thermometer 



the large black-and-white species discovered by Pel, and named in his honour 
Anomalurus pcli (Temm. Esq. Zool. Guin. p. 146, 1853). The astonishing 
abundance in which Mr. Adams found this species is rather remarkable, as 
previously only three or four specimens of it seem lo have reached European 
Museums. — 0. T.] 



1894.] HABITS OF ANOMALUBUS. 245 

going down to 44° on the ground. Of course in the dry season it 
is much hotter, but the natives say these animals are much more 
plentiful in the rains and that the rainier the season the more 
they see. They litter twice a year, once about September, the 
youog remaining in the nest for about nine weeks, during which 
they are fed by the old ones on shoots, kernels, &c, and do 
not attempt to jump before the end of that period, extending the 
length of their jumps with their growth. I do not know the other 
time of breeding or whether they have a regular season. The 
hunters told me that 2 or 3 were usually born at one birth, never 
more than 4, and that there are several varieties, different in colour 
and size — some being black, some brown, some red, &c. ; the spe- 
cimens I obtained, some of which are now in the Natural History 
Museum, being the most plentiful. A native's description is 
always very vague, and the interpretation is another great difficulty ; 
but I feel sure, both from what I saw and what I beard, that there 
must be several different sorts. 

I managed before I left Aburi to get some dozen skins — all of the 
same kind — and instructed two native hunters to collect as many 
skins as they could for me, as I was much pleased with the fine fur 
and thought they would make a very good coat. I gave the men 
each a " book " or note promising to buy as many skins as they 
could collect at Is. each. 

I left Aburi in June and returned across the plain to Accra. 
About a month afterwards one of my hunters arrived from Aburi 
with 60 skins and his " book." I was rather surprised, but bought 
them. A few days after the other man arrived with 140 skins 
and his book, which he sternly insisted on my redeeming. I had 
not quite expected this, but chose 50 of the best, and at last got 
rid of the man, though not without much murmuring. However, 
having got an extra " dash," he was quite satisfied at last. He 
must have done very well, as from the look of the skins he must 
have collected them from all quarters, some being very old. This 
man had several different ones, i. e. apparently so ; but I regret to 
say, with the exception of one small brown one, which is here 
to-night, and which was thrown in as a " dash," and one reddish- 
orange one which I bought by mistake, and which is now at South 
Kensington, I did not secure them. Some had a broad orange 
stripe down the back, some a large spot of orange on the back, 
and the brown skin was, I distinctly remember, similar to a small 
brown skin shown me by Mr. Old field Thomas, and which I believe 
was brought from Gaboon 1 . These curious ones I did not buy, as 
my fur coat was prominent in my mind. 

The shower, however, was not yet over, as in a few days one of 
my bailiffs turned up with 25 skins, and an old chief named Addo, 
from whom I used to buy curios, having ouce got it into his head 
that flying-foxes were the thing, turned up at almost daily intervals 
with half a dozen or so fresh skins, till I got sick of the very name 
of a flying-fox. 

1 A.fraseri. 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1S94, No. XVII. 17 



246 me. w. batesox on coloue- [Mar. 6, 

His Excellency the Governor brought, I think, some 20 or 30 
skins home. Messrs. Swanzy's agent, with whom I travelled home, 
was bringing some more which he thought might be commercially 
valuable, but which have turned out useless, and I obtained altogether 
125. "With these exceptions I never heard of any being brought 
from the Gold Coast. Very few of the Europeans in Accra to whom 
I showed them had seen them before, and I hear my hunters declined 
to get any more : but when I go back to Accra I shall obtain some of 
the different varieties, now I know where to get them and also 
know that they are worth getting, for that the hilly countries of 
the two Akims and Ashanti — to say nothing of other districts — are 
full of them there can be no doubt. 

I think from what I could gather that these orange-marked ones 
are in the nature of an albino variation, for the marks vary in size 
and brilliancy, some of them being quite small, while others cover 
the whole skin. 

The habitat, food, and habits of these varieties are exactly the 
same as those of the black species, among which they are found. 



5. On two Cases of Colour-variation in Flat-fishes illus- 
trating principles of Symmetry. By W. Bateson, M.A., 
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

[Received March 6, 1894.] 

(Plate XVII.) 

The two cases of Variation here described are both examples of 
abnormal deposit of pigment in the skin of the normally 
un pigmented or " blind'' side of Flat-fishes. The two cases are 
uniike each other, but both are remarkable illustrations of the ways 
in which the phenomenon of Symmetry may be manifested and 
may contribute to the production of a defiuite result in Variation 
that is presumably sporadic. 

The first specimen is a small Brill (Rhombus Irevis), kindly sent 
to me by Mr. Matthias Dunn, of Mevagissey, Cornwall. It is 9| 
inches long, and 6J inches wide in the widest part. The dorsal tin, 
the eyes, and other parts are normal in form and position. The 
only abnormality seen consists in the presence of a row of five 
spots of colour along the dorsal border of the body on the bliud 
side, aud of another row of three spots along th. j ventral border on 
the same side. The spots are on the body, central to the dorsal 
and anal fins, which are both of normal colour. The interest of 
the case lies in the remarkable symmetry with which the spots 
are distributed with reference to the longitudinal axis of the bodv. 
On reference to the plate (Plate XVII.) it will be seen that each of 
the three ventral spots stands at very nearly the same transverse 
level as one of the spots of the dorsal series. The two anterior 
spots of the dorsal series have no representatives in the ventral 
series. This appearance of symmetry, so striking to the eye, is 



fcl 




: 






; 



- 



•4(1 






--: 



■i? 






% 



m 






B 





) 

i 



m 






f 












1894.] TAEIATIOK IN FLAT-FISHES. 247 

upon examination found to be an expression of the fact that the 
ordinal positions of the neural spines crossing the centres of the 
spots of the dorsal row are, if reckoned from behind forwards, 
almost exactly the same as those of the haemal spines crossing the 
centres of the ventral spots. 

The particulars are as follows : — The centre of the most posterior 
dorsal spot stands almost exactly over the neural spine of the 11th 
fin-ray, reckoning from behind. The centre of the next spot is 
upon that of the 26th fin-ray reckoned from behind ; that of the 
next is on the 42nd. 

Of the ventral spots the centre of the most posterior is on 
the haemal spine of the 11th fin-ray from behind ; that of the 
next is on the 24th, and that of the most anterior is on the 
40th. It will be seen that the numbers in the two rows closely 
correspond. 

Continuing the dorsal series there is a spot on the neural spine 
of the 52nd fin-ray, another very minute and faint spot over the 
63rd. In front of this there are 16 more fin-rays. 

The whole number of fin-rays in the dorsal fin is 79, and in the 
anal fin 58. 

On detailed examination it may be seen tbat the spots are not 
wholly shapeless blotches of colour, but that some of them con- 
sist of several irregular zones of colours. Each of these spots is 
thus a somewhat indefinite ocellar mark. The spots dd, vc, and 
vb have each a minute centre of light colour, which is chiefly due 
to the presence of a whitish scale in the middle of the spot. This 
light colour is not altogether confioed to the one scale, but spreads 
a little on to the edges of the adjacent scales. The spot db has 
two of these small whitish centres. The spot dc alone of the five 
chief spots has no light centre. Around the centre of each spot 
are scales of a brown tint bearing specks of very dark pigment. 
These deeply pigmented scales form a zone about four rows deep 
in the case of the larger spots. Outside this is an irregular zone 
of fine pigment-granules giving a neutral tint. Beyond this again 
there was in the case of spots dd, dc, db, and vc a vague and 
imperfect band of silvering, forming a border to the proximal limbs 
of the spots. 

It is thus seen that the colours of the dorsal and ventral bordei*s 
have, so far as the last three spots are concerned, varied similarly 
and simultaneously, producing a result that is nearly symmetrical 
about the horizontal axis. This phenomenon is precisely compar- 
able with the much more common phenomenon of similar and 
simultaneous variation of the right and left sides of a bilaterally 
symmetrical body. It is to be remembered that in many fishes, 
and especially in Flat-fishes, there is an imperfect relation of bilateral 
symmetry subsisting between the parts dorsal and ventral to the 
horizontal median plane. This symmetry is generally manifested 
both in form and colour, and is an indication that at some time 
these parts have undergone similar variation. The present ex- 
ample illustrates the principle that parts, which in the normal are in 

17* 



248 OX COLOUB-YAItlATlOS i> i'LAT-FISHES. [Mar. 6, 

symmetry with each other, are related to each other in such a way 
that they may undergo similar variations simultaneously. Upon 
the deductions from this principle I have dwelt elsewhere. 

Several forms of abnormal pigmentation upon the " blind " side 
of Flat-fishes are of course familiar, but of the particular variation 
here seen I have met with no other case. In a recent paper, how- 
ever, Cunningham ' makes allusion to cases apparently of this 
nature, saying that they are frequent in the Brill. So far as I 
know, the occurrence is not mentioned by the other authors who 
have treated of the colour-variations of flat-fishes. 

The other specimen is one to which 1 lately made reference in 
writing on the subject of pigmentation in the blind sides of Flat- 
fishes \ The description that I gave was very brief and not quite 
correct, and I take this opportunity of amplifying and correcting 
it. It may appropriately be considered here inasmuch as it 
also illustrates the influence of Symmetry in determining the 
manner of occurrence of Variation, though in a way different from 
that seen in the Brill described above. The fish is a Plaice {Plea- 
ronectes platessa), also received from Mr. Dunn. lis fins, eyes, &c. 
were normal. The posterior half of the "blind" side was fully 
pigmented, the pigmented area being sharply limited at a sinuous 
line slightly behind the level of greatest width. This pigmented 
area was of the same colour as the skin of the upper surface, and, 
like it, bore spots of a full orange colour. Of these spots there 
were, in all, thirteen — eight being on the body, three on the dorsal 
fin, and two on the anal. The interest of the case lies in the fact 
that by passing pins vertically through the body it was proved that 
the centres of nine of these spots coincided exactly with the centres 
of spots on the upperside. Four of these coincident spots were 
ventral to the lateral line, two being on the body and two on the 
anal fin. One large spot was upon the lateral line. Three were 
upon the dorsal fin, and one, a large spot, was also upon the body, 
just anterior to the base of the caudal fin. There was one spot 
over the muscles of the dorsal fin which very nearly corresponded 
with a similar spot on the upperside. 

In the same region were two more spots on the lower .side that 
were each represented on the upper side, but they were not in 
correspondence with their representatives, but alternated with 
them. One large spot on the lower side, ventral to the lateral line, 
anterior to the base of the caudal fin, was wholly unrepresented 
on the upper side. 

The manner of occurrence of this variation proves that, though 
in a normal flat-fish there is a great dissimilarity between the 
coloration of the upper and lower sides, yet that, when the lower 
side assumes the characters of the upper, it may do so in such a 

1 Cunningham, J. T., Phil. Trans. 1894, clxxxiv. B, p. 807. 

2 ' Materials for the Study of Variation,' 1894, p. 467. The account there 
given contains a misprint. For " of these, 13 spots on body and fins coincided " 
read " of these 13 spots on body and fins, 9 coincided." 



1894.] THE SECRETARY ON A GAUR OB INDIAN BISON. 249 

way as to produce a result which is approximately bilaterally 
symmetrical. Of the general significance of this phenomenon I 
have spoken in the place referred to. 

It should be observed that this specimen does not at all precisely 
conform to the principle of symmetry illustrated by the Brill 
described above. There was nevertheless in it also an imperfect 
correspondence between the distributions of the spots upon the 
areas dorsal and ventral to the median axis. Asymmetry, however, 
was exhibited in the presence of one spot on the dorsal fiu, and of 
one spot over the dorsal neural spines, that were not represented 
in the area ventral to the lateral line. 

I am not aware that Flat-fishes having pigment upon their 
" blind " sides have before been examined with a view to this ques- 
tion ; and owing to the importance of the matter with regard to 
the defining of the principles of Symmetry, such an examination 
should be made in all cases where the presence of definite spots or 
marks makes the determination possible. 

In contrast with these cases of symmetrical variation were ex- 
hibited photographs of a sample of Flounders (Platessa flesus) from 
the shallow water near Bournemouth. In this locality there is a 
high percentage of specimens having pigment on the " blind " sides. 
Of a sample of 32 all but 3 were to some extent spotted with 
pigment. In 5 this spotting was so great as to give them a pie- 
bald appearance, and of these one was over the greater part of the 
" blind " side of a full brown colour. No regularity whatever 
could be detected in the distribution of the pigment. This sample 
represented the normal condition of the Flounders of the locality, 
and had not been in any way selected. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII. 

Fig. 1. View of the " blind " side of abnormal specimen of Rhombus Icevis. 
f nat. size. 

2. Enlarged view of the spot dd* 

3. Enlarged view of the spot vb. 



March 20. 1894. 

Prof. G. B. Howes, F.Z.S., in the Chair. 

The Secretary exhibited a photograph of a young male Gaur or 
Indian Bison (Bos gcatrus) 1 , forwarded by Major G. S. Rodon, of 
the Royal Scots Regiment. Major Rodon had captured this animal 
when out Bison-shooting in the Neelampattry Hills, in Cochin, in 
August 1893, and had kindly offered to present it to the Society. 
The Secretary was now endeavouring to make arrangements for 
its transmission home. He remarked that no Gaur, so far as he 
was aware, had ever reached Europe alive, except the specimen 

1 See Blanford, P. Z. S. 1890, p. 592, pi. xlix. 



250 ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF CRANES, RAILS, ETC. [Mar. 20, 

received from Pahang in October 1889 (see P. Z. S. 1890, p. 592, 
pi. xlix.), which had died on tbe 27th June, 1892, so that the 
acquisition of the present individual would be most desirable. 



A communication was read from Dr. E. W. Shufeldt, C.M.Z.S., 
containing an account of the osteology of certain Cranes, Rails, 
and their allies, with remarks upon their affinities. 

After a review of the opinions of previous writers upon this 
subject, Dr. Shufeldt concluded with the following statement of 
bis views on the taxonomy of the North-American Paludicoline 
birds : — 

" So far as this suborder — the Paludicolce — of the United States is 
concerned, it is primarily divided into two main stems. The first 
of these is represented by the Cranes and Courlans ; while the second 
contains all the Bails proper, or such generic groups as Rallus, 
CreDB, Porzana, lonornis, Gallinula, and Fulica. 

" Structurally the Courlans possess a greater number of Gruine 
than they do of Balline characters, and these characters are of 
equal importance and weight. But their generic characters are by 
no means always typical, and the differences seen are frequently of 
a degree that distinguish families among birds rather than genera. 
This being true, the fact settles the position of the Courlans in 
the system as a family — the Aramidce, of the Crane-group. The 
species which has been osteologically described here — Aramus 
giganteus — is the only representative known to our avifauna, and 
it is a most perfect link connecting the Cranes with the typical 
Rcdlidce. 

" The Cranes must then constitute a family of themselves, and 
the Gruidce has long been created to contain them. But the 
osteological and other morphological characters held in common by 
the Gruidce and the Aramidce are of a rank, when we come to 
compare them wdth the corresponding ones in the llallidce, which 
proclaim them to be higher than those commonly employed to 
define family lines, and yet not of a rank entitling them to sub- 
ordiiial distinction. To express this relationship a superfamily 
Grvoidea may be made to contain all the true Gruidce, the 
Aramidce, and perhaps the Psophidce, from another quarter of the 
world. Another group to contain all the true Bails may be 
created, and designated as the superfamily Ralhidca. A scheme 
as follows would show these divisions as expressed for the forms 
we have had under consideration : — 

Suborder. Superfamilies. Families. Genera. 

( q. ruoidea J Gruidse ... Grits. 

1 Aramidse ... Ar amies. 

f Rallus. 
Crex. 
Porzana. 
Ionomis. 
Gallinula. 
{ { Fulica, 



PALUDICOLCE .( 



Kalloidea Rallidse ... < 



1894.] ON THE MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 251 

" The bird-forms connecting the Paludicolw with other avian 
groups are mostly not far to seek. It is plain that we have in the 
Jacanidce a small group of birds that unmistakably link the present 
suborder with the Limicolcv, through certain species in the Plover- 
Sandpiper line. Through Podica and Heliornis it is equally clear 
that they lead in this direction towards the Pygopodes, and such 
existing ancestral types as Chionis probably connect them with 
theLongipennes. Less remotely than through this latter affinity, 
however, they are probably connected by various links with the 
Herodiones, through Rliinochetus and Eurypyga. By some it 
has also been claimed that the Paludicolce may also have Accipitrine 
kinships through a line in which would occur such forms as the 
Seriema and the Secretary-bird (Serpentarius). 

" Professor Fiirbringer believes that the Apteryges are far more 
closely related to the Hcdlidce than has heretofore been realized ; 
and if this prove to be true, another linking line for the Pcdu- 
dicolce. is opened up to the Struthious types — with all the Oullincf 
likewise only a little more remotely related." 

The following papers were read : — 



1. On the Myology of the Sciuromorphme and Hystrico- 
morphine Rodents. By F. G. Parsons, F.R.C.S., 
F.Z.S., F.L.S., Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy at 
St. Thomas's Hospital. 

[Received February 12, 1894.] 

In commencing this series of dissections nearly three years ago, 
I intended to work out the musculature of all the Bodents which I 
could collect. Before long, however, the size of my manuscript 
made it evident to me that I must be content to take up the 
subject in two parts, and I have accordingly devoted my first 
attention to the Hystrkomorpha and Sciuromorpha because I was 
able to obtain a more representative series of animals in these 
groups. 

The following is a list of the animals which I have dissected x : — 



Aulacodus sivindemianus. 
Capromys pilorides. 
Myopotamus coypus. 
Octodon cumingii. 
Hystrix cristata. 



Sphingurus prehensilis, 
Lagostomus trichodactylus. 
Chinchilla lanigera. 
Dasyprocta cristata. 
Coelogem/s paca. 



1 For the opportunity of dissecting these animals I am indebted to the 
kindness of the Prosector to the Society, Mr. F, E. Beddard, F.E.S. 



252 mk. f. g. parsons on the [Mar. 20, 



Cavia coibaya. Pteromys oral 

Ceredon ruj>estris. Xerus getulus 

Dijnis cegyptius. 
Dipxis hirtipes. 
Alectaya indica. 
Sciurus prevosti. 



Spermophilus m exicanus. 
Arctomys marmotta. 
Castor canadensis. 



Full use has been made of the accounts of the myology of 
Capromys fournieri by Owen, of Capromys melanurus by Dobson, 
of Erethizon dorsatus by Mivart, and of Erethizon epixanthus by 
Windle. I have been also much indebted to the thorough account 
of the myology of the Crested Agouti by Mivart and Murie, to 
the writings of Dobson, and to the French translation of Meckel, 
as well as to work done by other authors. 

In this manner six families of the Hystricomorpha have each 
been illustrated by types of two or more orders, and although 
more material would no doubt have added to the accuracy of the 
generalizations, it is hoped that a step has been taken in the road 
commenced by Mivart and Murie nearly thirty years ago. In 
the Sciuromorpha the supply of material has not been so plentiful, 
but this is less to be regretted because these animals do not seem 
to differ so much in their myology as the Hystricomorpha. 

The Dipodidae have been included among the Hystricomorpha, 
although, as will be pointed out in the general summary, they 
differ from the rest of the group in certain important particulars. 
Want of space has prevented the exact attachments of the muscles 
being chronicled in each animal, and I have contented myself with 
generalizations wherever possible. 

Occasionally from various causes the whole of the muscles of 
some of the animals were not available for dissection or were 
overlooked ; I have therefore, whenever it seemed necessary, placed 
in brackets the names of the animals on which the generalizations 
are founded. 



Muscles of the Head and Neck. 

Temporal. — The temporal muscle is always small, and rises from 
the side of the head above the external auditory meatus, the two 
muscles usually coming into contact in the middle line. It also 
derives some fibres from the inner side of the zygoma. The por- 
tion coming from the side of the head changes its course when it 
reaches the posterior root of the zygoma, which it uses as a pulley. 
The whole muscle is inserted into both surfaces and the anterior 
border of the coronoid process and part of the bone below. M. 
J. Kunstler, in his article " L'appareil masticateur des Rongeurs," ' 
describes the temporal of Arctomys as consisting of three parts — 
a superior from the parietal bone, a middle from the temporal, and 

1 Annales des Sciences naturelles, ser. 7, t. iv. p. 150. 



1894.] myology or RODENTS. 253 

an inferior from the zygomatic arch. I have verified this in 
Arctomys, and find the description applies to all the Sciuromorpha. 
In the Hystricomorpha it is difficult to satisfactorily separate the 
upper and middle portions. 

In those animals, such as Dipus, Chinchilla, and Xerus, where 
the posterior part of the skull is broad, the two temporals do not 
meet in the mid line above. 

Masseter. — For the purposes of description it is most convenient 
to divide this muscle into four parts — anterior and posterior super- 
ficial, and anterior and posterior deep. These parts do not always 
show a distinct line of demarcation. 

The anterior superficial part rises by tendon from the side of 
the maxilla, and is inserted into the lower border and internal 
surface of the mandible, extending up to the insertion of the 
internal pterygoid. Tbe posterior superficial rises from the whole 
length of the zygomatic arch, and is inserted into the lower part 
of the external surface as well as the lower border of the mandible. 
The anterior deep part differs in the Hystricomorpha and the 
Sciuromorpha. In the former, among which the Dipodidse are 
included, this portion rises from a large area on the side of the 
maxilla, and then passes backwards and downwards through the 
enlarged infraorbital foramen to be inserted by a narrow flat 
tendon into the alveolar margin of the mandible, external to the 
molar teeth. In the Sciuromorpha this part of the muscle rises 
from the top of a vertical groove in front of the anterior portion 
of the zygomatic arch, the muscle runs down in the groove with- 
out passing through the infraorbital foramen and is inserted as in 
the Hystricomorpha. 

The posterior deep part rises from the lower border and some 
of the internal surface of the zygoma, and is inserted into the 
greater part of the external surface of the ramus of the mandible. 
The arrangement used here is practically the same as that adopted 
by Meckel, the only difference being that he describes the whole 
superficial part under one name (jugo maxillieri), although he states 
that the anterior border has a very strong superficial tendon ; this 
anterior tendinous portion I have found to be easily separable 
from the rest in the Hystricomorpha, while in the Sciuromorpha 
it is separated by a distinct interval. 

Buccinator. — This muscle is always well developed in Hodents, but 
in most cases shows no special points of interest. It rises from the 
maxilla and mandible opposite the molar and premolar teeth, and 
running forwards blends with the orbicularis oris. 

In Spermnphilus it is produced into the long cheek-pouch which, 
when empty, lies folded back on the cheek, having a muscular 
slip passing from the end of the pouch to the region of the 
shoulder. 

Facial Muscles. — The orbicularis palpebrarum is not very strongly 
developed ; from the anterior margin of it a muscle rises by a 
narrow origin, but spreads out to be inserted into the upper lip 
blending with the orbicularis oris, it probably represents the 



254 mb. f. g. parsons ox the [Mar. 20, 

levator labii superioris of human anatomy. The anterior belly of 
the occipito-frontalis may be made out as a thin layer of muscle 
running upwards from the upper border of the orbicularis palpe- 
brarum ; it is quite distinct in Fiystrix. The other facial muscles, 
including those of the lower lip, are indistinguishable from the 
facial panniculus. (See fig. 10.) 

Pterygoid Muscles. — The external pterygoid is small and rises 
from the very feebly marked external pterygoid plate or rather 
ridge ; it is inserted into the inner side of the neck of the condyle 
and the bone just below. The internal pterygoid rises from the 
outer side of the internal pterygoid plate or pterygoid bone, and has 
the usual human insertion. In Sphingurus the internal muscle 
consists of two distinct layers ; with this exception the above 
description applies to all the animals examined. 

Digastric. — The digastric is attached posteriorly to the front of 
the paroccipital process, while anteriorly it is inserted into the 
inner surface of the mandible. There are two absolutely distinct 
types of the muscle. In the Hvstricomorpha the two bellies are 
nut separated by a real tendon as in Man, although there is a 
slight constriction of the muscle, and a thin layer of tendon on the 
surface especially below ; the attachment to the hvoid bone is very 
feeble, and the two anterior bellies are separated from one another 
by a distinct interval in which the lnylo-hyoid is exposed. The 
anterior attachment is a considerable distance from the symphysis. 

In the Chinchillidao the attachment to the hyoid bone is well 
marked. 

In the Hystricidse the above description applies in Hystriv, 
but in Sphingurus the posterior belly ends in a tendon which is 
firmly inserted into the hyoid bone; from the anterior or upper 
side of this tendon the anterior belly runs to its attachment on the 
mandible. 

The sciuromorphine type of digastric is well described by 
Kunstler 1 in the Marmot. The anterior and posterior bellies are 
separated by a distinct tendon which is firmly attached to the 
hyoid bone. From the inner surfaces of the tendons of the tv\o 
sides fibrous bands run inwards to meet one another, forming a 
tendinous arch with its convexity in front. From the front of 
this arch the two anterior bellies spring ; they are in contact in the 
middle line nearly as far as the symphysis, where they separate a 
little to expose the transverse mandibular muscle. 

The tendinous arch gives attachment to some of the fibres of the 
mylo-hyoid as well as the anterior bellies of the digastric. This 
arrangement is common to all the JSciurotnorpha {Sciurus, Pteromys, 
Xerus, Spermophilus, Arctomys, Castor) as well as the Dipodidae 
(Dijms cegyptius, D. hirtipes, Alectaga indica). 

Transverse Mandibular Muscle. — This muscle is accurately 
described by Kunstler in the Marmot ; it was present in all the 
Rodents with a movable symphysis menti examined. I have not 

1 Annates des Sciences naturelles, ser. 7, t. it. p. 150. 



1894.] 



MYOLOGY OF BODENTS. 



255 



seen it at all in the true Hystricomorpha, but it is present in the 
Dipodidae ; it is also present in all the Sciuroinorpha except Castor. 
It consists of a round bundle of fibres running across between the 
two halves of the mandible close to the symphysis ; it is superficial 
to the mylo-hyoid but deep to the digastric. Its nerve-supply is 
from the mylo-hyoid of the inferior dental. 

Fig. 1. 




Digastric of Pteromys. 



Mylo-hyoid. — The mylo-hyoid in the Hystricomorpha resembles 
the same muscle in Man ; in the Sciuroinorpha it is connected 
posteriorly to the tendinous arch of the digastrics. 

Genio-hyoid. — In the Caviidse and Dasyproctidse this muscle 
rises by a thin tendon from the symphysis; in the Sciuroinorpha 
the two muscles tend to coalesce before reaching the hyoid bone. 
The muscle has the usual human attachments. 

Genio-hyoglossus. — This muscle has the human attachments. In 
Myopotamus it was noticed that the part running to the tongue 
was Meshy in its origin, while that going to the hyoid bone was 
tendinous. 

Styloid Muscles. — The stylo-hyoid rises from the base of the 
skull just internal to the paroccipital process ; it passes deep to the 
digastric to be attached to the epihyal cartilage close to the hyoid 
bone. 

The styloglossus rises lower down than the last from the carti- 



256 me. p. g. paesons on thb [Mar. 20, x 

laginous rod joining the hyoid bone to the skull and is inserted 
into the tongue. 

The stylo-pharyngeus has pratically the same origin as the stylo- 
hyoid, but is seldom well marked. The animal in which it was 
most clearly seen was Sphingurus. 

Sterno- and Cleido-mastoid. — These two muscles are distinct 
in their whole length. Except in the exact origin of the cleido- 
mastoid they are subject to very little variation. 

The sterno-mastoid rises from the side of the anterior portion 
of the sternum, and is inserted into the side of the paroceipital 
process and the curved line of the occipital bone running inwards 
from this. The cleido-mastoid rises from the bony clavicle and is 
inserted nearer the middle line (dorsal) and often under cover of 
the sterno-mastoid. In all cases the spinal accessory nerve runs 
deep to both muscles and supplies them entirely. 

In the Dipodidae the muscles are of equal size ; the sterno-mas- 
toid is inserted ventral to the cleido-mastoid and does not cover it. 
The cleido-mastoid rises from the middle third of the clavicle in 
D. cegyptius and D. hirtipes, but from the outer third in Alectaga 
indica. 

In the Octodontidae the cleido-mastoid rises from the inner third 
of the clavicle and at its insertion overlaps the sterno-mastoid 
instead of being overlapped. In the Hystricidae and Chinchillidae 
the muscles are normal, except that in the Chinchilla they are 
inserted into the back of the great tympanic bulla. 

In the Dasyproctidae the cleido-mastoid is small and rises from 
the middle of the clavicle near the junction of the bony and liga- 
mentous parts (Dasyprocta, Coelogenys). 

In the Caviidae the two muscles are separated by a much greater 
interval than in other cases. The cleido-mastoid is the larger and 
runs from the rudimentary clavicle to the curved line of the 
occipital bone internal to the insertion of the sterno-mastoid. The 
two muscles are separated by a larger interval in Ceredon rupestris 
than in Cavia cobaya ; in the latter the origin of the cleido-mastoid 
blends with the deltoid. 

In the Sciuromorpha the two muscles are much more fused 
towards their insertion, the cleido-mastoid rising from the inner- 
most part of the clavicle. 

In Arctomys, Xerus, and Spermophilus there seem to be two 
cleido-mastoids, owing to some of the fibres of the trapezius being 
separated from the rest by the levator claviculae (see Trapezius). 
In Castor the sterno-mastoid has a large origin from the ventral 
surface of the presternum overlapping the pectoralis. The cleido- 
mastoid rises from the inner half of the clavicle. 

Sterno-hyoid and Thyroid. — These muscles present the human 
attachments and characteristics. 

In Myopotamus the sterno-hyoid is inserted into the hyoid bone 
and raphe between the mylo-hyoids for some distance, so that the 
borders near the insertion become superior and inferior instead of 
lateral. In the Caviidae the sterno-thyroid is very small. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OF BOBEKTS. 25? 

In Pteromys the sternohyoid is inserted by a thin tendon. 

Omo-hyoid. — The omo-hyoid may be present or not. When 
it is present it has the human attachments to the hyoid bone and 
anterior border of the scapula, but it never has any tendinous 
interval ; it runs, moreover, a straight course between its two 
attachments. 

In the Dipodidae it is present (B. cegyptius, D. hirtipes, Alectaga 
indica ; in the last it is specially well marked). 

In the Octodontidse it is not constant. In Octodon and Ca- 
promys it is feebly developed, in Myopotamus it is absent, while in 
Aulacodus it is well marked. In the Hystrieidae it is well marked 
in Sphingurus aud Erethizon 1 , but in Hystrix it was seen as a thin 
layer of muscular fibres disappearing in the fascia under the sterno- 
mastoid. 

In the Chinchillidae and Dasyproctidae it is absent (Chinchilla, 
Lagostomus, Dasyprocta, Ccelogenys). 

In the Caviidae it is also absent (Cavia cobaya, Ceredon rupestris, 
Dolichotis). 

In the Sciuromorpha it is always present (Sciurus, Pteromys, 
Xerus, Spermophilus, Aretomys, Castor). 

Levator Claviculce. — The levator claviculae rises either from the 
basioccipital behind the origin of the scalenus anticus, or from the 
ventral arch of the atlas ; it is inserted chiefly into the acromion 
and rnet acromion and the fascia of the shoulder, but sometimes it 
extends to the acromial end of the clavicle. It is supplied by 
branches from the cervical plexus. 

In the Dipodidae it rises from the front of the atlas and runs 
to the outer end of the clavicle. In the Octodontidse it is not 
constant. In Aulacodus, Capromys melanurus 2 , and Myopotamus 
it rises from the basioccipital, but in Octodon from the atlas. In 
the Hystrieidae it rises from the atlas in Sphingurus and Erethizon 3 , 
but in Hystrix it comes from the base of the skull and is inserted 
into the acromion and fascia of the arm as low as the elbow. (See 
fig. 10.) 

In the Chinchillidae it rises from the atlas in Chinchilla, and 
from the basioccipital in the Viscacha; in the latter animal it 
is inserted into the outer half of the clavicle as well as the 
metacromion. 

In the Dasyproctidae it rose from the atlas in the specimen of 
D. cristata which I dissected ; in the specimen dissected by Mivart 
and Murie it rose from the basioccipital 4 . In Ccelogenys it rises 
from the basioccipital and is very large. 

In the Caviidae it rises from the basioccipital in C. cobaya, 
Ceredon rupestris, and Dolichotis. 

In all the Sciuromorpha it rises from the atlas and is inserted 
into the metacromion, never seeming to reach the clavicle. In 

1 Journal of Anatomy, vol. xxii. p. 126. 

2 Dobson, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 234. 

3 Mivart, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 

4 P. Z. S. 1866, p. 383. 



258 mr. f. g. parsons on the [Mar. 20, 

Castor it is entirely covered by the trapezius, and is inserted 
into the upper border of the acromial process and the outer part 
of the spine of the scapula. 

The above observations show that the levator claviculae is a 
muscle of very little use for classificatory purposes among the 
Hystricomorpha ; in this group it seems to vary even in different 
individuals of the same species ; it is possible that it is in process 
of shifting its attachment from the basioccipital to the front of the 
atlas. The number of observations, however, are not sufficient 
for generalization. 

Rectus Capitis Aniicus Major arid Minor. — The rectus capitis 
anticus major rises in the Hystricomorpha from the transverse 
processes of two or three cervical vertebra? below the atlas, and is 
inserted into the basioccipital bone in front and internal to the 
scalenus anticus ; except in the Caviidae it is difficult to separate 
from the longus colli. In the Sciuromorpha the muscle usually 
rises from a greater number of transverse processes. The rectus 
capitis anticus minor and lateralis have the human attachments ; 
the latter is large and closely connected to the superior oblique. 

Longus Colli. — The longus colli closely resembles the same muscle 
in Man ; it consists of two oblique and one straight part. The 
posterior oblique part rises from the bodies of the anterior three 
or four thoracic vertebrae, aud is inserted into the transverse pro- 
cesses of the posterior cervical vertebrae. The anterior oblique 
portion runs from the insertion of the last part to the longus colli 
tubercle on the ventral arch of the atlas. The straight part runs 
from the bodies of the anterior thoracic vertebrae to those of the 
anterior cervical. In Castor it extends a long wav into the thorax. 

Scalenus Anticus. — As there is a good deal of ditKculty in identi- 
fying the scalene muscles of Rodents with the three scalenes of 
human anatomy, I have given the name of scalenus anticus only to 
a muscle inserted into the first rib between the subclavian artery 
and vein. This muscle when present rises by a tendon from the 
basioccipital in front and internal to the levator claviculae ; in 
Ccelogenys it also derives a few fibres from one or two cervical 
transverse processes. It is absent in the Hystricidae (Hystrix, 
Sphingurus) and in all the Sciuromorpha, but present in the other 
animals examined. 

Scalenus Medius and Posticus. — These two muscles are most 
conveniently described together, as it is often impossible to say 
where one ends and the other begins. 

In Aulacodus, which is a good type of the arrangement in the 
Octodontidae, one muscle, which I take to represent the scalenus 
medius, rises from the transverse processes of the first four cervical 
vertebrae and is inserted into the sides of the 4th and 5th ribs 
between the serrations of the serratus magnus. Another muscle, 
probably the scalenus posticus, rises from the posterior three 
cervical transverse processes and is inserted into the first and 
second ribs. 

In Cliincliilla the arrangement is almost identical. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 259 

In Hystrice and Sphingurus only one muscle can be made out ; it 
rises from all the cervical transverse processes and is inserted into 
the anterior four ribs. 

In Lagostomus, Agouti, and Ccelogenys the muscle rises from all 
the cervical transverse processes ; the fibres from the anterior three 
or four are attached to the outer surfaces of the ribs from the 
second to the fifth and interdigitate with the serratus magnus ; in 
Lagostomus the sixth rib is reached. The fibres from the posterior 
transverse processes are attached to the first rib behind the sub- 
clavian artery. 

In the Caviidse the fibres which are attached to the side of the 
chest come from the 3rd and 4th cervical transverse processes, 
and are inserted into the 3rd and 4th ribs. The slip to the first 
rib comes from all the cervical transverse processes. 

Muscles of the Anterior Extremity. 

TJie Pectoral Muscles. — As the pectoralis major and minor are 
not always distinct muscles, I have followed Owen's example in his 
description of Capromys l , and have divided the whole pectoral 
mass into four different parts, which are usually easy to make out. 
These four parts have generally the following attachments : — 

(a) The most superficial part, rising from the anterior portion 
of the sternum aud sometimes the sternal end of the clavicle, 
is inserted fairly low down on the humerus, often crossing 
obliquely the fibres of the next part, which is on a deeper 
plane. 

(,S) This portion rises from the greater part of the sternum 
posterior to the last and is inserted into the pectoral ridge 
of the humerus. 

(y) The abdominal portion rises from the linea alba ; being 
closely connected to and embraced by the panniculus 
carnosus, its fibres pass deep to ri, and are usually inserted 
into the top of the pectoral ridge and the upper extremity 
of the humerus. 

(S) The deep portion, which perhaps corresponds to the pector- 
alis minor of human anatomy, rises from the cartilages of 
some of the true ribs, close to their junction with the 
sternum. The fibres run upwards and outwards to the 
outer part of the clavicle, coracoid, or shoulder-capsule. 

In the Octodontidse a and /3 are almost if not completely fused, 
y goes to the lesser tuberosity of the humerus. 2 rises from the 
cartilages of 3rd to 6th ribs and is inserted into the outer part of 
the clavicle and coracoid process. This arrangement applies to 
Myopotamus, Aulacodm, and Capromys pilorides ; it also agrees 
with Dobson's description of the muscle in Capromys melanurus '~. 

1 P. Z. S. 1832, p. 74. 

2 P. Z. S. 1884, p. 234. 



260 mb. f. g. pabsons o> xhe [Mar. 20, 

In Octodon, a and ft rise respectively from the anterior and posterior 
halves of the sternum and are not so closely united. 

In the Hystricidae a forms a separate band which runs obliquely 
across the rest of the muscle to be inserted quite at the lower 
half of the humerus, some fibres passing to the fascia of the fore- 
arm. 7 and <5 are inserted with ft ; so that this family is remarkable 
for having the insertion of the pectoral almost entirely into the 
humerus (Hystricc, Sphingurus, Erethizon dorsatus 1 ). 

The Chinchillidae resemble the Octodontidae in having a and ft 
fused, c in the Chinchilla is inserted into the outer part of the 
clavicle, but in the Viscacha it is inserted into the coracoid process 
and first rib external to the origin of the subclavius. 

Jn the Dasyproctidae a is a distinct oblique slip as in the 
Hystricidae. y is inserted into the upper extremity of the 
humerus, c in Dasyprocta goes to the outer part of the clavicle 
blending with the sternoscapular. In Coelogenys this part was 
not seen. This description differs from that of Mivart and 
Murie " in classing part of their peetoralis as deltoid. I find that 
the portion in question is supplied by the circumflex nerve and 
not by the anterior thoracic ; as the circumflex also supplies the 
deltoid it is probable that the slip belongs to that muscle instead 
of to the peetoralis. (See Deltoid.) 

In the Caviidae there are no special fibres rising from the costal 
cartilages (Cavia cobaya, C'eredon rupestris). 

In the Sciuromorpha a has the usual origin and is inserted about 
the middle of the humerus, ft rises from the whole of the sternum 
and runs almost horizontally to the whole of the pectoral ridge. 
y joins o at its insertion, o rises from the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th 
cartilages in Sciurus and Pteromys ; from 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 
6th in Arctomys and Spermophilus. The insertion is into the 
shoulder-capsule and the coracoid process. 

Sterno-scapularb*. — This muscle consists of two parts which 
display a good deal of variety in different members of the group. 
The internal part or subclavius rises from the first rib at its 
junction with the sternum and is inserted into the posterior 
surface of the outer third of the clavicle. The outer part or 
scapulo-clavicularis, when it is present, rises from the clavicle close 
to the insertion of the subclavius, with which it is usually more or 
less continuous, and is inserted into the spine and vertebral border 
of the scapula, covering the supraspinatus as a broad thin sheet. 

In the Dipodidao the scapulo-clavicularis is absent but the sub- 
clavius is well marked (D. cegyptius, D. Jiirtipes, Alectaga iadica). 

In the Octodontidae the two parts of the muscle communicate 
very slightly if at all iu Octodon, Myopotamus, Capromys pilorides 
and C. mclanurus 3 , but in Aulacodus many fibres are continuous. 

In the Hystricidae the two parts are continuous in Hystrix, but 
quite separate in Sphingurus. 



1 P.Z.S. 1882, p. 281. 

2 P. Z. & 1866, p. 383. 

3 Dobscm, P. Z. 8. 1884, p. 234. 



1894.] 



MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 



261 



In the Chinchillidae the muscles are largely attached to the 
clavicle. 

Iu the Dasyproctidse the scapulo-clavicularis is especially well 
developed, being considerably larger than the supraspinatus. 

In the Caviidae the small clavicle is between the two muscles in 
Cavia cobaya, having both attached to it ; but in Ceredon rupestris 
the subclavius was found to send a few fibres into the clavicle aud 
a few into the scapulo-clavicularis, but its insertion was chiefly 
into the anterior border of the acromial process. The scapulo- 
clavicularis rose chiefly from the clavicle. 

In the Sciuromorpha the subclavius had the usual human attach- 
ments, but the scapulo-clavicularis was absent in all the animals 
examined. 

It is interesting to notice that the Dipodidae, so far as this 
muscle is concerned, differ from all the rest of the Hystrico- 
morpha. 

The nerve-supply of both parts of this muscle is from a branch 
from the upper part of the outer cord of the plexus, corresponding 
to the human nerve to the subclavius. 

Kg. 2. 




Shoulder-muscles of Ceredon rupestris. 



1. 


Deltoid (clavicular). 


5. 


Trapezius (cut). 


2. 


„ (acromial). 


6. 


Subclavius. 


si 


„ (spinous). 


7. 


Clavicle. 


4. 


Levator clav. (cut). 


8. 


Acromion and mctacromion. 



Deltoid. — The deltoid in Rodents consists of three parts, which 
are liable to become more or less fused with one another. The 
first part rises from the outer part of the clavicle, the second from 
the acromial and metacromial processes, while the third part 

Pboc. Zool. Soc— 1894, JS T o. XVIII. 18 



262 MB. F. G. PARSONS ON THE [Mar. 20, 

comes from the spine of the scapula and fascia over the infra- 
spinatus. Mivart and Murie, in their description of the myology 
of the Agouti ', prefer to describe the clavicular portion as part of 
the pectoralis, but I have been able to satisfy myself that its nerve- 
supply is derived from the circumflex and not the anterior thoracic. 
The insertion of the deltoid is into the pectoral ridge close to that 
of the pectoralis. The clavicular fibres are often prolonged to the 
elbow and in all cases are inserted lowest, while the part from the 
spine is inserted deep to the acromial slip. 

In the Dasyproctidse the clavicular portion is continued down 
almost to the external condyle. 

In Sciurus and Pteromys the clavicular and acromial fibres are 
closely united owing to the development of the clavicle. Sphin- 
yurus has the same arrangement. 

In Arctomys and Spermophilus the clavicular part divides into a 
superficial and deep portion ; the latter has the usual insertion, but 
the former is continued down to the coronoid process of the ulna. 
In Castor, owing to the great development of the muscle, the 
intervals between the three parts are slight. The other animals 
examined present nothing remarkable iu this muscle. 

Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, and Subscapularis. — These muscles 
have the human attachments and, except in their comparative 
size, do not vary at all. 

Teres Major. — This muscle rises from the posterior quarter 
(more or less) of the axillary border of the scapula, and is inserted 
either into the tendon of the latissimus dorsi or into the humerus 
close to the insertion of that muscle. 

In the Dipodida? the insertion is posterior to that of the latis- 
simus dorsi as in Man (D. cegyptivs, I), hirtipes, Alectaya inclica). 

In the Octodontidse it is inserted into the front of the tendon 
of latissimus dorsi (Aulacodus, Myopotamus, Octodon, Capromys 
pilorides and C. melanurvs) \ 

In Layostomus among the Chinchillidse, owing to the great 
size of the infraspinatus, the muscle only rises from about gth of 
the axillary border of the scapula and from the surface of the infra- 
spinatus and subscapularis, which overlap the bone. The insertion 
is into the rudimentary bicipital groove somewhat above the 
latissimus dorsi tendon, with which it is closely connected. 
Chinchilla has very much the same arrangement, but the muscle 
rises from more of the axillary border. 

In the Hystricidae the lower border of the muscle is wrapped 
round by the latissimus dorsi close to the insertion {vide latissimus 
dorsi) (ifystrix, Sphingurus). 

In the Dasyproctidse it was inserted nearer the shoulder than 
the latissimus dorsi in my specimen of Dasyprocta, but according 
to Mivart and Murie 3 the two muscles are inserted together. In 
Ccelogenys it is inserted with, and in front of, the latissimus dorsi. 

1 P. Z. S. 1866, p. 383. 

2 Dobson, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 234. 

3 P. Z. S. 1866, p. 383. 



1894.] myology or BODEXTS. 263 

In the Caviidae the arrangement is the same as in Ccelogenys 
(C cobaya, Ceredon rwpestris). 

Teres Minor. — The teres minor rises from the humeral third to 
half of the axillary border of the scapula, and is inserted just 
below the insertion o£ the infraspinatus. It is sometimes a 
perfectly distinct muscle, but iu most cases is so closely united 
to the infraspinatus that, were it not for its being supplied by the 
circumflex nerve, it would be most conveniently described with 
that muscle. The teres minor was seen most ^ distinctly in 
Lagostomiis, in which animal a fibrous band was found running 
from the metacromial process to the origin of the long head of 
the triceps, covering the infraspinatus and teres minor near 
their insertions. 

In the Sciuromorpha the muscle is specially indistinct. 

Biceps Cubiti.— The biceps always rises by a strong tendon from 
the margin of the glenoid cavity at the base of the coracoid process ; 
it may or may not have a second head rising from the tip of that 
process, or from the surface of the coraco-brachialis. Its insertion 
is into the radius, ulna, or both bones just below the sigmoid 
cavity, occasionally, however, it is prolonged farther down the 
bones. The semilunar fascia from the inner side of its tendon 
to the fascia of the forearm is very indistinct, but by careful 
dissection a few fibres may be traced. 

In the Dipodidae there is only one head, and the insertion is 
almost entirely into the ulna (Dipus a=gyptiiis, Alectaga indiccc). 

In the Octodontidse there are two heads ; the insertion is into 
both radius and ulna (Myopotamiis, Aidacodv.s, Capromys, Octodon). 

In the Hystricidas there is only one head in Hystrix, but two 
in Sphingurus and Erethizon dorsatus ! ; it is inserted largely into 
the radius in the Tree-Porcupines, but chiefly into the ulna in 
Hystrix. 

In the Chinchillidae there are two heads ; the insertion is into 
the coronoid process of the ulna and the oblique line of the radius 
(OhinchiUa, Lagostomiis). In the Viscacha I dissected there were 
three heads to the biceps on the left side, the extra one rising 
from the front of the great tuberosity of the humerus. 

In the Dasyproctidae there is only one head, and the insertion 
is entirely into the ulna (Dasyprocta, Ccelogenys). 

In the Caviidae the arrangement is the same as that in the 
Dasyproctidae (Cavia cobaya, Ceredon rupestris, Dolichotis 2 ). In 
the Sciuromorpha, Sciurvs, Pteromys, Arctomys, and Xerus have 
the muscle rising chiefly by the glenoid or long head, but also by 
some fibres from the front of the coraco-brachialis (representing 
a short head). The insertion is almost entirely into the tubercle 
of the radius so as to act as a supinator. 8permop>hilus differs 
in 1 ho absence of the short head. Castor has only one head and 
the insertion is entirely into the ulna. 

Coraco-brachialis. — The three parts of this muscle described b) r 

1 Mivart, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 

2 Beddard, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 236. 

18* 



264 mil f. g. parsons on the [Mar. 20," 

Wood ' are well illustrated in the Rodents, though all three parts 
are seldom present together. They all rise from the tip of the 
coracoid process — the hrst part (rotator humeri) being inserted 
into the surgical neck of the humerus above the insertion of the 
latissimus dorsi tendon, the second part into the middle of the 
shaft of the humerus, while the third part runs down to the 
internal condyle. The musculo-cutaneous nerve always passes 
between the first and second parts when these are present. 

In the Dipodidse the first and third heads are present in D. cegyp- 
tius and D. hirtipes, but in Alectaga apparently the second only. 

In the Octodontidte only the second head is present {Aulacodus, 
Octodou, Capromys pilot-ides and melannras 2 , Myopotamus). 

In the Hystricidse only the second part is present in Hyatrix, 
while in Sphingurus, Erethizon dorsatus a and E '. epLvanthus 4 the 
second and third heads are found. The third head in SphingurvA 
differed from the same part in the other animals I dissected in 
having the median nerve separating it from the rest of the muscle. 

In the Chinchillidae only the second head is present in Chinchilla. 
In Lagostomus the muscle was entirely absent on both sides, but 
possibly this specimen was abnormal. 

In the Dasyproctidse the first and second parts are present 
(Dast/procta, Coelogenys). 

In the Caviidse only the second head is found (Cavia cobaya, 
Ceredon rupestris, Dolichotis ff ). 

In the !Sciuromorpha the rotator humeri is always present. In 
Sciurus, Pteromys, Xerus, and Spermophilus all three parts are 
found, but the second and third are blended. In Arctomys the 
first and second are present, while in Castor apparently the first 
and third are found. The lower part in this animal is inserted by 
a narrow tendon just above the inner condyle. 

Bracliialis Anticus. — This muscle generally consists of an external 
and an internal part. The external rises from the back of the neck 
of the humerus and winds round to the front, lying just external to 
the pectoral ridge, which, when it is well marked as in Aulacodus, has 
a broad shallow groove for it to lie in. The internal head, when 
it is present, is much smaller and rises from the anterior border 
of the humerus below the pectoral ridge. The two parts are 
inserted into the ulna just below the lesser sigmoid cavity, a 
smaller slip being often sent to below and behind the tubercle of 
the radius. The muscle is supplied by the musculo-cutaneous 
and musculo-spiral nerves, but I was unable to satisfy myself that 
each head had a different nerve-supply. 

In the Octodontidse both heads are present. 

In the Hystricidse, Hystrix has both heads, while Sphingurus 
only has the external. 

1 Journ. Anat. vol. i. p. 45. 

2 Dobson, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 234. 

3 Mivart, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 

4 Windle, Journ. Anat. vol. xxii. p. 126. 
s Beddard, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 236. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 265 

In the Chinchillidae, Chinchilla has one head, Lagostomus two. 

In the Dasyproctidse both heads are found in Dasyproeta and 
Cceloc/enys, although the inner head in the latter is very small 
and blended with the outer. 

In the Caviidae only the outer head is found in Ceredon and 
Cavia cobaya, but in Dolichotis, according to Beddard l , both parts 
are present. 

In the Sciuromorpha both heads appear to be present, but they 
are so closely blended as to be indistinguishable (Seiurus. Pteromys, 
Xerus, Spermophilus, Castor). In Arctomys, however, no trace 
of the inner head was seen. 

Triceps and Anconeus. — The triceps consists of the usual three 
heads. The external head has a small origin from the back of the 
neck of the humerus just above that of the brachialis anticus. 
The middle or long head rises from a large part of the humeral 
end of the axillary border of the scapula. The inner head rises 
from the greater part of the posterior surface of the humerus and 
is continuous with the anconeus. The insertion is into the 
posterior part of the upper surface of the olecranon, the internal 
head usually being inserted separately in front of the other two ; 
the anconeus is attached to the outer side of the process. 

The triceps showed little variation in the different animals 
examined ; in the Beaver it is well developed and attached to both 
sides of the olecranon as well as to the top ; the anconeus is 
especially well marked and rises from the enormous external 
supracondylar ridge, it is inseparable from the inner head of 
the triceps. 

Epitrochleo-anconeus. — In all the Rodents examined a small 
round fleshy muscle rises from the internal condyle of the humerus 
and is inserted into the inner side of the olecranon process, 
covering the ulnar nerve. In Castor it is specially well developed. 

Pronator Radii Teres. — This muscle rises from the internal 
condyle of the humerus ; it never has a deep head from the ulna, 
and the median nerve always lies deep to it. It is inserted into 
the convexity of the radius, usually about the middle. In Seiurus 
and Pteromys, which possess a supracondylar foramen, the muscle 
rises from the arch of bone forming it. 

In Aulacodus, HystrLv, Erethizon dorsatus 2 , Arctomys, and 
Xerus the muscle is inserted near the distal end of the radius. 
In all the other animals examined its insertion, as above stated, 
was into the middle. 

In the Agouti I did not see the continuation of this muscle to 
the carpus described by Mivart and Murie 3 . 

Flexor Carpi liadialis. — This muscle presented the usual 
human attachments and relations in all the animals examined. 

Palmaris Lonyus. — The palmaris longus rises from the internal 
condyle, and is inserted into the ulnar cartilaginous disk which 



1 P. Z. S. 1891, p. 236. 

2 P. Z. 8. L882, p. 271. 
:i P. Z. S. 1866. p. 383 



266 MR. f..g. parsoxs os the [Mar. 20, v 

seetns to be developed in the palmar fascia. In Octodon and 
Myopotamus it rises only from the inner side of the olecranon 
process, while in Castor it comes from both the olecranon and 
internal condyle. 

In Ccelogenys and Xerus the muscle was formed by some of 
the internal and superficial fibres of the flexor sublimis digitorum : 
this arrangement corresponds to what Mivart and Murie found 
in Das >/ prod a, though in the specimen of this animal which I 
dissected the muscle was absent. In Myopotamus the insertion 
was into the radial and ulnar palmar cartilages. The muscle was 
not seen in Chinchilla or Sciurus. In Spermophilus the tendon 
was broad and fascia-like in its whole length. Apparently this 
muscle is liable to great individual variation in .Rodents as in Man. 

Flexor Sublimis Digitorum. — This muscle rises from the internal 
condyle in common with part of the flexor profundus ; it divides 
into slips for the middle phalanges of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 
usually the 5th digits, which slips are perforated for the passage 
of the profundus tendons. Just before the perforation there 
is usually a strong fibrous loop, which passes under the profundus 
tendon and comes into contact with the sesamoid bones in front 
of the metacarpo-phalangeal joints ; this is very well marked in 
Ccelogenys. 

In the Octodoutidae and Dasyproctidae there are only three 
tendons for the 2nd, 3rd, and ith digits. This is also the case 
in Castor. Mivart and Murie ' found a slip to the 5th digit in 
the Agouti on one side but not on the other. In Ccelogengs I 
met with a more interesting arrangement still ; in it the tendinous 
loop representmg the perforated portion of the tendon was present 
in the 5th digit on one side, but was entirely unconnected with 
the flexor sublimis, which sent no slip to this digit. 

Possibly the explanation of these facts may be that the 
Dasyproctidae show a stage in the gradual suppression of the slip 
to the 5th digit, a process which is complete in the Octodontid*. 
In Castor the muscle has an extra origin from the olecranon. 

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris. — This muscle usually rises, as in Man, 
from tbe inner side of tbe olecranon process, from the internal 
condyle, and, by aponeurosis, from the upper part of the posterior 
border of the ulna. It is inserted into the pisiform bone. In 
the Octodoutidae and Dasyproctidae the condylar origin is wanting, 
as it is also in Castor and SpermophUtts. 

Flexor Profundus Dlijitorum. — This muscle, which includes both 
flexor profundus digitorum and flexor longus pollicis of human 
anatomy, rises usually by four heads ; two of these come from 
the internal condyle, one from the flexor surface of the ulna, 
and the last from the flexor surface of the radius. The muscle 
usually divides into four tendons for the outer digits, and often 
gives off a small tendon at right angles to the rest for the pollex. 
The tendons perforate the flexor subHmis and are inserted into the 
terminal phalanges of the digits. 

1 P. Z. S. 18GG, p. .383. 



1894.] 



MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 



267 



In the Octodontidae there are always four tendons to the digits 
and one to the thumb. There are also four luinbricales. 

In the Hystricidse no slip is sent to the thumb in Hystrix and 
Sphingurus, but Mivart describes the muscle as dividing into five 
tendons in Erethizon dorsatus l . 

Kg. 3. 




RuDI . POL 



Left fore foot of Sphingurus prehensilis (superficial dissection). 



There were three lumbricales in Hystrix and Erethizon 1 , four in 
Sphingurus. 

The Chinchillidse have no slip to the thumb and four lumbricales. 
In the Dasyproctidae there is no slip to the thumb aud three 
lumbricales. In the Caviidae the arraugement is the same. 

In the Sciuromorpha there are four tendons in Sciurus, Pteromys, 
and Arctomys, but Xerus and Castor have five. 

The number of the lumbricales in Rodents seems liable to 
individual variation, as a rule the one on the ulnar side is larger 
than the rest and rises from the front of the flexor profundus 
before it divides. 

Pronator Quadratus. — This muscle is usually well marked, 

1 P. Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 



268 mb. f. g. parsoxs on the [Mar. 2(X 

although, as a general rule, pronation is only allowed through 
about one-eighth of a circle. The extent of the muscle varies from 
one-third to the whole of the interosseous space, being much more 
extensive in the Hystricomorpha than in the Sciuromorpha. 

In Aulacodus and Daeyprocta it is attached to the whole length 
of the contiguous margins of the radius and ulna. 

In Ccelogenys to the lower three-quarters. In Lagostomus to 
the lower two-thirds. 

In Jfystrix, Sphingurus, Myopotamus, Ododon, and Ceredon to 
the lower half. 

In Castor to the middle third. In the other Sciuromorpha to 
the lower third. 

Supinator Long us. — This muscle is present in the Dipodidie, 
some of the Hystricidae, and the Sciuromorpha except Castor. 

In the Dipodidae, as in all the animals in which the muscle was 
found, the origin is from the external supracondylar ridge; the 
insertion, however, instead of being normal, is into the base of the 
metacarpal bone of the pollex {I), cegyptius, D. hirtipes, Alectaga 
indica). 

In the Hystricidae it is absent in llystrix cristata and Sphin- 
gurus, but present in Erethizon dorsatus l , and, in a rudimentary 
condition, in E. epixanthus 2 ; its attachments are normal. In the 
Sciuromorpha the muscle is well marked and the attachments 
normal ; as above mentioned, it is absent in Castor. 

Extensor Carpi liadialis Longior and Brevior. — These muscles 
are always present, and only differ from the same muscles in Man 
in that they are attached to the middle of the shafts of the 
metacarpal bones instead of near the bases. The two muscles are 
about the same size except in Myopotamus, in which the brevis is 
much the larger and rises from a more extensive origin than 
its neighbour. 

Extensor Communis Digitorum. — This muscle rises from the 
external condyle, and is inserted into the middle and distal 
phalanges of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th digits. On each side of 
the slip to the terminal phalanx there is a strong elastic band 
running from the head of the middle to the base of the distal 
phalanx ; this serves to keep the terminal joint of the digit in a 
state of constant extension. The four divisions to the fingers are 
connected by viucula, which in Myopotamus are broad and 
membranous. 

In Dasyprocta the muscle rises from the upper two-thirds of 
the posterior surface of the shaft of the idna as well as from the 
external condyle ; it divides into three slips, of which the middle 
goes to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th digits, the radial one joins the 
tendon of the middle part to the index, while the ulnar slip goes 
to the 3rd and 5th digits. This practically corresponds to what 
Mivart and Murie found 3 . 

1 Mivart, P. Z. S. 1S82, p. 271. 

2 Windle, Journ. Anat. vol. xxii. p. 12G. 

3 P. Z. S. 1866, p. 383. 



1894.] 



MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 



269 



In Cavia cobaya there are two slips, the radial goes to the 
index and middle, the ulnar to middle, ring, and little fingers. 

In Pteromys and Arctomys the radial slip goes to all the fingers, 
while the ulnar only goes to the middle and ring. 

Fig. 4. 




Left fore foot of Castor canadensis (extensor tendons). 



Extensor Minimi Digiti. — The extensor minimi digiti rises from 
the external condyle in common with the extensor communis 
digitorum, and is usually inserted into the tendons of that muscle 
on the dorsum of the 4th and 5th digits. Its tendons are also 
usually connected to the ulnar sesamoid bones on the palmar 
surface of the metacarpo-phalangeal joints. In the following 
animals the insertion differed from the above description : — 

SpMngurug and Sciurus to 3rd, 4th, and 5th digits ; Chinchilla* 
Pteromys, and Castor to 5th only. In Aulacodus the muscle 
was completely fused with the extensor communis. From the 
difference in the number of tendons in animals otherwise closely 
allied I should suspect this muscle of being liable to a good deal 
of individual variation. 



270 mr. f. g. parsons ok tile [Mar. 20, 

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris. — This muscle possessed the same 
attachments as in Man with the exception of Sphingurus, in which 
the insertion had worked round to the palmar surface of the 
base of the fifth metacarpal bone. 

Supinator Brevis. — This muscle rises from the external condyle, 
and is inserted into the upper third of the extensor surface of the 
radius, wrapping round that bone very little. It only consists of 
one layer, which lies entirely superficial to the posterior inter- 
osseous nerve. 

Extensor Ossis Metacarpi Pollicis. — This muscle, which is 
generally well developed, rises from the extensor surfaces of the 
radius and ulna, or of the ulna alone, and from the interosseous 
membrane ; its insertion is into the base of the first metacarpal 
bone and sometimes into the trapezium. In Hystrix the insertion 
is into the metacarpal bone aud trapezium. In Cavia eobaya the 
insertion is into the trapezium, but in Mivart and Murie's case it 
also sent a slip to the base of the second metacarpal '. In the 
iSciuromorpha except Castor it rises from the ulna only. In Castor 
the muscle was double : the first part rose from the radius and 
was inserted into the first metacarpal, while the second rose 
from the radius and ulna and was inserted into the radial sesamoid 
bone of the palm. 

Extensor Primi Internodii Pollicis. — This muscle was absent in 
all the animals examined. Meckel suggests that it may be incor- 
porated with the extensor ossis metacarpi. 

Extensor Secundi Internodii Pollicis. — This muscle was only 
found in Hystrix and Castor; in the former it arose from the ulna 
below the extensor ossis metacarpi, and was inserted by a thin 
tendon into the terminal phalanx of the first digit. In Castor it 
rises from the upper part of the dorsal surface of the ulna in 
common with the extensor indicis ; it is inserted into the thumb 
as in Hystrix, but sends a slip to the common tendon on the 
dorsum of the index. 

Extensor Indicis. — The extensor indicis rises from the dorsal 
surface of the ulna about its middle, and joins the tendon of the 
extensor communis digitorum on the dorsum of the index. In 
Hystrix a small slip was noticed, which ran down to lose itself on 
the dorsum of the fourth metacarpal bone. In Castor the muscle is 
blended with the extensor primi internodii as ahove stated. 

Pahnaris Brevis. — This muscle is usually well marked and is 
attached to the pisiform bone and skin on the inner side of the 
palm ; from this it runs transversely across to the radial side, heing 
interrupted by the palmar cartilage or cartilages to which it is 
attached. In the Dipodidse, in which a transverse bar of bone 
runs across the palm, it is very slightly marked. 

In Capromys melanurus Dobson 2 describes it as sending a slip 
to act as the flexor perforatus of the little finger ; this slip is what 
I describe, after Mivart and Murie, as flexor brevis manus. 

1 P. Z. 8. 1866, p. 383. 

2 P. Z. S. 1884, p. 234. 



1894.] 



MYOLOOY OP RODENTS. 



271 



In Ccelogenys the muscle is interrupted by three palmar 
cartilages. 

Fig- 5. 




f-LEX .CARP 



PALM. LONG.... 



FLEXOR 



Eight fore foot of Ccelogenys paca. 

Flexor Brevis Manus. — This muscle rises from the palmar ossicle 
on the radial side of the palm, and runs obliquely across to form 
the flexor perforatus for the fifth digit, usually joining the small 
flexor sublimis slip to that digit. It is supplied by the ulnar nerve. 

Muscles of the Thumb. — Owing to the slight development of the 
thumb these muscles are difficult to define accurately. The 
abductor pollicis is the most definite ; it always rises from the 
radial part of the palmar cartilage, and is inserted into the base of 
the proximal phalanx of the thumb. In the Dipodicke and Caviidae 
this and the other thumb-muscles are practically absent. 

"When the flexor brevis is present it rises either from the semi- 
lunar cartilage over the bases of the metacarpals (as in Ccelogenys) or 
from the palmar cartilage {Capromys according to Dobson l ). 

The opponens consists of a very few fibres ; it is found in most 
of the Sciuromorpha except Castor ; its attachments are from the 
above-mentioned semilunar cartilage to the metacarpal bone. 

The adductor is best marked in the Octodontidae (Octodon, 
Myopotamus, and Capromys l ) ; in Myopotamus it is quite distinct, 

1 P. Z. S. 1884, p. 2te. 



272 me. f. g. paesons on the [Mar. 20, 

and runs from the base of the third metacarpal to the proximal 
phalanx of the thumb. 

Fig. 6. 




f UX .CARP 

, ULN 



Left fore foot of Ceredon rupestris. 

Muscles of the Little Finger. — Two muscles in most cases rise 
from the pisiform and run to the inner sesamoid bone on the 
palmar surface of the head of the metacarpal bone, and so to 
the base of the proximal phalanx ; both of these I regard as 
abductor minimi digiti. The flexor brevis minimi digiti is repre- 
sented by the ulnar slip of the interosseous layer of muscles going 
to the same place as the last. The opponens minimi digiti I have 
never seen. The adductor minimi digiti is sometimes present, 
running from the centre of the semilunar cartilage, superficial 
to the interossei, to the outer sesamoid bone of the little finger ; 
it is present in Myopotamus, Hystrix, Ccelogenys, and Xerus. (See 

Adductor Indicts. — Rises by the side of the adductor minimi 
digiti, and is attached to the ulnar sesamoid bone of the index. In 
Hystrix a muscle rises from its insertion, and runs across the 
metacarpal bones to the insertion of the adductor minimi digiti 
in a semilunar curve, with the concavity towards the tips of the 
fingers. (See fig. 8, p. 273.) 



1S94.1 



MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 

Fig. 7. 



27-3 



IND1CIS. 




y ;[//>> 'ADDUCTOR 

-FLEX.BREY. 
W~. OPPONENT. 



UUN. 



Right fore foot of Coelogenys paca (deep dissection). 
Fig. 8. 

A 



DOS INCMC'S 



AOD.MIN.0lt 



r«i M f 




Right fore foot of Hgstrix cristata (deep dissection). 



274 



MR. F. G. PARSONS C» T THE 



[Mar. 2<\ 



Interossei. — There are eight interossei, which all lie in the same 
plane, rising from the semilunar cartilage and being inserted into 
the eight sesamoid bones in front of the four metacarpophalangeal 
joints. The most ulnar of these has already been described as the 
flexor brevis minimi cligiti. In Castor only six of these are present. 

Muscles of Trwnk, 

Panniculus Carnosua. — The panniculus is well marked in 
Rodents, and consists in many places of two or more layers of 
fibres running in different directions. The superficial pannicidus 
in the neck rises from some of the face-muscles, more especially 
the orbicularis oris, and runs back along the side of the neck to be 
attached to the spine of the scapula ; it probably corresponds to the 
human platysma. In Spermophilus, in which the cheek-pouches 
are present, part of this muscle is specially developed, and runs 
from the end of the pouch to the metacromial process. On the 
ventral surface of the neck the fibres decussate across the middle 
line, and run backwards and outwards over the pectoral region ; 
as a rule, these decussating fibres are more or less scattered, but 
in Octodon they are very well marked, rising from a small origin a 
little to the side of the symphysis menti, and spreading out in a 
fan-shaped manner to cover the opposite side of the neck. Deep 
to these fibres lies the steruo-facialis, which is attached to the 
anterior part of the sternum and runs forwards to spread out over 
the masseter, covering the sterno-mastoid in its course ; it is very 
well marked in all the Octodontidae. 



Fig. 9. 




■ 5TER.. 

Panniculus of Octodon. 



The panniculus is not well marked on the dorsum of the neck, 
bur over the trunk it is found as a thick mass ; over the shoulders 



1894.] 



MYOLOGY OP RODENTS. 



275 



the fibres of this converge to be attached to the acromion and spine 
for a variable extent, as well as to the fascia of the outer side of 
the arm and the pectoral ridge of the humerus. In the Caviidse 
these fibres to the arm are specially well developed, and in Ceredon 
some of them extend as far as the internal condyle. 

The abdominal panniculus divides about the lateral line of the 
body into a superficial and a deep layer, which, as they approach 
the ventral region, embrace the pectoral, the superficial fibres 
passing over the muscle to be lost on its surface, the deep being 
attached to the cartilages of some of the true ribs close to the 
sternum and deep to the pectoral 1 . Posteriorly the panniculus 

Tig. 10. 




s Spine o{ scapula. 



Panniculus of Hystrix cristata. 



ends in a fairly Avell-defined margin over the gluteal muscles ; the 
fibres of this part running round to the front and inner side of the 
thigh to terminate in the fascia there. I have never seen any 
attachment to the femur. Over the inguinal region there are 
several planes of fibres ; some of these unite in the middle line 
under the ventral surface of the penis, forming a sling to keep that 
organ close to the body ; this arrangement is well seen in Codogenys. 
The ventral and lateral parts of the panniculus of the body are 
supplied by the great internal anterior thoracic nerve, which runs 
back from the internal chord of the brachial plexus : the cervical 
part is supplied by the superficial cervical and facial nerves. 

Latissimus Dorsi. — The latissimus dorsi rises from a large number 
of the posterior thoracic spinous processes, the posterior three or 

1 See author's contribution to Proc. Anat. Soc, printed in the Journal of 
Anatomy, xxvi. p. x (1892). 



276 ME. F. G. PABSONS ON the [Mar. I 1 '.', 

foar ribs, and the lumbar aponeurosis. It is inserted by a flat 
tendon into the upper part of the anterior surface of the humerus 
internal to the pectoral ridge. Its relation to the teres major has 
already been noticed under the head of that muscle. Very often 
some of the fibres of the muscle are continued across the axilla to 
blend with the pectoralis major. The dorso-epitroehlearis is 
always present, occasionally blending with the fascia over the 
triceps, but more often being well marked and inserted into the 
olecranon process. In the Hystricidae and in Castor the tendon of 
the muscle is inserted in front, behind, and below the teres major 
in such a manner that a section of it would appear like the letter J. 
In Capromys and Castor a number of fibres were seen passing in 
front of the axillary vessels to the pectoral. The dorso-epitrcch- 
learis is, perhaps, least well seen in Lagostomus and Dasyprocta, 
best in Sphingurus. 

Trapezius. — The trapezius may or may not be divided into an 
anterior and posterior portion, separated by a fascial interval. Its 
origin is from the occipital curved line, ligamentum nucha), and the 
thoracic spines, except the last three or four. It is inserted into 
the spine and acromial process of the scapula, and often into the 
clavicle. 

In the Dipodidas the muscle is divided into two distinct parts, 
the anterior of which is the larger, and goes to the acromion and 
the greater part of the spine : the posterior is only attached to the 
root of the spine (D. cegyptius, D. hirtipes, Alectaga indica). 

In the Octodontidae the two parts of the muscle may be made 
out, but they are practically continuous : the insertion is continued 
on to the outer part of the clavicle (Octodon, Aulacodus, Capromys). 

In Hystrix the muscle is single and does not reach the clavicle. 

Among the Chinchillida?, Chinchilla has an extended cranial 
origin from the surface of the bulla, while in both it and Lago- 
stomus some of the fibres pass over the clavicle to blend with the 
deltoid. 

In the Dasyproctidse the muscle is divided into two parts, some 
of the cranial fibres being prolonged down on the outer side of the 
humerus for some distance (Dasyproeta, Coslogenys). 

In the Caviidse the muscle is divided into two distinct parts and 
does not reach the clavicle (C. cobaya, Ceredon rupestris, Dolichotis 
patagoniea l ). 

In the iSciuromorpha the muscle has one continuous origin : in 
Sciurus and Pteromgs it is not attached to the clavicle, while in 
Castor it just reaches the outer end of that bone. In Arctomys, 
SpermopMlus, and Xerus the inner part of the muscle is separated 
from the rest by the levator claviculae, and lies over the cleido- 
mastoid, making that muscle appear double : in Arctomys this slip 
is shifted so far inwards that it becomes attached to the front of 
the sternum. 

Rhomboideus. — The rhomboideus capitis major and minor rise 
by one continuous origin from the superior curved line of the 
1 Beddard, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 236. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 277 

occiput, from the ligarnentum nuchae, and from the anterior three 
or four dorsal spines and supraspinous ligaments ; the insertion is 
into the whole length of the vertebral border of the scapula, the 
occipital fibres also going to the fascia over the inner part of the 
supraspinatus. 

Sciurus and Pteromys differ in having a slight separation between 
the occipital and cervical portions, but this is not seen in Xerus 
and Spermophilus. 

Serratus Magnus and Levator Anguli Scapula?. — These two 
muscles are in the same plane and usually have a continuous 
origin, so that it is difficult to define their line of demarcation. 
They rise from the transverse processes of several cervical vertebrae, 
and from the sides of 7 to 9 of the anterior ribs by fleshy digita- 
tions. The insertion is into the vertebral border of the scapula. 
In the following animals a separate slip rising from the atlas was 
found : — Myopotamus, Sphingurus, Lagostomus, Sciurus, Pteromys, 
and Arctomys. 

The exact number of vertebrae and ribs from which these muscles 
arise in various Rodents are as follows : — 

Dipus cegyptius 1-7 c. v. 1-8 ribs. 

Capromys pilorides 2—7 „ 1-9 „ 

„ melanurus 1 .... 3-7 „ 1-6 ,, 

Aulacodus 2-7 „ 1-9 „ 

Myopotamus 1st & 3-7 ,, 1-8 „ 

Octodon 5-7 „ 1-8 „ 

Hystrix 4-7 „ 1-8 „ 

Sphingurus 1—7 „ 1-7 „ 

Chinchilla 2-7 „ 1-9 „ 

Layostomus 1-7 „ 1-8 „ 

Basyprocta cristata 2-7 „ 1-8 „ 

Ccelogenys 1-7 „ 1—8 „ 

Cavia cobaya 1-7 ,, 1-9 ,, 

Ceredon .. 2-7 „ 1-9 „ 

Sciurus 1st & 3-7 „ 1—8 ,, 

Pteromys 1-7 „ 1-7 ,, 

Xerus 4-7 ,, 1-8 „ 

Arctomys marmotta . . 1st & 3-7 „ 1-9 „ 

Castor canadensis 2-7 ,, 1—7 „ 

Serratus Posticus. — This muscle varies very much in different 
genera and apparently in different individuals. Aulacodus seems 
to show most satisfactorily its full development. In this animal 
the anterior part of the muscle rises from the ligarnentum nuchae 
and spines of the anterior dorsal vertebra? to be inserted into the 
ribs from about the 4th to the 12th, the direction of its fibres 
being backwards and outwards. The posterior part rises from the 
spines of the posterior dorsal and lumbar vertebrae by means of the 
lumbar fascia, and runs forwards and outwards to the posterior 

1 Dobson, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 234. 
Pboc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XIX. 19 



278 MB. F. G. PABSOKS ON the [Mar. 20 v , 

ribs from about the 9th to the last : there are thus two distinct 
layers of fibres running in opposite directions in the dorsal region. 
The variations that are met with consist of more or less complete 
suppression of these parts. In Dasyprocta and Cavia cobaya, for 
example, the posterior part is wanting and the anterior well 
developed, so that in the former there is a continuous layer of 
muscle, the fibres of which run in the same direction, stretching 
from the 4th to the 13th rib. 

In Sphingurus, on the other hand, each part is equally diminished, 
so that there is a space between them resembling the arrangement 
in Man. 

In the Dipodidae the muscle is almost entirely represented by 
fascia. 

Among the other animals examined Ceredon and Pteromys 
resembled Aidacodus, while Ccelogenys, Arctomys, and Xerus had 
the arrangement found in Dasyprocta. Octodon resembled Sphin- 
gurus, but was remarkable for having the posterior part of the 
muscle better developed than the anterior. 

Sacro-lumbalis. — This muscle has the usual attachments. It is 
continued forwards by the accessorius, the limits of which are 
indistinguishable. This is succeeded by the cervicalis ascendens, 
which is attached to the transverse processes of the posterior three 
cervical vertebra?, except in Dasyprocta and Coelogenys, where it 
only goes to the last two. 

Longissimvs Dorsi. — This muscle, as well as the semispinalis and 
multifidus, has the usual arrangement : their exact attachments 
vary with the number of vertebrae. 

Transversalis Capitis and Colli. — "When both these muscles are 
present they are continuous. The latter is attached to the 
transverse processes, except sometimes the iirst and often the last 
one or two. The transversalis capitis or trachelo-mastoid is 
attached to the base of the paroccipital process, except in Castor, 
where it goes to the base of the mastoid process. It is present in 
all the Sciuromorpha, as well as in the Octodontidae, Hystricidae, 
and Dasyproctidae. In the Caviidse it is present in Ceredon, but 
absent in Cavia cobaya. In the remaining families the muscle was 
not examined. 

Splenius Capitis et Colli. — The splenius capitis is always 
present, and has the human attachments and relations. 

The splenius colli was found in the Dasyproctidae, where it was 
inserted into the anterior three transverse processes in Dasyprocta 
and into the transverse process of the atlas only in Coelogenys. 

A small slip representing this muscle was found in Myopotamus, 
but in no other animal was it seen. 

Complexus. — This muscle has the usual attachments. It shows 
signs of being divided longitudinally into two parts ; of these the 
outer is inserted by tendon and the inner by flesh. In some of 
the Hystricomorpha a slight tendinous intersection was seen in the 
inner part, reminding one of the biventer of Man ; but this 
arrangement was not seen in the Sciuromorpha, except in Castor, 



1894.] MYOLOGY or KODENTS. 279 

in which, moreover, the inner and outer halves of the muscle were 
very distinct. 

Intercostals and Triangularis Stemi. — These muscles have nothing 
remarkable in their attachments : the latter usually rises from the 
posterior 4 or 5 pieces of the sternum. 

Tail-Muscles. 

The following muscles can be identified : — Extensor caudse, 
externus and interims ; Abductor caudse, externus and internus ; 
Flexor caudse, externus, internus, and profundus. 

AVith the following exceptions these muscles correspond to 
Meckel's general description of the tail-muscles of mammals l : — 
The abductor eaudas internus rises from one transverse process 
and arches over to the next but one, passing dorsal to the inter- 
mediate transverse process. 

The abductor caudae externus in Myopotamus does not rise from 
the tuber ischii, its usual origin, but from the pelvic fascia by the 
side of the lower part of the rectum. 

In Sphingurus the ischial origin of this muscle is very well 
marked, as are also all the tail-muscles. In the flexor caudae 
internus the most internal of the supernc'al tendons are inserted 
first, the deeper tendons coming to the surface round the outer 
side of these. In the flexor caudae externus the most external 
tendons are first inserted, and the deeper ones reach the surface 
round the inner side of these. 

In Castor a series of fleshy bellies rose from the articulations of 
the chevron bones to the caudal vertebrae ; these soon became 
tendinous and ran backwards and outwards to be lost in the fat 
over the transverse process of the next vertebra but one. Each 
tendon was perforated by the one behind it. 

Obliquvs Externus Abdominis 2 . — This muscle rises by fleshy 
digitations from a large number of the posterior ribs, generally 
about two-thirds of the total number, as well as from the lumbar 
aponeurosis. The fibres pass downwards and backwards to be 
inserted into the crest of the ilium, from which they pass across 
as Poupart's ligament to the anterior part of the body of the pubes. 
The next fibres are separated from these by a large triangular gap, 
the external abdominal ring, and are inserted into the anterior 
part of the body of the pubes. The fibres anterior to these pass 
ventral to the rectus to reach the linea alba. In the anterior part 
of the abdomen the fibres blend with those of the rectus, and in 
some cases are continued forwards with that muscle to the first 
rib. The intercolumnar fibres over the ring are well marked and 
form a pouch for the testes. There is very little aponeurosis near 
the linea alba, the most tendinous part being at Poupart's 
ligament. 

1 Traite general d'Anatoinie compare e, p. 175. 

2 Owing to the fact that many of the animals I dissected had been eviscerated 
before they came to me, my observations on the abdominal muscles are not so 
complete as I could have wished. 

19* 



280 me. f. g. paesons on the [Mar. 20, 

In Layostomvs, Hygtrix, and Sphingurus the muscle, on careful 
dissection, was found not to be continued forwards to the first rib 
with the rectus. In Aretomys it went not only to the first rib, 
but also to the junctions of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th with the 
sternum. 

Internal Oblique and Transversalis. — These muscles are closely 
blended, requiring careful examination to make out their separate 
attachments. 

The internal oblique rises from the lumbar fascia, the crest of 
the ilium, and a large part of Poupart's ligament. The fibres run 
forwards and inwards to a few of the posterior ribs and to the 
linea alba. At the abdominal ring a muscular pouch representing 
the cremaster supports the testis. There is usually more aponeu- 
rosis ventrally than in the external oblique. The transversalis 
rises from the inner surfaces of a large number of the posterior 
ribs, from the lumbar fascia, from the iliac crest, and from the 
outer part of Poupart's ligament, and is inserted into the linea 
alba, passing deep to the rectus in its whole extent. 

In Aulacodv.s, Oetodoa, Dasyprocta, Cavia cobaya, and Sciurus 
the muscles are practically inseparable, but in Dasyprocta a white 
line was noticed running downwards and backwards from the 
cartilage of the last false rib to the outer edge of the rectus, which 
appeared to mark the place where the internal oblique became 
aponeurotic. In Layostomus the internal oblique becomes apo- 
neurotic near the edge of the rectus, forming a linea semilunaris. 
It passes superficial to the rectus, while the transversalis remains 
fleshy and passes deep to it. 

In Hy stria; , Sphingurus, Cceloyenys, and Aretomys the muscles 
are more separable, and the internal oblique rises from the outer 
three-quarters of Poupart's ligament as well as its other origins, 
and is inserted into the posterior ribs — into three in Hystrix, five 
in Sphingurus^ and six in Cceloyenys. 

Rectus Abdominis. — The rectus arises by one bead from the 
ventral surface of the symphysis pubis and runs forwards between 
the internal oblique and transversalis, with which it is closely 
blended, to the ventral surface of the first rib near its junction 
with the sternum ; it is also inserted into the succeeding four or 
five costal cartilages at their sternal ends by small slips. It has 
already been noticed that the external oblique is usually continued 
forwards with it. In Sphingurus it only reaches as far forwards as 
the second rib. The lineae transversa are very feebly marked ; 
they are usually five or six in number, but in Aretomys only three 
could be made out. 

The Octodontidae are remarkable for having a well-marked 
decussation of the two recti close to their origin ; this has been 
pointed out by Owen l and Dobson 2 in Capromys foumieri 
and C. melanurus, as well as by Martin in Myopotamus 3 and 
Octodon *. 

1 P. Z. S. 1832, p. 68. a P. Z. S. 1835, p. 176. 

2 P. Z. S. 1884, p. 234. * P. Z. S. 1836, p. 72. 



1894.] myology or BODE^TS. 281 

Owen describes the left rectus in Capromys fournieri as passing 
through a slit in the right, the right being therefore both super- 
ficial and deep to the left ; this is practically what I found in 
Octodon, the only difference being that each rectus rose by two 
heads, the two belonging to the left muscle passing together between 
the two belonging to the right. In Myopotamus, according to 
Martin, the four heads alternate, one of the left being most super- 
ficial. The rectus in Aidacodus was not noticed. 

Mivart and Murie 1 describe a well-marked decussation in the 
Agouti ; this I did not see ; indeed, in none of the animals examined 
was there any decussation approaching in distinctness that found 
in the Octodontidae. 

Psoas Parvus. — The psoas parvus varies very much in develop- 
ment among the Hystricomorpha ; it rises from the sides of the 
bodies of a variable number of lumbar vertebrae, and is inserted 
into the ilio-pectineal eminence on the brim of the pelvis. 

In the Dipodidas the muscle is large and rises from all the 
lumbar vertebrae except the last one or two (D. cegyptius, D. 
hirtipes). 

Among the Octodontidae it is small and rises from the anterior 
3 or 4 vertebrae, and from the crura of the diaphragm in Aidacodus, 
Myopotamus, and Capn-omys. In Octodon it was absent. 

In the Hystricidae it has the same arrangement (Hystrix, 
Sphingurus). 

In the Chinchillidae the muscle is large, and rises from all or 
nearly all the lumbar vertebrae (Chinchilla, Lagostomus). 

In the Dasyproctidae it is small, and rises from two or three of 
the central lumbar vertebrae. 

In the Caviidae it is very small and apparently often absent. In 
one specimen of Ceredon it was absent, while in another it rose 
from the 4th and 5th vertebrae. In two specimens of Cavia 
cobaya it was present, in one it was absent. 

In the Sciuromorpha it is always present and well marked ; it 
usually rises from the anterior four or five lumbar vertebrae. 

Psoas Magnus, — This muscle shows much less variation than 
that of the psoas parvus. It rises from the sides of the bodies and 
ventral surfaces of the transverse processes of all the lumbar 
vertebrae, and occasionally from the first sacral. The muscle is 
usually more or less distinctly divided into an inner and outer 
part by some of the branches of the lumbar plexus, this division 
being specially well seen in Spermophilus. It has the usual 
insertion as in Man. 

Iliacus. — The iliacus rises from the iliac surface of the ilium ; it 
soon joins the psoas, with which it is inserted. Nothing charac- 
teristic was noticed about it in the different animals examiued. 

Quadratus Lumborum. — This muscle rises from the sides of the 

bodies of the posterior dorsal vertebrae, usually the last six, aud 

from the tips of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae ; 

it is inserted by a narrow tendon into the ventral surface of the 

1 P. Z. S. 18G6, p. 383. 



282 mb. p. g. parsons on the [Mar. 20, 

ilium just external to the synchondrosis. Its arrangement is very 
constant. 

Muscles of Posterior Extremity. 

Gluteus Maximus, Tensor Fascice Femoris, and Sartorius. — These 
three muscles in Eodents are so closely united that they form 
practically one sheet, which rises from the anterior extremity or 
crest of the ilium, and from the fascia over the gluteus medius by 
which they are connected to the spinous processes of the posterior 
lumbar, sacral, and anterior caudal vertebrae. Occasionally it also 
rises from the outer part of Poupart's ligament and the inferior 
border of the ilium. The fibres which rise most anteriorly cross 
the front of the thigh obliquely, and are inserted into the fascia 
above and to the inner side of the patella ; these fibres correspond 
to the sartorius. The fibres rising behind these run down the outer 
side of the thigh and are inserted into the fascia, there forming the 
tensor fasciae femoris. The rest of the muscle, or the gluteus 
maximus proper, is inserted partly into the fascia of the outer side 
of the thigh, and partly into the femur, sometimes quite high 
up, at others near its lower end. The nerve supply of these three 
muscles is the superior gluteal. 

In the Dipodida? few, if any, fibres were noticed going to the 
femur (Dijrus cegyptius). 

In the Octodontidae the sartorius is well developed, reaching to 
the patella, while the bony insertion of the gluteus maximus is 
into the posterior surface of the femur at the junction of the middle 
and lower thirds (Myopotamus, Capromys, Pilorides, Aulacodus). 

In the Hystricidae the arrangement is the same, except in 
Sphingurus, in which the insertion of the gluteus maximus is into 
the middle of the femur (Jlystrix cristata, Sphingurus, Ereihizon 
dorsatus l ). 

In the Chinchillidae and Dasyproctidae the arrangement is the 
same (Chinchilla, Lagostomus, Dasyprocta cristata, Ccelogenys). 

In the Caviidae the gluteus maximus has the same bony attach- 
ment as in Sphingurus (Cavia cobaya, Ceredon rupestris). 

Among the Sciuromorpha the sartorius rises from the outer 
part of Poupart's ligament and runs to the inner side of the knee, 
where it blends with the gracilis in Sciurus, Spermophilus, and 
Pteromys oral. The gluteus maximus is inserted by two slips, one 
into the third trochanter, the other into the lower part of the 
femur. It also has, of course, the usual fascial insertion. 

In Xerus the arrangement is the same, except that the gluteus 
maximus has its bony insertion into the junction of the upper and 
middle thirds of the femur. 

In Arctomys marmotta this muscle is inserted into the third 
trochanter and fascia. 

In Castor canadensis no sartorial portion was seen, the gluteus 
maximus being inserted into a ridge halfway down the femur. 

1 P. Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OP BODBNTS. 283 

Gluteus Medius. — The gluteus rnedius rises from the fascia over 
the posterior part of the erector spiuae, and its continuation into 
the tail-muscles, from the crest of the ilium and the inferior 
border of that bone for some distance. It is usually a very large 
muscle. It is iuserted into the outer side of the great trochanter 
by a number of tendinous slips placed close together. 

This description applies to all the animals dissected, except the 
Octodontidse, in which there is no origin from the iliurn (Myopo- 
tamus, Capromys, Aulacodus). 

Gluteus Minimus. — This muscle rises from the external surface of 
the ilium, below the great sciatic notch, and is inserted into the top 
and front of the great trochanter. It is usually small and very 
difficult to clearly separate from the gluteus medius, scansorius, 
and pyriformis. In Aulacodus it is a large muscle folded on 
itself, rising from the fascia over the tail-muscles as far forwards 
as the crest of the ilium, then from the outer side of the ilium as 
far back as the acetabulum ; it thus springs from a horseshoe- 
shaped origin above, below, and in front of the sacro-sciatic notch, 
which it encloses in the concavity of the horseshoe. Capromys 
presents a somewhat similar arrangement, but in the other animals 
examined there was no variation of any importance from the 
normal. 

Scansorius. — The scansorius may be present as a distinct muscle, 
or may be so blended with the gluteus minimus as to make it 
impossible to distinguish it. When it is distinct it rises from the 
inferior border of the ilium, and is inserted into the anterior 
surface of the great trochanter. 

In the Dipodidae it is present as a distinct muscle (Dipus 
cegyptius). 

In the Octodontidae it is probably represented by the inferior 
portion of the gluteus minimus ; in Myopotamus it is more distinct 
than in Capromys or Aulacodus. 

In the Hystricidae nothing was seen of it in Hystrix or Sphin- 
gurus ; in Erethizon dorsatus it is absent according to Mivart 1 , but 
in E. epixanthus it is well marked according to Windle 2 . 

In the Chinchillidae 1 made it out in Viscacha, but failed to in 
Chinchilla. 

In the Dasyproctidae it is present both in Basyprocta and 
Ccelogenys, but is much more distinct in the former. 

In the Caviidse it is present, and is inserted into a tubercle on 
the outer side of the great trochanter at its junction with the 
shaft (Cavia cobaya, Ceredon rupestris). 

It was absent in all the Sciuromorpha examined (Sciurus, 
Pteromys, Xerus, Spermophilus, Arctomys, Castor). 

Pyriformis. — The pyriformis rises from the ventral surface of 
the sacrum close to the sciatic notch, through which its fibres pass, 
and from the outer surface of the ilium in front of the notch ; by 
the latter part of its origin it is often fused with the gluteus 
minimus. It is inserted into the top of the great trochanter. 
1 P. Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 2 Journ. Anat. vol. xxii. p. 126. 



284 MB. F. G. PARSONS ON the [Mar. 20, 

The intra-pelvic portion seems often to be wanting, in which case 
it is very difficult to define the muscle. 

In the Dipodidae it is continuous with the gluteus minimus 
(Dipus wgypthis). 

Among the Octodontidse it is found between the two layers of 
the folded gluteus minimus in Aulacodus and Capromys ; in Myo~ 
potamus and Octodon it is normal. 

In the Hystricidae it was not seen in Hystrix, but was present 
in Sphingurus. 

In the Chinchillidae it was not seen in Chinchilla, but was made 
out with some difficulty in Viseacha. 

In the Dasyproctidae it is large and well marked, partly over- 
lapping the gluteus medius (Dasyprocta, Ccelogenys). 

In the Caviidae it rises from the sacrum, but is continuous with 
the posterior border of the gluteus minimus (Cavia cobaya, Ceredon 
rupestris). 

In all the Sciuromorpha examined it was present and normal, 
except in Castor, where it was not seen. 

Obturator Interims and Cemelli. — These muscles usually have 
the same origin as in Man, but they are inserted into the digital 
(trochanteric) fossa of the femur. The gemelli are large, especially 
the anterior one. 

When the obturator internus is cut through a number of 
tendons are seen on its deep surface converging to the digital 
fossa ; this is well shown in Ccelogenys. In Castor canadensis the 
origin of the obturator internus and gemellus posterior was taken 
up by the great tail-muscles, so that the anterior gemellus was the 
only part of this group present. 

Obturator Externus. — In all the Rodents dissected, this muscle 
had the usual human attachments. Its insertion into the digital 
fossa is deep to that of the obturator internus. 

Quadratus Femoris. — The quadratus femoris rises from the outer 
side of the tuber ischii, and is inserted into the back of the femur 
midway between the great and small trochanters. In the Hystri- 
comorpha it is usually inserted by a narrow tendon, but in 
SpJiingurus and the Sciuromorpha the insertion is fleshy and the 
muscle quadrilateral. 

Biceps Femoris. — The biceps rises from the spines of the anterior 
caudal vertebrae and the fascia over the tail-muscles ; also by a 
dee]) head from the tuber ischii. These two parts, as a rule, unite 
and are inserted into the outer side of the patella, and the fascia 
of the leg from the knee almost, if not quite, to the ankle. 

This arrangement obtains in all the Rodents dissected, with the 
following exceptions : — In Sphingurus the two parts remain 
distinct, the superficial or caudal portion being inserted into the 
outer side of the patella and ligamentum patellae, while the deep 
portion from the tuber ischii is joined by a slip from the posterior 
sacral vertebrae and is inserted into the fascia of the leg continuing 
the plane of insertion of the former part. In Erethizon dorsatus l 
1 P. Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OF EODBNTS. 285 

and E. epixanthus 1 the same arrangement is found. This 
corresponds to the arrangement that Mivart and Murie 2 have 
described in the Agouti, but presents a clearer illustration of it 
than is found in that animal. 

In Sciurus and Pteromys the superficial head is small, and instead 
of rising from the caudal vertebrae comes from the deep surface of 
the gluteus maximus. Xerus, Spermophilus, Arctomys, and Castor 
as well as all the other rodents have the typical arrangement. In 
Myopotamus a strong tendon runs to the head of the fibula. 

Semitenclinosus. — The semitendinosus rises by two heads, the 
most superficial of which springs from the sacral and anterior 
caudal spines and slightly from the lumbar fascia. The deep head 
rises from the tuber ischii deep to the biceps. These two parts 
unite in the upper part of the thigh, and are inserted into the 
cnemial crest of the tibia and the fascia of the leg below this. 

This arrangement applies to all the animals dissected, except 
the Hystricidae and Pteromys. 

In the Hystricidae the muscle rises only from the sacral and 
caudal spines, but in Hystrix cristata and Erethizon dorsatus 3 a 
small slip is given to reinforce the biceps from this. In Sphin- 
gurus no slip goes to the biceps. In Pteromys the muscle rose 
from the tuber ischii ; but I am inclined to regard this as an 
individual variation, because all the other Sciuromorpha, including 
Sciurus, have both heads. 

Semimembranosus. — This muscle consists of two parts, which are 
sometimes distinct, at others blended. The main part of the 
muscle rises from the tuberosity and adjacent part of the ramus of 
the ischium, and is inserted by a rounded tendon into the internal 
tuberosity of the tibia. It is supplied by the great sciatic nerve. 

The second portion is often included in the description of the 
adductors, with which it is frequently closely blended ; its insertion 
is always into just above the internal condyle of the femur where, 
in Man, the adductor tubercle is situated ; this insertion is separated 
from that of the adjacent adductors by the femoral artery. The 
origin of this part of the muscle is not constant — sometimes it rises 
separately from the sides of the caudal vertebrae, sometimes from 
the tuberosity of the ischium in common with the other head of 
the muscle, and sometimes from the ramus of the ischium, as part 
of the adjacent adductor magnus. Whatever its origin it is always 
supplied by the great sciatic nerve and never by the obturator 
which supplies the adductors. 

In the Dipodidae the muscle rises from the tuberosity of the 
ischium, and is inserted into the lower part of the back of the 
femur and the internal tuberosity of the tibia ; the oblique 
condylar slip is separate and also rises from the tuber (Dipus 
cegyptius). 

In the Octodontidae the origin is from the tuber and ramus of 

1 Journ. Anat. 1888, p. 12G. 

2 P. Z. S. 1860, p. 383. 

3 P. Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 



286 me. f. g. parsoxs ox the [Mar. 20, 

the ischium ; the insertion i9 normal, but an expansion is continued 
forwards deep to the internal lateral ligament of the knee. 

The oblique slip in Myopotamus and Octodon rises from the 
tuber ischii, but in Aulacodus it comes from the sacral vertebrae 
as in Hystrix (Aulacodus, Capromys melanurus l , Myopotamus, 
Octodon). 

In the Hystricidae the arrangement is not constant : Hystrix and 
Erethizou entirely resemble Aulacodus in the origin of the two parts, 
but in Sphingurus the second slip rises from the tuber isc-Lii with 
the rest of the muscle instead of from the sacral vertebrae ; it soon 
becomes distinct to run to the internal condyle. 

Among the Chinchillidae, Lagostomus has the same arrangement 
as Hystrix and Aulacodus, but Chinchilla resembles Sphingurus, 

In the Dasyproctidae the two parts of the muscle rise together 
from the tuber and ramus and only separate towards the lower 
part of the thigh {Dasyprocta, Cceloyeays). 

In the Sciuromorpha the condylar portion of the muscle is sepa- 
rate from the rest and closely connected to the adductor mass, 
with which it will for convenience be described ; it is, however, still 
supplied by the great sciatic nerve (Sciarus, Pteromys, Xerus, Sper- 
mophihiS, Arctomys, Castor). 

It will be seen that the Rodents illustrate the changes by which 
part of the semimembranosus becomes part of the adductor magnus. 

In Godogmys, for example, the slip going to the condyle of the 
femur is part of the semimembranosus : in Sphingurus it rise* with 
that muscle but soon separates from it ; in Hystrix it is a perfectly 
distinct muscle, having a different origin to the semimembranosus 
or adductors, while in Sciurus it is intimately blended with the 
adductors, though still preserving its original nerve supply. It is 
remarkable, too, that, except for its constant arrangement in the 
Sciuromorpha, it seems to be of very little classificatory value. 

Gracilis. — The gracilis is very often double. The most anterior 
portion, which has sometimes been described as the sartorius, rises 
from the ilio-pectineal line and from the anterior part of the 
ventral surface of the symphysis pubis ; it is inserted into the inner 
border of the patella and ligamentum patellae. The posterior 
gracilis usually rises from the posterior part of the ventral surface 
of the symphysis and from the subpubic arch ; its insertion is into 
the cnemial crest of the tibia? and the fascia of the leg, which makes 
it a powerful internal rotator of the tibia?. The two muscles are 
always supplied by the obturator nerve. 

Sometimes the gracilis is a single muscle, but it then usually shows 
signs of a separation. 

The general rule seems to be that the Hystricomorpha have two 
graciles and the Sciuromorpha one. The two exceptions that I 
have met with are Aulacodus, in which the muscle is single, and 
Castor, in which it is double. 

Pectineus. — The pectineus rises from the ilio-pectineal eminence 
and line under cover of the anterior gracilis, and is inserted into 
1 P. Z. S. 1884, p. 234. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 287 

the upper third to half of the linea aspera of the femur. The 
only exceptions to this that I have met with are the Caviidae, in 
which the muscle rises by a tendon from the ilio-pectineal eminence 
only (Cavia cobaya, Ceredon rupestris), and Castor, in which it is 
very strongly developed and is inserted into the whole length of 
the shaft of the femur. 

Quadriceps Extemor Cruris. — The four muscles composing the 
quadriceps have the same origin and insertion that they have 
in Man, and are practically the same in all the Hystricomorpha 
and Sciuromorpha. The rectus rises by two heads, which are some- 
times quite distinct, but at others so short as to be almost indis- 
tinguishable. They are perhaps most distinct in the Hystricidae, 
least so in the Sciuridae. The crureus rises from the wdiole of 
the anterior surface of the femur by a series of about 30 fleshy 
arches. The two vasti can usually be separated easily from the 
crureus ; as a rule the vastus externus is the larger. 

Adductors. — It is extremely difficult in dissecting a Rodent to 
say which part of the adductor mass corresponds to the adductor 
longus, brevis, or rnaguus of human anatomy. 

In Dipus cer/i/ptius the adductor longus rises from the front of 
the pubes under cover of the gracilis and runs to the inner side of 
the patella. The adductor magnus and brevis come from the whole 
subpubic arch and are inserted into the upper two-thirds of the 
back of the femur. A good deal of the adductor mass, however, in 
this animal seems to be blended with the semimembranosus. 

In the Octodontidae and Chinchillidae the adductors longus 
and brevis seem to be fused, although in Aulacodus and Octodon a 
division was readily made out. These coalesced muscles rise from 
the inner part of the pectineal line and ventral surface of the 
symphysis, and are inserted into the upper half of the linea aspera. 

In the Hystricidae, as Meckel 1 observes, the three parts of the 
muscle can be seen ; this is especially the case in Sphingurus, but it 
is doubtful whether the three parts correspond morphologically with 
the three adductors in Man. 

Among the Dasyproctidae, Dasyprocta has very much the same 
arrangement as the Chinchillidae, but in Coelogenys paca the adductor 
brevis has a distinct insertion by a ribbon-like tendon into the 
upper part of the liuea aspera. 

It will be noticed that nothing has been said here about fibres 
passing to just above the internal condyle ; these have already been 
described with the semimembranosus. 

Among the Sciuromorpha the adductor mass is much more broken 
up. 

. In Sciurus, wdiich serves as a good type, there are five portions 
inclusive of the slip already described with the semimembranosus. 
The following is the arrangement in Sciurus: — (1) Most anterior 
portion from the ilio-pectineal line to the middle of the posterior 
border of the femur ; this part is distinct from the pectineus. 
(2) A slip from the posterior part of the pubic symphysis to above 
1 Traite general d'Anatomie comparee, vol. yi. p. 378. 



288 me. f. g. pabsosts ox the [Mar. 20, 

the internal condyle. (3) A slip rising behind this by a very thin 
tendon from the same origin and running to the middle third of 
the posterior border of the femur. These three probably represent 
the adductors longus and brevis. (4) A slip from the tuber ischii 
running obliquely across the leg to above the internal condyle and 
also to the posterior surface of the femur above it. This is supplied 
by the great sciatic nerve instead of the obturator, and is the second 
part of the semimembranosus joined to the adductors. (5) A 
massive muscular slip from -the outer side of the tuber ischii to 
the upper part of the shaft of the femur. In Spermophihu, Xerus, 
Arctomys, and Castor the arrangement is essentially the same, but 
in Pteromys an extra deep slip was observed running behind the 
obturator nerve to the upper part of the femur, while the portion 
described as ]Sb. 4 in Sciurus had a much more extensive attach- 
ment up the femur. Meckel describes five heads in Arctomys. In 
Castor, although the arrangement is identical with that of Sciurus, 
the muscle is very massive and the separate parts much less easy 
to identify. 

Tibialis Anticus. — This muscle usually rises from the upper part 
of the outer surface of the tibia, and is inserted into the internal 
cuneiform and first metatarsal by two slips. In those cases in 
which the halux is absent or rudimentary the tendon does not 
divide into two at its insertion. 

In Dvpus cegyptius its insertion is into the inner side of the base 
of the great metatarsal bone. 

Among the Octodontidae, Myopotamus and Capromys have a 
double insertion, Aulacodus and Octodon a single one. In the 
Hystricidse it has a double insertion (Bystrica, Sphingumg, Erethizon). 
Meckel 1 says that in ffystrix it is blended with the extensor pro- 
prius hallucis; but this 1 did not find. In the Chinchillida? it not 
only rises from the tibia but from the tendon of origin of the ex- 
tensor longus digitorum (Chinchilla, Lagostomus). 

In the DasyproctidaB it rises from the front of the external 
condyle of the femur by a tendon which is anterior to that of the 
extensor longus digitorum, as well as by fleshy fibres from the upper 
part of the tibia ; it is inserted by a single tendon, which in Dasy- 
'procta goes to the base of the internal (2nd) metacarpal, and in 
Ccelogenys to the internal cuneiform. In the Caviidae it has the same 
origin as in the Chinchillidse, and is inserted into the rudimentary 
fused internal cuneiform and first metatarsal, which is found under 
the base of the internal (2nd) metatarsal. 

Mivart and Murie* found a femoral origin, as in the Dasyproctidae, 
in some of the Guinea-pigs they dissected. Beddard 3 describes 
the same arrangement in Dolichotig patagonica. 

In three Guinea-pigs I have not found a femoral origin once, and 
the specimen of Ceredon rupestris I dissected did not show it. I 
also did not see it in D. patagonica. Further observation is needed 

1 Op. cit. p. 410. 

2 P. Z. S. 186fi, p. 383. 

3 P. Z. S. 1891, p. 236. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OP KODEN T TS. 289 

to show how far a femoral origin of this muscle is characteristic of 
the Caviidae. 

In the Sciuromorpha the muscle is specially well developed and 
encroaches on to the head of the fibula. There is no femoral head 
except in Castor, but here it is not nearly as well developed as in 
the Dasyproctidae and does not rise as in them by a definite tendon 
(Sciurus, Pteromys, Xerus, Spermophilus, Aretomys, Castor). 

Extensor Longus Digitorum. — This muscle in all cases rises by a 
tendon from the front of the external condyle just outside the 
patellar surface on that bone. This is its only origin, except in 
Sphingurus and Dipus, where a few accessory fibres rise from the 
outer tuberosity of the tibia. The muscle passes down and becomes 
tendinous in the lower part of the leg, being bound down by two 
well-marked annular ligaments, the lower of which is attached to 
the calcaneum and forms a distinct sling. 

The tendon divides for the four outer toes, when these are pre- 
sent, being inserted into the middle and terminal phalanges. When 
there are only three toes the middle one sometimes has a double 
tendon, as in Lagostomus and Cavia cobaya. The tendons are 
united by vincula, which in Myopotamus spread out in the web 
between the toes ; they are strongly marked in Castor. 

Extensor Proprius HaUucis. — This small muscle rises from the 
middle or lower third of the front of the fibula and is inserted into 
the terminal phalanx of the hallux, when that toe is present. In 
Dipus cegyptius it is absent. In the Octodontidas it either unites 
with or sends a slip to the extensor longus digitorum tendon to the 
second toe (Aulacodus, Octodon, Myopotamus). In the Hystricidae 
it rises from the lower part of the shaft of the fibula. 

In the Chinchillidae it is absent (Chinchilla, Lagostomus). 

In the Dasyproctidae it is a large muscle and rises from the 
upper three-quarters of the fibula ; in Coelogenys it is inserted as 
in the Octodontidae ; while in Dasyprocta, in which the hallux is 
wanting, it goes entirely to the second toe, joining the long extensor 
tendon there. 

In the Caviidae it is present and runs to the second (internal) 
toe ; it is bound down to the inner side of the base of the innermost 
metatarsal by a short fibrous tunnel (Ceredon rupestris, Cavia 
cobaya, Dolichotis patagonica l ). 

Among the Sciuromorpha it rises from the middle of the fibula 
and is inserted only into the hallux in Sciurus, Spermophilus, Xerus, 
and Aretomys. In Pteromys it springs from the lower third of the 
bone and sends a small slip to the second toe. In Castor it rises 
from a strong oblique fibrous band which runs from the head of 
the fibula to the lower end of the tibia, so that the muscle has no 
bony origin ; it rises opposite the middle of the fibula, and is 
inserted into the first two toes. 

Extensor Brevis Digitorum. — This muscle rises from the upper 
and anterior part of the calcaneum, and runs to join the tendons of 

J Beddard, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 236. 



290 me. f. g. paesons on the [Mar. 20 

the extensor longus on the dorsum of the toes. It is present in 
all the Sciuromorpha and Hystrieomorpha except Dipus. In no 
case was it seen to give a tendon to the hallux, but tendons to the 
second and third toes were always met with. In Coelogenys, Arcto- 
mys, and Erethizon dorsatus l it sends a small slip to the fourth toe, 
but it does not follow that when the four outer toes are well de- 
veloped a tendon goes to each ; for in Octodon, in which all the five 
toes are present, the muscle only sends slips to the second and 
third. 

Peroneus Longus. — The peroneus longus showed very little vari- 
ation in the Rodents examined. It rises from the head and the 
upper part of the outer surface of the shaft of the fibula, also in 
many cases by a few fibres from the external lateral ligament of the 
knee. Its tendon passes through a groove on the outer side of the 
external malleolus, grooves the cuboid, and is inserted into the 
base of the first metatarsal bone, or, when that is absent, into the 
second. In one specimen of Hystrir I failed to find it, but it was 
present in another which I looked at. 

Peroneus Brevis. — The peroneus brevis rises either from the upper 
or middle portions of the outer surface of the fibula. Its exact 
origin is very variable and is not constant for animals of the same 
group. It passes behind the external malleolus and is inserted 
into the base of the fifth metatarsal bone. 

In Dipus cegyptius it is absent. 

In the Octodontida?, Hystricidae, and Chinchillidae it is present. 

In the Dasyproctidse it is absent in Dasyjwocta, but present in 
Coelogenys. 

In the Caviidse it is present in Cavia cobaya and Ceredon, but 
absent in Dolichotis 2 . In the two former it is inserted into a nodule 
of bone (rudimentary fifth metatarsal ?) under the base of the 
fourth metatarsal. In one specimen of Guinea-pig I found it 
dividing into two parts ; the anterior, which was the smaller, had 
the usual insertion, while the posterior was attached to the 
anterior and upper part of the external surface of the calcaneum. 
Beddard describes a somewhat similar arrangement in the peroneus 
quarti digiti of DolicJiotis 2 . 

The muscle is present and normal in all the Sciuromorpha. 

Peroneus Quarti Digiti. — This muscle arises from the lower part 
of the outer surface of the fibula below the origin of the peroneus 
quinti, when that muscle is present. When the p. quinti is absent 
the p. quarti rises from the upper part of the outer surface of the 
fibula. The insertion is into the extensor tendon on the dorsum 
of the fourth toe. 

In Dipus cegyptius it is present and rises from just below the 
p. longus. In the Octodontida? it rises from the lower part of 
the fibula {Octodon, Myoj)otamus, Capromys, Aidacodus). 

In the Hystricida? it is present in Ilystr'uv, but absent in Sphiiir 

1 P. Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 

2 P. Z. S. 1891, p. 236. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 291 

gurus, and presumably in Erethizon dorsatus and epixanthus, as it is 
not mentioned by Mivart l or Windle 2 . 

In the Chinchillidae it rises from the upper part of the fibula, 
the p. quinti being absent {Chinchilla, Lagostomus). 

In the Dasyproctidae it rises from the whole outer surface of the 
fibula in Dasyprocta, in which there is no p. quinti ; in Ccelogenys 
it only rises from the lower third of the bone. 

In the Caviidae it resembles the Chinchillidae in Ceredon and 
Cavia cobaya. Beddard mentions that it is present in Dolichotis. 

It is always present in the Sciuromorpha, having the usual 
attachments. 

In Sciurus, Pteromys, Xerus, and Spermophilus it rises from the 
lower quarter of the fibula and runs to the fourth digit. 

In Arctomys marmotta it sent an additional slip to the third toe. 

In Castor it was joined by a small muscular slip from the calca- 
neum, probably part of the extensor brevis digitorum. 

It will be noticed that the only animals in which this muscle 
was wanting were the Tree-Porcupines. 

Peroneus Quinti Digiti. — The p. quinti when it is present rises 
from the outer surface of the fibula above the last muscle, and is 
inserted into the extensor longus tendon on the dorsum of the 
fifth toe. It is present in the Octodontida? {Myopotamus, Capro- 
mys, Octodon, Aidacodus), in the Hystricidae {Hystrix, Sphhtgurus, 
Erethizon), in Ccelogenys, and in all the Sciuromorpha examined. 

It is absent in Dipus cegyptius, in the Chinchillidae {Chinchilla, 
Lagostomus), in the Caviidae {Cavia cobaya, Ceredon, Dolichotis), 
and in Dasyprocta. 

The presence or absence of the p. quinti seems to depend entirely 
on the degree of development of the fifth toe. It is not nearly as 
persistent a muscle as the extensor proprius hallucis, which is 
so often found when no hallux exists ; it seems indeed to precede 
the disappearance of its toe, because in Chinchilla the muscle is 
wanting, although there is a small fifth toe. 

Gastrocnemius. — The gastrocnemius rises by two heads from the 
upper and back part of the two condyles, fabellae often being 
present. The two heads unite with the soleus to form the tendo 
Achillis. The fibres of this tendon are twisted so that those that 
are derived from the inner head of the gastrocnemius become 
superficial and eventually external. In Castor canadensis the two 
heads remain separate as far as their insertion. 

The presence or absence of the fabellae does not seem to depend 
on the affinities of the animal, as they are large in Aidacodus on 
both sides, while in Myopotamus only the outer one is present. 
In Dasyprocta they are both present, in Ccelogenys both absent. 

In the Sciuromorpha, however, they were found in every case 
except that of Castor canadensis {Sciurus, Pteromys, Xerus, Sper- 
mop)hilus, Arctomys, Castor). 

Soleus. — The soleus rises in all cases from the posterior aspect 

1 P.Z. S. 1882, p. 271. 

2 Journ. Auat. vol. xxii. p. 126. 



292 me. f. g. parsons o> T the [Mar. 20, 

of the head of the fibula and in most cases joins the outer head of 
the gastrocnemius to help form the tendo Achillis. In Cceloyenys 
and Cavia cobaya, however, the muscle continued separate to its 
insertion in the tuber calcis, while in Ceredon it was inserted into 
the os calcis by a round tendon from its inner portion, while the 
outer portion blended with the tendo Achillis. 

Plantans. — The plautaris rises just above the outer head of the 
gastrocnemius ; it forms a muscular belly as large as, or larger than, 
either one of the gastrocnemius. It soon contracts into a narrow 
tendon, which winds round the inner side of the tendo Achillis, and 
passes over the back of the tuber calcis to the sole, where it 
spreads out into a broad fascia, which eventually splits into slips 
for the four outer toes or as many as are present. 

Each of these slips acts as a flexor perforatus, allowing the long 
flexor tendons to pass through, and is then inserted in the same 
way as the flexor sublimis in the fore limb. In Castor, where the 
muscle is perhaps better developed than in any other Rodent, the 
tendon divides into a superficial and a deep layer when it reaches 
the commencement of the sole. The superficial layer is fibrous 
and corresponds to the plantar fascia ; the deep layer develops 
muscular fibres and doubtless represents the flexor brevis digitorum 
of human anatomy. In many cases a loop is given off from the 
deep surface of each tendon before it is perforated; this loop 
embraces the long flexor tendon as in the anterior extremity. 

Popliteus. — The popliteus always has the usual human attach- 
ments, except that it is often inserted only into the inner border 
of the upper third of the tibia instead of into the posterior surface 
right across. 

Flexor Lowjus Hallucis (Flexor Fibularis). — The long flexors of 
Rodents have been so thoroughly described by Dobson 1 that it would 
be waste of space to do more than refer the reader to his Monograph. 
I have repeated his dissections in many animals and can confirm the 
accuracy of his descriptions. The additional animals that I have 
dissected fully bear out his point that among the Hystricoraorpha 
the flexor fibularis is joined in the sole by the flexor tibialis and is 
inserted into the terminal phalanges of all the toes. In the 
Sciuromorpha, on the other hand, the flexor fibularis goes to all 
the toes without being joined by the flexor tibialis in the sole. In 
Aulacodus and Dasy procta no fibres were continued to the inner- 
most toe from the flexor fibularis. 

Flexor Lowjus Digitorum (Flexor Tibialis). — This muscle, as 
Dobson * points out, rises from the back of the tibia and in the 
Hystricomorpha joins the flexor fibularis in the sole, its fibres 
being continued chiefly to the inner toes. In the Sciuromorpha 
it does not join the flexor fibularis, but in Sciurus, Xerus, Spermo- 
pJiilus, and Arctomys is inserted into a sesamoid bone below the 
internal cuneiform, from which some ill-marked fibrous tissue is 
continued on to the hallux. In Castor it terminated in the inner 
half of the double scaphoid. The only exception to this arrange- 
1 Journ. Anat. vol. xviii. p. 159. 



1894.] MYOLOur cur bodhhts. 293 

merit that I have seen was in Pteromys oral, in which the flexor 
tibialis divided into two slips, one of which had the usual Seiuro- 
morphine insertion below the internal cuneiform, while the other 
joined the temlon of the flexor fibularis. Possibly this was 
an individual variation foreshadowing the arrangement in the 
Hystricoinorpha. 

Tibialis Posticus. — The description of the tibialis posticus is 
included in that of the "Long Plexors of Rodents" by Dobson l . 
In Castor it is inserted into an extra bone on the inner side of the 
internal cuneiform. 

Lumbricales. — The number of the lumbricales seems to depend 
on the number of toes ; thus all the Sciuromorpha and the Hystri- 
comorpha possessing five toes, such as Myopotamus, have four 
luinbricales. Coeloyenys, although it has five toes, has only three 
lumbricales. Animals having three toes usually only possess two 
lumbricales, e. g. Dasyprocta, Cavia cobaya, and Ceredon rupestris. 
In Dolichotis Beddard only found one 2 , but in another specimen 
which I had the opportunity of looking at there were two. 

Muscles of the Foot. 

The accessorius is absent in the Dipodidse and Caviidae, but 
present in the other animals examined, including the Sciuromorpha. 
It rises from the outer surface of the calcaneum, usually from the 
anterior part, and is inserted into the plantar surface of the flexor 
tendon just before it divides for the toes. The angle which it 
forms with the flexor fibularis is a very open one, about 45°, but 
in Hystrlv it must be about 70° or 80°. 

When the foot is well developed there are two interossei to 
each metatarsal bone. When the hallux is well developed, as in 
Myopotamus, the abductor hallucis rises from the sustentaculum 
tali, or from the scaphoid, as in Octodon, but when it is not developed 
the muscle is absent. In the Sciuromorpha the abductor minimi 
digiti often rises from the calcaneum as well as from the base of 
the fifth metatarsal ; in this case the part between the calcaneum 
and the metatarsal will form an abductor ossis metatarsi quinti. 

On the plantar surface of the interossei there are frequently 
found two muscles rising from the deep cartilage of the sole which 
forms the sheath of the peroneus longus tendon ; from this they 
run forwards, diverging from one another like the limbs of a V. 
The inner of these is in some of the Sciuromorpha inserted into 
the outer sesamoid bone under the head of the metatarsal bone of 
the hallux, forming an adductor hallucis, but more often, as in 
Myopotamus, Octodon, Uystruv, and Coeloyenys, it is attached to a 
corresponding situation on the second toe forming an adductor 
secundi digiti. The adductor minimi digiti (the outer of the two 
muscles) is attached to the inner sesamoid bone of the little toe. 
These two muscles are wanting in the Dipodidae and the Caviidae, 

1 Journ. Anat. vol. xvii. p. 159. 

2 P.Z. S. 1891, p. 236. 

Pboo. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XX. 20 



294 mb. r. g. parsons on the [Mar. 20, 

except in Ceredon, iu which a small adductor secundi digiti was 
found, but no adductor miniini digiti. 

General Summary. 

The amount of facts at my disposal does not, of course, justify 
anything like an attempt at a definite and complete summary of the 
muscles of the Hystricomorpha and Sciuromorpha. The following 
generalizations are merely suggested for future investigation. 

A. Differences between the Hystricomorpha and Sciuromorpha. 

1. In the Hystricornorpha the anterior deep part of the masseter 
passes through the infraorbital foramen. In the Sciuromorpha it 
does not. 

2. Iu the Hystricomorpha, with the exception of the Dipodidse, 
the digastric has no complete division into two bellies, and the 
muscles of opposite sides do not communicate. In the Sciuro- 
morpha, as well as in the Dipodidse, a tendon completely divides 
the two bellies, and the muscles are connected across the middle 
line by a tendinous arcade. 

3. The transverse mandibular muscle is absent in the Hystrico- 
morpha, with the exception of the Dipodidas. It is present in the 
Sciuromorpha, with the exception of Castor. 

4. The genio-hyoid muscles of opposite sides coalesce posteriorly 
in the Sciuromorpha, but not in the Hystricomorpha. 

5. The oino-hyoid is present or absent in the Hystricomorpha. 
It is always present in the Sciuromorpha. 

6. The levator claviculae rises either from the atlas or the basi- 
occipital in the Hystricomorpha. Always from the atlas in the 
Sciuromorpha. 

7. The scalenus anticus is present in the Hystricomorpha, except 
in the Hystricidae. It is absent in the Sciuromorpha. 

8. The trapezius is often divided into an anterior and posterior 
part in the Hystricomorpha. Never in the Sciuromorpha. 

9. The sterno-scapular muscle is composed of the subclavius 
and the scapulo-clavicularis in the Hystricomorpha. In the Sciuro- 
morpha, as well as in the Hipodidic, only the subclavius is present. 

10. The first part of the coraco-brachialis (rotator humeri) is 
always present in the Sciuromorpha. In the Hystricomorpha it 
is present or absent. 

11. The pronator quadratus is always attached to more than a 
third of the bones of the forearm in the Hystricomorpha. In the 
Sciuromorpha it is attached to a third. 

12. The supinator longus is present in all the Sciuromorpha 
except Castor. It is absent in the Hystricomorpha except in 
Erethizon and the Dipodidse. 

13. The scansorius is always wanting in the Sciuromorpha. It 
is often distinct in the Hystricomorpha. 

14. The quadratus femoris usually has a tendinous insertion in 
the Hystricomorpha. It is fleshy in the Sciuromorpha. 



1894.] MYOLOGY OP KODENTS. 295 

15. The supracondylar slip of the semimembranosus is either 
separate or connected to the rest of the muscle in the Hystrico- 
morpha. In the Sciuroinorpha it is fused with the adductors, but 
has a distinct nerve supply. 

16. The flexor longus digitorum joins the flexor longus hallucis 
in the sole in the Hystricoinorpha. In the Sciuroinorpha the two 
muscles do not join. 

B. Chief characteristics of the different Families of the 
Hystricomo rpha . 

Dijiodidce. — The Dipodidae, as has been pointed out, agree with 
the Hystricoinorpha in the arrangement of the masseter and in 
the tendons of the foot, but differ from them and approach the 
Sciuroinorpha in the arrangement of the digastric, in the presence 
of a transverse mandibular muscle, and in the absence of the 
scapulo-clavicularis. They present in addition the following 
characteristics :— (1) The teres major is inserted posteriorly to the 
latissimus dorsi. (2j There is only the long head to the biceps 
cubiti, which is inserted chiefly into the ulna. (3) The supinator 
longus is present. (4) The trapezius is in two portions. (5) There 
is no bony insertion to the gluteus maximus. (6) The scansorius 
is distinct. (7) The supracondylar slip of the semimembranosus 
rises from the tuber ischii. (8) The extensor proprius hallucis is 
absent. (9) The peroneus brevis is absent. (10) There is no 
peroneus quinti digiti. (11) The omo-hyoid is present. 

Octodontidce. — (1) The teres major is inserted in front of the 
latissimus dorsi. (2) Both heads of the biceps cubiti are present, 
and the muscle is inserted into the radius and ulna. (3) The 
coraco-brachialis only consists of the second part. (4) The flexor 
sablimis digitorum gives no slip to the fifth finger. (5) The flexor 
profundus digitorum sends a slip to the thumb. (6) The trapezius 
is undivided. (7) The rectus abdominis decussates at its origin with 
the opposite muscle. (8) The gluteus medius does not rise from 
the ilium. (9) The scansorius is not a distiuct muscle. (10) The 
extensor proprius hallucis communicates with the extensor longus 
digitorum on the dorsum of the second toe. 

Hygtriddce. — It is difficult to point out many points which are 
characteristic of the Porcupines as a group, owing to the great dif- 
ferences between the muscles of the Ground- and Tree-Porcupines. 
Whether these differences are due to their different mode of life, 
or indicate that the animals are less nearly allied than the genera 
of other families, requires further investigation to determine. The 
following are some of the chief distinctions : — (1) The digastric 
differs in Hystrix and Sphingurus. (2) The omo-hyoid is rudi- 
mentary in Hystrix, large in the Tree-Porcupines. (3) The levator 
claviculse comes from the skull in Hystrix, from the atlas in the 
Tree-Porcupines. (4) The two parts of the sterno-scapularis 
are continuous in Hystrix, separate in Sphmgwrus. (5) The 
biceps cubiti has one head in Hystrix, two in the Tree-Porcupines. 

20* 



296 oir ctnooaIiE BBznrBTTi. Mar. 20, 

(6) The coraco-brachialis has only the second part in Hygtruc, 
in the Tree-Porcupines the second and third parts are present. 

(7) The brachial]* anticus consists of two parts in Hystrix, while 
in 8j>Mnguru8 only the external is present. (8) The extensor 
secundi internodii poUicifl is present in Hystrix, absent in the 
Tree-Porcupines. (9) The piriformis is absent in Hyetrix, 
present in Sphingurus. (10) The biceps femoris is normal in 
Hystrix, while the two parts are distinct in the Tree-Porcupines. 
(11) The peroneus quarti digiti is present in Hygtrix, absent in 
the Tree-Porcupines. 

The only two definite muscular characteristics of the Hystricidae 
as a family are : (1) The latissimus dorsi at its insertion wraps 
round the lower border of the teres major. (2) The scalenus 
anticus is absent. 

ChinchiUidce. — (1) There are two heads to the biceps cubiti, which 
is inserted into both bones of the forearm. (2) The tibialis anticus 
rises from the tendon of origin of the extensor longus digitorum, 
as well as from the tibia. (3) The extensor proprius hallucis is 
absent. (4) There is no peroneus quinti digiti. (5) The omo- 
hyoid is absent. 

DosyproctidcB. — (1) The scapulo-clavicularis is specially well 
developed. (2) The deltoid reaches down as far as the elbow. 
(3) The biceps cubiti has only the long head and is inserted into 
the ulna. (4) The first and second beads of the coraco-brachialis 
are present. (o) The trapezius is divided into an anterior and a 
posterior part. (6) A splenitis colli is present. (7) The seatwo- 
rms is distinct. (8) The supracondylar slip of the semimembra- 
nosus rises from the tuber ischii. ( 9 ) The tibialis anticus rises by 
lendons from the front o£ the external condyle of the femur, as 
well as from the front of the tibia. (10) The oino-hyoid is absent. 

CaviidcB. — (l)The biceps cubiti has one head and is inserted 
into the ulna. (2) The coraco-brachialis only has the second ptrt. 
(3) The trapezius is double. (4) There is a distinct scansorms 
(5) The pectiueus rises by a narrow tendon. (6) Tibialis anticus 
rises from tendon of origin of extensor longus digitorum as well 
as from the tibia. (7) The extensor proprius hallucis goes to the 
second toe. (8) The peroneus quinti digiti is absent. (9) The 
omo-hyoid is absent. (10) The levator claviculae rises from the 
basioccipital. 



2. Notes on Cynoya/e btnnttti, Gray. 
By Babu Ram Bramha Sanyal, C.M.Z.S. 

[Received January 20, 1894.] 

The acquisition by the Zoological Garden, Calcutta, of a spe- 
cimen of Cyaoyale bennettii, Gray, from Borneo, has enabled me 
to have a water-colour sketch made of this interesting mammal 
whilst alive, which I beg leave to forward to the Society, together 
with a few notes rp^ardinsr its external characters and habits in 



1894.] OS THE MAMMALS OF URUGUAY. 297 

captivity. On referring to the literature of the species, I find that 
the animal has been figured by S. Midler (Zool. Ind. Archip., 
Mamm. pi. xvii.) under the name Potamophilus barbatus, and by 
MM. Eydoux and Souleyet (Voyage de la Bonite, Mamm. pi. vi.). 
But a comparison of the present sketch with the figures given by 
the above-named authors will at once show that their figures could 
not have been drawn from life, and that both are practically useless 
for the purpose of identification. 

In form and size this animal resembles partly a Prionodon and 
partly a Paradosawrus. The head is elongated, muzzle broad and 
depressed, the breadth of the muzzle appearing more pronounced 
owing to the exceptional character of the upper lip, which is much 
thickened in order to support the roots of the abundant and well- 
developed whiskers. A bunch of whiskers below each ear and 
close to the outer angle of the eye ; also an intermediate set on 
each side of the nose between the eye and the lip. A tuft of 
vibrissas on the chin between the lower lip and the throat. Eyes 
large and oblique ; ears small and round ; nostrds with distinct 
lobes adapted for a subaquatic life. Tail moderate and thick. 
Prevailing colour of the coat grey, grizzled white on the back, 
rump, and outer aspects of the limbs ; a dark band on the crown 
and nape ; eyebrows white to a certain extent ; a white spot on 
each side of the head below the ears corresponding with the place 
of insertion of the whiskers in this region ; lips white. Under- 
parts blackish. Tip of the tail whitish. Toes slightly webbed, 
resembling those of Lutra leptonyx from a distance. Length of 
the head and body about 32 inches, tail about 9*5 inches. . 

Except very early in the morning I have never seen this animal 
leave its cage during the day, and though it never appears to be 
particularly savage, it always resents the approach of its keeper 
or anyone else by a sort of low subdued snarling. The presence 
of a strong Civet-like smell near its cage, especially at night, 
unmistakably indicates the possession of odoriferous glands. 
Although said to be omnivorous, it shows greater partiality for 
an animal than a vegetable diet, and relishes fish more than flesh. 
I have never observed it indulging in its aquatic habits here. 

Calcutta, January 10, 1894. 



3. Field-Notes on the Mammals of Uruguay. 
By O. V. Aplin. 

[Received March 3, 1894.] 

The following notes relate almost entirely to the Departments of 
Soriano and Bio INegro, and were made during a residence in the 
country from October 1892 to June 1893. My thanks are due to 
Mr. Oldfield Thomas for his kindness in naming such of the 
species as were unknown to me, and in giving me the correct 
modern names for some others. 



298 mr. o. v. aplin os tut\ [Mar. 20, 

I may draw attention to the fact that, so far as purely terrestrial 
animals are concerned, Uruguay is geographically separated from 
the Argentine States by effective natural boundaries — the Eio de 
la Plata on the south and the Eio Uruguay on the west. The 
latter river has apparently proved less passable than the muddy 
Eio Paran;!. 

Geoffroy's Cat (Felis geoffroyi). 

The beautiful spotted " Gato del Monte," or " Monte Cat," is 
now becoming rare in the part of Soriano where I was living. 
The skins exhibit a little variety, some having the spots larger 
and more distinct than others. It is kept down as much as 
possible on sheep-camps by trapping. 

Paja Cat (Felis passerum). 

The Paja or Grass Cat (" Gato pajero ") is also getting scarce in 
this district owing to the systematic trapping which is carried on. 
Two kittens which were brought in (dead, alas \) on the 29th 
October were spotted on the legs and lower parts, and it was 
suggested that they might be the result of a cross with the Monte 
Cat ; but as the skins of two more kittens, brought in with that of 
the old female a few clays before, were just the same, the spotted 
dress in youth is evidently natural to this species. Exactly the 
same thing happens in the case of the Puma (vide infra). 

Puma (Felis concolor) l . 

The Puma is now extinct in many parts of the country, but 
in the monte along the Uruguay river it is still found. An 
estanciero living at Cordova in Argentina tells me he has seen 
both Pumas and Jaguars coming down the big rivers on tree- 
trunks. In this way stray examples might very well turn up in a 
district long after the native breed was extinct. I heard that it 
was still found, although very rarely, in the monte of the Eio 
Negro on that part of the coast of the river which I visited in the 
Department of that name ; but all I could hear of it in South 
Soriano was a report that one had been seen on the Arroyo de 
Monzon some years ago. We had on board the ship I came home 
in two Puma cubs, the smaller of which was indistinctly spotted. 
A German friend living in the South of Patagonia tells me that 
very young ones are always so. 

Azara's Fox (Canis azarce). 

Azara's Fox, the common " Zorro," is still numerous despite 
systematic trapping, and affords moderate sport to some English- 
men ; among others to a neighbour of my host, whose pack included 
two imported foxhounds, a rarity indeed, and has achieved signal 
success. This fox is quite as bold as the English one in coming 
about the houses at night. Going out of my room one moonlight 
night I saw a fox bolt out of the patio ! One which was caught 

1 See figures of young Pumas, P. Z. S. 18G1, p. 141, pi. xxii. 



1894.] MAMMALS OF URUGUAY. 299 

as a small cub and brought up at Santa Elena became perfectly- 
tame. He was kept on chain, and upon being visited would 
jump up like a dog, and also throw himself at full length on his 
side upon the ground to have his back and sides tickled, closing 
his eyes and making a whining noise. The difficulty was to get 
away from him, and his mode of pressing his visitor to stay was 
to take hold of the latter's breeches with his little sharp teeth. 
It has sometimes been doubted whether foxes wag their tails. This 
animal certainly used to wave his tail gently from side to side 
when he was pleased. He would follow the peon who attended to 
him like a dog, and ultimately (with a companion) was brought by 
me to England. 

Aguaea (Canis sp. inc.). 

We had also another species of Dog known to the peones as 
the Aguara. This animal is said by them to live in the rocky 
cerros and in the least frequented parts of the district, and to 
put in an appearance chiefly at lambing time. They also say that 
it is " muy brava," and that a dog which has no difficulty in 
overcoming an ordinary " Zorro " always has a hard fight with, and 
is sometimes turned by, an " Aguara." I procured some skins, 
but unfortunately the only skull I got could not be brought home. 
The points in which this animal differs from the ordinary grey fox 
are these : — (i.) It has the head shorter and broader in proportion, 
(ii.) The ears are short and rounded instead of long and pointed, 
(iii.) The general colour of the body is warmer, there being a flush 
of reddish yellow in the fur. (iv.) The brush is shorter in pro- 
portion, (v.) There is a line of nearly black hairs beginning at 
the scruff of the neck and passing down the line of the backbone ; 
this hair is thickest at the scruff of the neck and above the shoulders, 
and approaches in character the mane of the Canis jubatus. The 
blackness is continued on to the brush, (vi.) The whole animal 
is stronger aud more robust, (a ii.) The appearance of the animal 
and the general aspect of the head in life are (judging from a sup- 
posed hybrid between the Aguara and Zorro) very different. This 
is caused by the ears being farther apart and slanting outwards 
more than those of the Zorro. 

One or two of these were trapped at Santa Elena about April 
and May, when the Merinos were lambing, and I saw skins of 
others. The marks of difference are not so clear in all cases, and 
it is probable that interbreeding takes place (if indeed this Aguara 
is a distinct species). 

I hope to obtain a skull, and then perhaps the identity of the 
Aguara of Uruguay may be settled. 

It agrees with Dr. Burmeister's description of Canis cancrivorus, 
Desmarest, better than with any other I have read (Desc. Phys. 
p. 143). 

One of these intermediate specimens, a half-grown example, was 
trapped and brought up to the estancia alive. Its different 
appearance, consequent upon the width of the skull and the distance 



300 mr. o. t. aplin on the [ Mar. 20, 

the ears were apart (these sloping outwards and heing less upright, 
when pricked, than in the fox), Mas very marked. It was so 
unruly and savage that I gave up all hopes of bringing it home, 
as I was leaving the camp very shortly. The first nighr it 
managed to gnaw its way out of a new hutch just completed for 
the transport of my tame Zorros, but it was captured in one of 
the buildings early in the morning, being encumbered with a strip 
of raw hide tether. 

The name Aguara has given rise to great confusion, and the 
identity of the species (probably more than one) is not yet settled. 

I am aware that the Aguara has been described by some writers 
as a large reddish beast, but here I only describe the; animal (easily 
distinguished from the Zorro) well-known as the Aguara by the 
residents in the camp where I was living. 

Admiral Kennedy (Sporting Sketches in South Amei-ica, p. 37) 
applies this name to the Maned AVolf, Cams jubatus, " a fine 
animal, with a bright ruddy coat, black mane and pads." saying 
that it was found in the Chaco (Northern Argentina). But this 
is not my animal. Mr. Hudson (' Naturalist in La Plata ') dis- 
tinguishes between the Aguara-guazu (0. jubatus) and the Aguara, 
writing that the former is the nearesl ally of the latter, but that 
the latter is smaller and has no mane ; that it is like the Dingo 
in size, but slimmer, and with a sharper nose, and has a much 
brighter red colour. This description does not agree with my 
animal, however. Dr. Burmeister identifies the Aguara-guazu of 
Azara with 0. jubatus. 

Sefior Don Luis Cincinato Bollo, in a little book published at 
Montevideo in 1891, on Mammals, containing "la descripcion de 
los animales indigenas de las Republicas Oriental y Argentina,'' 
distinguishes between the " Aguard-ehav'' (which he says lives in 
nearly the whole of South America, especially in the north of 
Argentina and in Paraguay and the Chaco) and the u Aguard-guazu'," 
intermediate between a wolf and a fox (and doubtless Cants jubatus), 
which lives in "el alto Uruguay," on the banks of the lagunas of 
Corrientes, and also in the Chaco, Paraguay, Mendoza, and San 
Juan. But he does not describe either, merely saying that the 
former commits ravages among the sugar-plantations and fowl- 
houses, and that the latter feeds on eggs and small animals. 
Neither does this Aguara-chay seem to be my animal. Burmeister 
makes the Aguara-chay of Azara a synonym of C. azarce, 

PviVER Plate Otter (Lutra platensis). 

This Otter was fairly numerous in the rivers. The Otter in 
South America is not the shy animal that we are accustomed to 
here. It is indeed reported as " muy bravo," and even as apt to 
resent an intrusion on its haunts when it has young. A friend, 
long resident in the country, and a great fisherman, told me that 
once when he had hooked and was playing a big fish, an Otter 
suddenly came at the fish before his face ; I forget whether it 
broke the line or wrenched the fish awav. but it was one or the 



1894.] MAMMALS OF URUGUAY. 301 

other. I asked my friend why he did not write to the 'Field' 
about it ; to which he replied. " Because 1 didn't v\ant to be con- 
sidered a bigger liar than common." For my part I can very 
well believe in the truth of the incident from what happened to 
me. I had shot with my little, collecting-gun, and only wounded, 
a Cormorant (Plialacrocorax brasiliensis), a bird measuring nearly 
30 inches in total length, which had been sitting on a dead branch 
in the small river along which I was walking. The wounded bird 
flapped away down the laguna, which curved rather sharply and 
was clothed slightly with sarandi bushes on the banks. I there- 
fore lost sight of the bird for a minute, and when I came in sight 
of it again I saw a great commotion going on in the water. 
Hurrying up I saw the smooth sleek head of an Otter, which had 
the Cormorant (still flapping its wings) in its mouth. As I ran 
up the Otter dived out of sight with the bird, and although I 
waited a long time I saw neither again. The whole thing happened 
rather quickly, and I was so astonished that I never thought of 
trying a shot with my pistol, if, indeed, I should have had time to 
do so. I certainly expected the Otter to drop my bird when I 
appeared on the scene, as I w r as then ignorant of the extent of 
" cheek " possessed by the South-American Otter. 

Just as they miscall the Coypii " Nutria," which means an otter, 
so in the camp they miscall the Otter " Lobo," which means 
sometimes a wolf, but on the South-American coast a seal or sea- 
lion, "Lobo de Mar" {Otaria); e. g. the Isla de los Lobos 
near Maldonado, Uruguay, where these animals (perhaps Otaria 
jubata) congregate. 

White-chested Otter (Lutra brasiliensis). 

I only once caught a glimpse of the " Lobo de pecho bianco." 
While staying at an estancia on the north bank of the Rio 
Negro, several of us one blazing morning had ridden up on to a 
little cerro (one portion of which was whitened with the bones of 
a flock of sheep cut off here by a flood a few years before) which 
commanded a view of a fine bending reach of this beautiful river. 
We looked right down upon the varied greens of the monte 
bordering the river, and just in front of us upon a rapid, the 
sound of which came to us in waves borne by the hot breeze. 
A Black Cormorant was flapping heavily up stream, and at 
the head of the rapid an Otter showed itself occasionally ; the 
glance of the sun on his white chest showed that we were looking 
at one of those Otters, the fierceness of which is always alluded to 
by anyone who knows their habits at all. One man, very fond of 
swimming, told me he should be afraid to bathe in a laguna which 
he knew to be inhabited by White-throated Otters with young. 
Aiiother friend told me how he and his companion were annoyed 
by Otters taking the fish from their set lines at night in the Rio 
Negro. 

Dr. Burmeister mentions this species being taken by chance on 
the Rio Uruguay on the Entre-Rios coast. 



302 mr. o. v. apltn on the [Mar. 20, 

Crab-eating Raccoon (Procyon canerivorus). 

Soon after I arrived in Uruguay I heard a good deal about an 
animal called the " Mano peluda," but no one seemed to know 
what it was. In December, when riding up to the Rio Negro, we 
heard the name again, and stopping for an hour or two at a 
"pulperia" a league or two south of the river, where they had 
several very tame "bichos" of various kinds, I was delighted 
to find a Mano peluda. From vague descriptions I had heard on 
the way the Mano peluda might have been a sloth, an ant-eater, or 
a monkey, but 1 found (as Mr. C. J. P. Davie, of Montevideo, had 
suspected) that it was a Raccoon. To the latter gentleman I am 
indebted for a flat skin of this species, and through his kind offices, 
just before I left the country, I was enabled to procure a living 
specimen from Floi'ida, where they are not very rare. This 
example reached England safely, and was pronounced by the 
authorities at the Society's Gardens to be identical with the 
Crab-eating Raccoon. I do not think the presence of this 
animal in Uruguay has been previously recorded. The specimen 
at the " pulperia," so wonderfully tamed by Don Luis or one 
of bis sons, amused us by eating Huntley and Palmer's biscuits, 
which it held between its paws, sitting up meanwhile on its 
haunches. It moved rather in kangaroo fashion, but was less 
upright ; the head is very pointed and foxy in appearance, 
though broader in proportion at the base and shorter. It had 
been captured in the neighbourhood, but was said to be rare. One 
or two people spoke of the desperate fights these animals engage 
in with dogs. The specimen I brought home lived chiefly on beef 
and was a great water-drinker. 

Skunk (Conepatus mapurito monzoni, subsp. nov.). 

The Skunk which I procured in Uruguay is distinct in 
coloration from the typical White-backed Skunk (C. mapurito) 
which (subject to much variation) inhabits South America gene- 
rally, and is described as being from 18 to 24 inches long, 
with a short tail of from 9 to 10 inches, and having the back 
white, sometimes marked with a median black stripe, and the fail 
white. In Mr. Hudson's ' Naturalist in La Plata ' a Skunk is 
figured menacing a dog (p. 123), with the back, as far as can be 
seen, white, and a large bushy white tail laid over the animal's 
back and reaching nearly to its head. The Uruguayan Skunk has 
the whole of the body and the tail blackish brown, varying a 
little in shade, with a narrow white line (not niore than three 
quarters of an inch wide at its thickest part and narrowing 
towards each extremity) on each side of the body, starting on the 
top of the head (where they are joined together) and reaching 
sometimes to the root of the tail, but in other cases not so far. 
I killed a good many Skunks and saw others, but they all answered 
to this description. I only once saw one with any white at all on 
the tail. This was at the end of autumn, when we killed one 



1894.J MAMMALS OF FBITGTTAY. 303 

Avhich had some of the long hairs of the tail just tipped with 
white, giving the tail a frosted appearance when seen at close 
quarters, but not noticeable at a little distance. I made inquiries, 
but could not find anyone who had seen a white-backed or tailed 
Skunk in Uruguay. A dried skin measures 22 inches from the 
nose to the root of the tail ; the tail itself is 8 inches long. 

Dr. Burmeister (' Description Physique de la Republique Argen- 
tine,' tome iii. p. 162) includes the Argentine Skunk under the 
name of Mephitis suffocans of Illiger (which is, I suppose, a 
synonym of C. mapurito). The Skunk he describes agrees with 
mine tolerably well with the exception of the white lines, which 
are said to rise on each side of the head separately. In a note he 
says expressly " les deux raies sont toujours separe'es sur le 
front." In this respect my animal agrees with Gray's description 
of the Skunk of Chile, which, however, has a white tail (M. chilensis). 
I would suggest giving the various Neotropical Skunks, which 
differ in a greater or less degree from one another, subspecific 
names. 

The variation in the Uruguayan Skunk being constant, I have 
given it a name, and have called it after the river upon which 
I had my headquarters during my residence in Uruguay. 

A skin and skulls of this subspecies are now in the British 
Museum. 

It is curious that Burmeister makes no mention of a white- 
backed, white-tailed Skunk (as figured by Mr. W. H. Hudson) 
inhabiting Argentina. 

The Skunk is very common in Soriano and Flores, and very 
tame and impudent. We were often annoyed by their coming 
about the estancia at night, probably after the fowls. In the 
still summer nights an overpowering smell of Skunk used to make 
us aware that one of these little heasts was wandering about, 
perhaps actually in the patio, and you never knew whether on going 
out you might not stumble over one or find it in your bedroom ! 

A Skunk will seldom trouble to get out of your way, and faces 
a dog rather than run from it. I only once saw one run away, and 
that was after I had peppered him at long range with a charge of 
snipe-shot. When out feeding on the camp in the evening the 
Skunk's paces are a shambling trot and a gallop. But they can go 
pretty fast when they like, e. g. the one I spoke of just now ; 
every now and then it turned and faced the dog, who was not 
very keen to attack it, simply and solely because be had just killed 
another and was suffering all the penalties. This dog (" Jim ") 
was a short-legged, heavily-built terrier — something between bull 
and fox — and the best vermin dog I ever saw. I never knew him 
turn from a Skunk, and always had great difficulty in getting him 
to leave one " stuck up " in a difficult position. I have seen him 
kill a good many, and in the course of his rather long life be must 
have killed hundreds. The strong smell did not seem to have 
affected his scenting powers, for he had a splendid nose and 
would line a lizard or anything else. When I heard him give 



304 me. o. v. aplin on the [Mar. 20, 

tongue T always knew he had " stuck up " a " bicho " of some kind, 
and he always barked until he fetched up his human companions 
(corning out into the open or mounting a big rock occasionally, 
either to look for them or to .show where lie was), but not after. 
This tribute to the good qualities of a great Skunk-slayer may 
perhaps be excused. But I believe all the dogs in the camp will 
tackle Skunks — many I know will — and there are lots of dogs 
which always seem to smell of Skunk more or less strongly. Even 
a pair of easy-going, good-natured Labrador dogs, whose only 
delight in life was to swim in the river, I have seen tackle a 
Skunk and take their dose like their betters. The discharge is 
certainly very severe — though I never saw any sign of dogs being 
blinded by it — and makes the best dogs wince, blink, and sneeze. 
They seem to like to make the Skunk discharge the first shot (for 
he can fire more than once) while they are as far off as possible ; 
and for this purpose they make feints at it and bark violently, 
while the Skunk (if out in the open) menaces them with tail erect 
and back a little arched, every now and then advancing on the dog 
with little jumps and beating the ground with its fore feet. The 
dog, having taken one or more shots, finally rushes in (old hands 
do not, as a rule, run in at once). I saw " Jim " take a Skunk out 
of an old ant-hole (the entrance to which he had to enlarge) on 
one occasion, and get shot in the operation. He then made a rush 
and jerked the Skunk suddenly out on to the cam]), where it stood 
in a menacing attitude ; but the old dog walked deliberately up, 
took the Skunk by the head, and so dragged it about, cracking its 
skull at his leisure. Dogs are undoubtedly much distressed after 
killing a Skunk, rubbing their eyes and head in mud or dust, 
frothing at the mouth, and " snuffling " a good deal ; but all the 
dogs I came across appeared to be fond of the amusement, and some 
were desperately keen on it. Late one still autumn afternoon, 
when the dogs had stuck up a Skunk among some " paja," I actually 
saw the discharge of the effluvium, like thin white spray or steam. 
When discharging, the Skunk faces the dog, and erects its tail in 
an upright position, at a right angle, or a shade less perhaps, 
with the line of the body ; but does not lay it along the back. 

As for the effect of the smell on the human nose, to be near to 
and to leeward of a Skunk when it discharges is enough to scent 
one's clothes for a few days ; and although a slight smell of Skunk in 
the open air is not unpleasant, yet of the stale smell, whether 
upon clothes or brought about a house by dogs, one gets terribly 
sick. What it is to be actually liit by a Skunk, T am glad to say 
I do not know. 

The statement (often repeated) that it is possible to pick up a 
Skunk by the tail before it has time to discharge, and that while 
being swung by the tail the animal cannot discharge, has been 
laughed at as a joke practised on the credulity of those who 
believed in it. All I can say is that it is astonishing that any- 
one with an extended acquaintance with the camp should doubt 
this fact — but it is only natural that people should laugh at it if 



1894.] S1AMMAJC.S OY UKU&UA*. 305 

they doubt it. On ray making inquiries upon the point, the man 
I was staying with at once told me that riding one day up to one 
of his puestos, he was in time to see the peon come out of the 
rancho swinging a Skunk round his head ; it made no smell and 
was dashed down on the ground and killed, inodorous. The 
Skunk had got into the house in some way. I also heard that 
the possibility of the thing was well known. Secondly, there was 
brought to me the skin of a Skunk which was " tailed " by a little 
boy as it was busily digging roots — so said the boy's father on 
my inquiring how it was caught ; and he intimated that it was not 
by any means an unusual thing. Then one of the peons at the 
estancia, finding a Skunk asleep under his catre " tailed" it out ; 
but unfortunately I did not see him do it. But at last I did see 
the operation. One of the peons found a Skunk one morning 
behind some wood piled up at the side of the big galpon — with a 
quick snatch he caught its tail and jerked it out. There he stood 
for five minutes swinging it gently round and round, there being 
no smell (beyond that which always clings about a Skunk). 
Another man then gave it a tap on the head with a stick, and the 
peon, thinking it was killed, threw it away. But no sooner was it 
on the ground than it was on its feet : up went the danger signal, 
and — well, we all had to clear out ! The beast ran off and got 
into another galpon, where the clogs killed it ; the whole place 
then smelt of Skunk, but until the beast touched the ground it 
was innocuous and inodorous. 

It seems that the " scent "-gland cannot be opened unless the 
tail is at a right angle, or something near it, with the line of 
body ; and that therefore when held by the tail the weight of the 
Skunk's body keeps the tail more or less in a line with it, and the 
Skunk is unable to discharge its vile secretion. The actions of the 
one mentioned above seem to prove this. To perform this opera- 
tion it is of course necessary to catch the Skunk asleep, or other- 
wise deeply occupied (digging roots for instance), and to run the 
risk of its waking up or turning round and seeing you. I believe 
I could have easily done it myself, as I have more than once seen 
a Skunk lying curled up asleep in the daytime. Indeed, while 
looking for a parrot I had shot among some bushes, I very nearly 
stepped upon one which was curled up on the ground ; and there 
it remained until (having picked up my bird) I put a revolver 
bullet through its body. However, I never cared to risk the loss 
of useful garments, it having been proved, I believe, that clothes 
once ivell dosed at close quarters may as well be burnt. 

The Skunk passes the daytime in sleep, when undisturbed. In 
Soriano I used to find them laid up in holes under and clefts 
in the granite boulder rocks, in deserted ant-nests, among paja 
grass or in the crown of a big hassock of this, and in one or 
two cases on the ground among bushes. In the latter case it lies 
on its side curled round. When roused in a hole by a dog it 
presents a rather diabolical appearance as it pops its little vicious 
head out. Notwithstanding demonstrations of this kind, I have 



1 
306 mil o. v. ai'lix ox the [Mar. 20, 

only once seen a Skunk use its teeth. In this case one fastened 
ou to Jim's flanks, and the old dog walked about with it hanging 
on for half a minute, looking round at it in much astonishment 
at this unusual and uuseemly behaviour — the fact being that he 
could not get hold of his enemy, which turned with him. The 
Skunk's teeth are small in proportion to its size of body : a certain 
class of theorists would probably say that they had become 
smaller from disuse, the animal having another means of defence. 

The Skunk seems to be an omnivorous feeder. Its long strong 
claws are well adapted for digging, and places where they have 
been scratching are to be seen all about the camp. They probably 
feed on small mammals, reptiles, and insects as well as roots, and 
are always credited with robbing hen-roosts. 

With regard to the distance at which you can smell a Skunk, 
I cannot give an opinion ; but you often smell them when you 
cannot see them, and just about sun-down the smell is a usual 
and familiar one about the camp ; at night, too, a strong whiff of it 
as you sit or stroll in the patio is a very common occurrence. At 
a hundred yards to leeward with the slightest breeze the smell of 
a discharge would be very pungent. The smell is said to be a 
good " remedio " for the headache ! 

The local name for the Skunk is " Zorillo" 

The Skunk being numerous, despite human persecution, it might 
be supposed to be prolific ; and from the very meagre evidence I 
obtained it seems to be so — this evidence is that on the 31st 
October a female was killed close to the house with 13 young. 

Gbisok (Gcdictis vittata). 

This savage and diabolical-looking weasel, known as the " Huron," 
coal-black except on the top of the head, back, and tail (on which 
parts the hair is grey and longer than the rest of the body), was 
not uncommon. The line of demarcation between the black of 
the face and the grey crown is cleanly cut, and gives the animal a 
curious and most spiteful appearance. JS T or do its looks belie it. 
It is about the size of a medium-sized polecat, and resembles this 
animal in disposition and habits to some extent. But one of its 
characteristic habits is that of hunting in company. I have seen 
three hunting down a nearly dry Canada, and, just before, a friend 
had seen Ave together. When staying with a neighbour in Feb- 
ruary one of his sons trapped a Huron in a box ti'ap baited with an 
Aperea. We had some considei'able difficulty in transferring him 
to a small cage, and so far from being timid, he would always come 
at your fingers with an angry barking squeal, if you put them near 
the bars of the cage. Moreover, when irritated he emitted one of 
the strongest aud most pungent animal smells I ever experienced. 
In some respects it was more disgusting than Skunk. The cage 
was fifty 3 r ards or more from the house, out of sight behind the 
kitchen buildings, and, when it was to windward, it was quite 
possible when sitting outside the house-door to tell when anyone 
went to look at the Huron. For this reason it would be difficult 



1894.] MAMMALS OF UBUGt/AY. 307 

to bring home an example captured when full-grown ; I can 
imagine the captain ordering the cage to be heaved overboard ! 
On the other hand, the same friend told me that he once caught 
some young ones, and that they became so tame that they were 
allowed to run about where they liked. 

Vesperugo montanus (Phil.) : Dobson, Cat. Bats, p. 189. 

This was the only Bat of which I brought home specimens. It 
was common about the house, flying rather low among the ombus 
gums, wattles, and other trees in the patio, but not easy to knock 
down. 

On the 3rd February, when riding across the camp and passing 
a small group of boulder rocks, I saw a Bat on the wing about 9 a.m. 
Of this day my Journal says : — " Blazing hot day, over 80° at 
8 a.m., going up to 94° in the day, and standing at 86° at 9 p.m." 

Another species is found in Uruguay with the fur of a very 
dark rich mahogany colour ; but I omitted to keep the very poor 
specimen I came across and never got another. 

Mulita (Tatusia septemcimta). 

This Armadillo is, I hear on good authority, still numerous in 
parts of the Department of Florida, but in Soriano where I was 
it was uncommon. The only live specimen I obtained escaped in 
my temporary absence ; it was exceedingly quiet and gentle in 
its manners. The " Mulita " occasionally figures on the menu at 
the hotels in Montevideo. 

Tatu (Tatusia novemcincta). 

The Tatu. is said to be found outside the monte along the Bio 
]S T egro. I saw the skull of a freshly-killed specimen hanging up 
in a paraiso tree in the patio of a house at which I stopped the 
night between the Bio JNegro and Porongos. A puestero at 
Santa Elena said that a few years ago several were caught near 
the Paso del Durazno on the Arroyo Grande ; and Mr. Davie 
wrote me word that the Tatu had occurred at Guaycuru, in the 
same pago, in his recollection. The Tatu is apparently disappearing 
gradually from the more populated camps. The Tatu is much 
larger than the Mulita, and is rather narrow in proportion to its 
length. 

Peluuo Aemadillo (Dasypus sexcinctus'). 

The Pehido, or Hairy Armadillo, said to be less particular as to 
its diet than its congeners, and not to despise carrion beef and 
mutton, was quite rare in the vicinity of Santa Elena, Soriano. 
The specimen I brought thence was caught close to the Arroyo 
Grande. It is always called Peludb in the camp, but it is not the 
Hairy Armadillo found about Buenos Ayres (Dasypus villosus, 
Desm.). In the list of animals in the Zoological Society's Gardens 
(_1SS3) the habitat of the latter is given as "La Plata," and of the 



30S mb. o. v. apeix oh the [Mar. 20, 

present animal " Brazil." The specimen I brought home is now 
in the British Museum, and has been identified by Mr. Oldtield 
Thomas. 

Scapteromys (Hesperomys) tumid us, Waterh. 

I procured one specimen of this Bat in the monte of the Arroyo 
(irande. Mr. Thomas tells me that the British Museum previously 
only possessed the type of this species, an immature and much 
faded skin, and that the one I brought home is a very old 
example. 

Habrothriv olivaceus (Waterh.). 

I procured one specimen of this dark grey short-tailed Mouse. 

House-Mouse (Mus musculus). 

There were plenty of Mice about the estancia house at Santa 
Elena, and they were often trapped. They seemed to me of a 
warmer colour than English examples, and I brought home a 
skin and another example in cafia, thinking they were distinct 
from ours; Mr. Thomas, however, tells me they are identical. 
This is a good illustration of the travels of the House-Mouse. 
These colonists would of course manage the sea-voyage easily ; 
but having evaded the vigilance of the custom-house (for who 
would pay a live-stock duty on them ?), they would have to make 
their way to the railway -station and proceed by train to San Jose. 
Thereafter a journey of about seventy miles would lay before them, 
to be accomplished in the course of from three or four to ten days 
by bullock, mule, or horse-cart. They might easily come from 
San Jose among bales of alfalfa hay ; but doubtless most of the 
journey was made in a cargo of " stores '" and inside some case 
containing food for man. 

Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys brasiliensis). 

Tuco-Tuco {Ctenomys mayellanicus). 

It is probable that there are more than these two species of 
Tuco-Tuco inhabiting the parts of Uruguay which I visited. 
About Santa Elena they lived in little colonies wherever there 
was a high-lying bit of ground of which the subsoil was light and 
sandy instead of granite rock. North of the Bio Negro, where 
the soil was more suitable, this animal was abundant, still living 
in colonies called " tuco-tuconales," over which it was necessary 
to ride slowly, the ground often giving way under your horse's 
feet. 1 have a vivid remembrance of laboriously walking over a 
big and very soft sandy tuco-tuconale one very hot day, terribly 
thirsty in consequence of being unable to obtain water at the place 
where we had eaten our breakfast, to another streamlet, and finding 
that dry ! 

I picked up a very few bones and remains about Santa Elena; 
but I never saw a live Tuco-Tuco, nor had a friend on the Bio 



1894.] MAMMALS OF URUGUAY. 309 

Negro who took some interest in such things. I have since my 
return, however, received from him the skin and skull of one. 
The measurements of this specimen are : head and body 10 inches, 
tail 3 inches. The fur is very soft and silky, and the hairs com- 
posing it on the back measure from *7 to *8 inch in length. The 
general colour of the upper parts is light hair-brown, the indi- 
vidual hairs being tipped with this colour for "2 of their length ; 
the basal part of each hair is mouse-colour. The chin and throat 
are of the same brown as the rest of the head, the latter being a 
shade darker than the back. The rest of the underparfcs are dirty 
white. The tail is clothed only sparsely with bristly hairs. The 
incisors are orange-colour, the lower ones measuring - 5 inch from 
where they emerge from the jaw-bone to their tips. It has been 
kindly identified by Mr. Oldfield Thomas as Gtenomys brasiliensis, 
while a skull which I brought from a tuco-tuconale at Santa Elena, 
Soriano, has been referred by him to Gtenomys magellanicus. 

Not only were the colonies where the latter specimen was found 
smaller than those north of the Rio Negro (this might be occa- 
sioned by the nature of the ground), but the individual burrows 
and earths were smaller. 

From the description of some writers it might be imagined that 
anyone being on a tuco-tuconale, whether by night or by day, 
would hear continually the loud double or treble note from which 
the animal takes its name. I was not so fortunate, for although 
I have very often passed over and waited quietly about on tuco- 
tuconales I have only once heard the sound, and that very slightly. 
Yet the fresh workings showed that these places were inhabited. 

Restless Cavy (Cavia aperea). 

The " Aperea,'' exactly like our fancy guinea-pigs, but of a grey 
mouse-colour, paler underneath, is numerous, frequenting pajonales, 
and, near estancia houses, strips of camp fenced in for the pro- 
tection of young plantations. Here they make runs among the 
grass, coming out chiefly about sundown to feed. They are almost 
as destructive as rabbits, and where foxes (which with the Huron 
are their chief natural enemies) have been killed down they are 
apt to increase inconveniently. The fur is long and pretty, but 
generally seems very loosely attached to the skin. The Aperea 
does not burrow in the ground, though it drives tunnels in the 
thickest pajonales ; nevertheless I have seen one, when surprised 
on a bare river-bank, go to ground in an old ant-hole, and it is 
probable that when the camp is very pelado they take refuge in 
any convenient shelter. I have known them run into a hole in 
the rocks and to find shelter about a shed erected for the benefit 
of some pure-bred stock. 

Capybara {Eydrochcerus capybara). 

The Capybara or Carpincho, as it is always called in Uruguay, 
was found in some numbers along the Arroyo de Monzon, the 
Arroyo Grande, and some other smaller rivers near where I was 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XXI. 21 



310 me. o. v. aplix ox the [Mar. 20, 

living hi Soriano, but especially so along the banks of the Sauce, 
which runs through the carnp belonging to my host at Santa Elena. 
The Carpinchos there were also very tame indeed, — from the fact 
that they were not molested. Accordingly I had exceptional 
advantages for observing this, the largest rodent in the world, in 
a state of nature. 

A favourite locality is a broad laguna in the river, furnished 
with open water, and also beds of " camelotes," — a sloping open 
grassy bank on one side, where the Carpinchos can lie in the day- 
time in the cooler weather, sleeping and basking in the sunshine ; 
on the other a low shelviug bank, clothed with " sarandi " scrub 
growing out into the black reeking mud and shallow water beyond. 
The stems of the sarandi in the festering mud have a gloomy 
appearance, sometimes brightened in spring by the large pink 
flower of a convolvulus climbing up the stems. In one or two 
places of this description I could almost always make sure of seeing 
some Carpinchos — sometimes a herd of a dozen or fifteen together, 
for they are sociable. Tou might meet with them at any part of 
the rivers where there was plenty of water, or in the monte on 
the banks, and I have " put one up " in thick dry paja fifty yards 
or more from a river. At night they are said to wander for some 
distance, to visit maize chacras and quintas. When alarmed they 
snort violently, and rush impetuously into the river with a great 
splash and noise. It is said that a frightened Carpincho making 
for the river will not turn out of its way for anything, and that if 
you are between them and the river they will knock you over. 
I can well believe it, for they give one the idea of being the most 
stupid animals in existence ; and an examination of their skulls 
shows they are literally exceedingly thick-headed. The paces of 
the Carpincho are a walk and a hurried gallop reminding one of 
that of a pig, but most likely differing little in character from that 
of a guinea-pig, which the Carpincho resembles in shape and make. 
Probably their habit of rushing impetuously into the rivers is the 
reason why some horses are so frightened at these animals ; the 
horses may have been scared when they went down to drink, or 
perhaps even charged by two or three lumbering brutes. Two 
horses which I rode were both frightened at Carpinchos, and one 
of them at the first sound of a snort became almost unmanageable 
and always tried to " clear out." 

Sometimes Carpinchos are much more tame than at others. If 
they are on the opposite side of a small river they often take no 
notice at all ; and I have watched them in the autumn sitting up 
on their haunches like dogs sunning themselves, or lying asleep on 
their bellies with their fore paws stretched out in front of them 
and their heads in some cases laid on their paws, a little on one 
side. I have also on more than one occasion walked up within 
half a dozen yards of them. Sometimes when you approach a 
little herd of them they sound their alarm and merely watch you, 
walking slowly down to the water as you get nearer. At other 
times they rush impetuously into the water at the first sign of 



1894.] MAMMALS OF URUGUAY. 311 

danger. They are said to be much wilder on the larger rivers, the 
Rio Negro for instance, probably because they are less accustomed 
to seeing any people except those who hunt them. No doubt the 
protection they were afforded in the Santa Elena camp contributed 
largely to their tameness there, but I always noticed they were 
less tame on the Arroyo Grande than on its tributary the Sauce. 

When disturbed and rising to their feet the Carpinchos get upon 
their fore legs first. The bair of the Carpincho is scanty, not much 
more plentiful than some pigs' bristles, which it greatly resembles. 
Their colour varies from dull brown to bright chestnut, and this 
irrespective of age, or size, or season either, for I have noticed all 
colours from spring to late autumn ; smaller animals are, however, 
generally of the dull brown colour and vice versa. Their skins 
tan into splendidly thick, soft leather, which is used for belts, 
slippers, saddle-covers, &c. Like other thick-skinned animals, they 
like to wallow in mud. They work out hollows in the ground in 
which they wallow ; these are known as Carpincho baths. The 
Carpincho does not go to ground, but lives on the banks of the 
rivers in such cover as it can find. It is capable of remaining 
under water and of proceeding for some distance under the surface ; 
but when a herd has been disturbed at a laguna the members 
probably "lie low" by putting just their noses above water under 
the shelter of a bed of camelotes or other water-plants. 

I should imagine, from the size or its incisor teeth, that the 
Carpincho would be capable of inflicting a most serious bite. One 
day late in autumn, as my friend's hounds were drawing the monte 
of the Arroyo Grande for a fox, we heard a tremendous " worry," 
but before the whip could get to them (and on his small active 
animal, really only a pony, he could, I believe, get anywhere) the pack 
went on. A pointer (one of a famous short-tailed breed), belonging 
to the estanciero at whose house we had met, came limping out of 
the monte with a fearful gash and incised bite in his neck, bleeding 
like a pig. It was said to be the work of a Lobo, but as I heard 
the snort of a Carpincho at the beginning of the worry I strongly 
suspect that it was the work of one of these beasts, of which there 
were a good many in that part of the river. The Carpincho, 
from its great weight and size, and thick, clumsy shape, would be a 
very awkward beast for dogs to hold, whereas they would probably 
master a Lobo if they had come to close quarters on land. 

The Carpincho's hind feet are furnished with a kind of hoof in 
three divisions, each ending in a point ; and I should be very sorry 
to get a fair kick from the hind leg of a living or dying animal. 

Upon this point I quote from Seiior Bollo, in whose book is 
depicted with photographic accuracy a group of eight Carpinchos 
in various hfe-like attitudes on the bank of a river. Senor Bollo 
writes : — " If the dogs follow it, it flies while it can ; when it 
is exhausted by the blood it has lost, it places itself among the 
camelotes (a kind of water-plant) and defends itself from its 
persecutors, giving them bites with its long incisors." 

"When thev take to the water they sometimes dive beneath the 

21* 



312 me. o. v. aplin on the [Mar. 20, 

surface at once and sometimes merely swim away ; they can when 
swimming along suddenly submerge themselves and disappear, and 
they can progress under water. I have watched them swimming 
in a laguna while I stood on the bank in full view. The upper 
half (or rather less), taking in the eyes, nose, and ears, of their 
oblong square heads is alone above water, the heads looking like 
logs of dead wood mysteriously propelled. They swim very slowly. 
When uneasy the Carpincho gives vent to its alarm-note as it 
swims along, raising its muzzle out of water for the purpose. 

To produce this extraordinary noise considerable exertion is 
evidently necessary ; the animal's sides are momentarily inflated 
(perhaps to take in air for the purpose), when the sudden jerky 
heave comes and the whole massive body of the beast is shaken. 
The sound produced is very peculiar. It is very explosive, some- 
thing between a grunt and a bark, and not unlike the sound of a 
big dog clearing its throat for a good choke, but is fuller and has 
more volume. 

The Carpincho, with its heavy-looking head, apparently nearly 
all jaws, cei'taiuly presents a curious appearance. Senor Bollo 
says that it is so ugly that it has given rise to the saying in La Plata, 
" feo como un Carpincho." 

I am inclined to think that the Carpincho takes more than a 
year to attain its full growth, as there were always a good many 
to be seen about half the size of the quite old ones, and that they 
breed before they are full-grown. 

I am unable to say at what season they have young, or whether 
they breed at any particular season. I shot a young one about two 
feet long at the end of spring (26th November), and saw two not 
more than 18 inches long on the 8th May. 

I am also puzzled to say how many young they have at a birth. 
On the 8th May I saw two females each with a young one, about 
18 inches long, at her side. I have never seen more than one 
young one with a female, but this I have often seen ; the young 
one keeps close to its mother's side and they plunge into the water 
together. I am aware that the supposition that the Carpincho 
has only one young one at a birth is contrary to what has been 
written about this animal, but I merely give my own observations 
for what they are worth. 

The Carpincho is a nuisance to the sportsman, as by plunging 
into the lagunas when he comes to close quarters they disturb 
any birds which may be there. They seem liable to scab, also to 
some fatal disease, to judge from the number one sees dead or in 
skeleton. After a long drought, with the rivers drying up and 
ceasing to flow for weeks, we had a heavy dash of rain, which put 
the rivers in flood for a day or two, stirred up the rotten mud, 
and brought down a lot of half-decayed bodies of cattle and bones ; 
when, therefore, the rivers sank again they were not very pleasant 
to the olfactory organs. About that date I saw several Carpinchos 
only just dead, with no marks of violence, except an eye cleaned 
out after death, no doubt by a Carancho or Vulture. One cannot 



1894.] MAMMALS OP URUGUAY. 313 

imagine these strong beasts being drowned, as they do not go to 
ground, but live in cover on the surface. 

When shot and dying in deep water they sink at once, but will 
float in an hour or two. 

In concluding these notes on the Carpincho I can only echo 
Seiior Bollo's regret : — " Desgraciadaruente este animal tan util 
tiende a desaparecer de las tierras pobladas, porque continuamente 
se le persigue.'"' 

Coypu (Myopotamus coypu). 

The Coypu or Nutria, to use the name by which it is always 
known in Uruguay, was not uncommon in some of the larger 
canadas or watercourses. Here it inhabits the larger permanent 
lagunas. I have heard it stated that if a laguna is inhabited by 
Nutrias it is a sign that it never dries up in a drought. But during 
the seca which prevailed during the time I was in the country, 
and may well be distinguished as the seca grande, some places 
inhabited by Nutrias did dry up, but it was probably many years 
since they had done so previously. In the steep banks of the 
lagunas the Nutrias make drives, the mouths of the tunnels being 
half in and half out of the water when it is at its normal height. 
The Nutria is not a very shy animal. Some of them inhabited a 
little caiiada by the side of which the sheep-dipping baiiadero at 
Santa Elena was situated, and adjoining the little potrero where 
the pigs were kept and all the sheep killed ; they were probably 
attracted by the head of water kept up by a small dam. The 
Nutria swims with hardly a ripple and disappears noiselessly in the 
drive at the water-line. The body is dull brown, muzzle greyish, 
and there is a little warm brown on the side of the head. It 
swims with the nose, the top of the head, and a narrow line of the 
back out of water, all on a dead level, or almost so ; the nostrils 
being very high up in the line of the skull, they are kept out of the 
water without the nose being poked up towards the sky. A half- 
grown one brought to me alive ate green maize readily, but died in 
my absence. An old male, when captured, made most extraordinary 
wailing cries of complaint. 

[The Viscacha (Lagostomus tricliodactylus), so common in the 
Argentine Bepublic, is not found in Uruguay, the great river of 
that name having apparently proved a bar to its extending its range 
into the Banda Oriental.] 

Pampas Deer (Cariacus campestris). 

In the neighbourhood of Santa Elena this species — the Grama, as 
it is called — has been exterminated, with the exception of a small 
herd, preserved in a distant part of the camp belonging to that 
estancia, in the rincon of the Arroyos de Monzon and Grande. 
The herd in 1892-93 consisted, so far as was known, of about a 
dozen does and seven bucks. On that part of the Bio Negro which 
I visited it is also rare, but in some parts of Elorida it is still 
numerous. One day at the end of January I rode up pretty close 



314 ME. O. V. APLI5" ON the [Mar. 20, 

to a buck, with a nice head, and two does, which had been feeding 
in a low green pajonale. They were then of a warm tawny, with 
large and conspicuous light-coloured stern-marks. The peculiar 
strong musky odour (rather like cat) was apparent after they had 
cleared out. 

This species has no " brow "-tine. The ordinary head of a full- 
grown buck possesses the " tray " and has the beam branched once, 
six points in all on the head. I have, however, known a case in 
which the tray branch of one antler had bifurcated and the head 
had seven points. This head was carried by one of the Santa Elena 
deer which (it is believed) died a natural death and was most 
likely very old. The head approached even more nearly than usual 
that form of the normal Rucervine type assumed by Schomburgk's 
Deer (Cervus schomburgki), omitting of course the brow-tine, 
which is not carried by the Guazus. The bifurcations of the hind 
branch of the beam in this specimen are much closer together than 
in most other examples 1 have examined (including one other from 
Santa Elena), which resemble the figure in Admiral Kennedy's 
• Sporting Sketches in South America,' p. 38. The does, at all 
events in their youth, have a few whitish spots on each side of 
the back. At a pulperia near the south bank of the Rio Xegro 
I saw a tame fawn, a lovely little creature. 

The other deer of Uruguay are the Red Deer or Ciervo (C.j>n- 
ludosus), " el Ciervo de los pantanos " of Senor Bollo, now rare, 
found in the monte of the Rio Uruguay, and, as Mr. C. J. F. Davie 
of Montevideo tells me, also about Olinar, and in the jungles of the 
Department of Balto ; and the little Swamp Deer, or Guazu-vini, 
a single-pronged-horned deer of the brocket type, now also rare 
(probably Gt rvus simplicornis, Illiger) — vide ' Description Physique," 
p. 466. Mr. T. W. Burgess told me it used to be found on the 
north bank of the Rio Xegro about the Rincon de las Palmas, and 
I believe it is also met with in the monte of the Rio Uruguay. 

Azaea's Opossum (JXdelphys azarce). 

Azara's Opossum, or the " Comadreja " as it is always called, is 
common and very fond of visiting estancias at night to rob hen- 
roosts and pick up any flesh food lying about. Dogs often give 
the alarm at night, but it is not easy to distinguish an opossum 
among the rafters or the branches of a tree. I remember one 
moonlight night coming on one suddenly as it sat on a low roof 
close to the house, but it is needless to say he was not there when 
I returned with a pistol. Another night the dogs at the same 
place stuck one up in a shed roof, which was at last discovered and 
potted by the light of a match. The Comadreja has a peculiar 
sour, sickening smell, emitted when it is irritated or frightened. 
The smell is not strong, but very pertinacious, and to some people 
it is more disgusting than that of a Skunk. 

The feet of the Comadreja are formed for climbing, and it runs 
on the ground in an awkward tip-toe fashion. Yet it lives in a 
nearly treeless country, the river monte in South Soriano being 



1894.] mammaxs or frttctay. 315 

the only natural wood (composed of low thorny trees and big- 
willows), and the Coniadreja preferring to live on the higher camp, 
where it lies up in clefts and holes among the granite boulder 
rocks ; among these a few low thorny bushes are found in some 
cases. I have never seen a Comadreja in the monte or up any 
native tree, but have no doubt they often climbed the trees at 
the estancias, which Mr. Davie tells me they are well able to do. 
Tet this animal has a very prehensile tail, naked and scaly. Having 
hauled one out of a cleft by the tail, I found that it twined the 
latter tightly round my fingers, the muscular power being con- 
siderable. They run up the boulder rocks with great agility. At 
bay, whether in rocky holt or old ants'-nest, laid up in a soft bed 
of dead grass, or " drawn " and facing a clog with arched back and 
grinning teeth, they make a snarling, grunting growl and a hiss. 
It is necessary to kill those taking up their quarters near houses, 
but they are often very difficult to kill. I have hammered one with 
a stick and thrown its heavy body against a rock time after time, 
and then, after carrying it by the tail for some distance, discovered 
that it was still alive. Much of the difficulty arises from their 
habit of shamming. Once I smoked out a female and two one- 
third grown young ones. A young one came first and was appa- 
rently laid out with a blow from my stick ; I had to run round the 
rock after the next, and when I came back (in less than half a 
minute) the first had come to life again and departed! An old buck, 
worried by a dog and finished off with a shot in the head from a 
collecting-gun and left for dead, was found an hour or so after 
partly recovered. 

A female was brought in on 30th October with ten young, naked, 
pink, and blind ; head and body 2 inches, tail 1| inch long. Inside 
the mother's pouch were 9 teats only, which calls to one's mind the 
complaint of the eleventh little pig ! 

Thick -tailed Opossum (Didelphys crassicaudata). 

The Comadreja colorada, as this species is called, is rare in the part 
of Soriano where I was living, only one having been killed there 
during my stay so far as I know. It is said by the residents to 
be excessively savage (" muy brava '"') for so small an animal. 
Eesponding to a suggestion of Mr. Davie, I inquired whether the 
female had a pouch capable of carrying her young, and one rather 
sharp and observant puestero's boy declared that it had. Although 
the adults are so savage, a lady of my acquaintance had a young 
one, taken from the body of its dead mother in the camp south 
of the Eio Negro in February, which was perfectly tame. It 
unfortunately shared the fate of so many ladies' pets and was slain 
by a large tom-cat belonging to a house at which she was staying 
on her way to the coast, a day or two before I went over there. 
The fur of this animal is very beautiful. It is of a warm, light 
chestnut, paler and yellower on the sides and lower parts. The 
upper parts have a flush on them of what can only be described as 
crimson. 



316 CAPT. H. G. C. SWAYNE Otf THE [Apr. 3, 



April 3, 1894. 

Sir W. H. Flowee, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., President, 

in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions to the 
Society's Menagerie during the month of March : — 

The registered additions to the Society's Menagerie during the 
month of March were 69 in number. Of these 47 were acquired 
by presentation, 13 by purchase, 2 were born in the Gardens, and 
7 were received on deposit. The total number of departures 
during the same period, by death and removals, was 86 : — 



Dr. Giinther exhibited specimens of Lepidosiren paradoxa, 
collected by Dr. Bohls in the backwaters of the tributaries of the 
Upper Paraguay River (swamps of the Chaco). He pointed out a 
peculiar modification of the skin of the upperside of the hind 
limbs, which is beset by tentacle-like papillae. These, when fully 
developed, are arranged in fan-like sets with from 2 to 7 branches 
each. This structure, he stated, is peculiar to the male sex, and is 
fully developed only in sexually mature specimens. 

Dr. Giinther expressed his doubts as to the validity of the 
species recently described by Professor Ehlers ' as Lepidosiren arti- 
ndata, from Dr. Bobls's specimens. 

The specimens exhibited to the meeting did not bear out the 
constancy of the characters on which Professor Ehlers relied for 
the distinction of two species of Lepidosiren. 



The following papers were read : — 

1. Further Field-Notes on the Game- Animals of Somaliland. 
By Capt. H. G. C. Swayne, R.E., C.M.Z.S. 2 

[Received February 24, 1894.] 

"Waterbuck (Cobus eUipsiprymmis). Native name " Balanl-a " 
of the Adone (Webbe Negroes), corrupted to " Balango " by the 
Somalis. 

I believe there are no Waterbuck in the whole of Somaliland, 
except on the banks of the Webbe Shabeyli. The only other 
place in Somaliland which might possibly contain "Waterbuck 
would be the Lowei Nogal, near the east coast. There are none on 
the Tug Fafan, at any of the points where I have crossed it. 
There are said to be plenty all along the "Webbe Ganana (Juba), 
the course of which lies chiefly through Gallaland. 

1 Nachrichten der k. Gesellsch. Wiss. Gottingen, 1894. No. 2 (March 10). 

2 In continuation of his paper "On the Antelopes of Northern Soroalilanrl " 
P. Z. S. 1892. p. 300. 



1894.] GAME- ANIMALS OF SOMALILAND. 317 

The first important collections of the Waterbuck were made by 
Colonel Paget and myself on two independent but simultaneous 
expeditions to the Webbe last spring. 

1 found these Antelopes very plentiful all along both banks of 
the river, from Ime down to Burka in the Aulihan tribe, which 
was as far as I followed the stream. 

They lie up in the dense forest which clothes both banks of the 
river for some 200 yards from the water's edge ; and they go out 
to feed in the open grass-flats outside the forest. 

They go in small herds up to about fifteen individuals, though 
most of the herds I saw consisted of only four or five, with one 
old buck. 

The habits of the Somali Waterbuck are similar to those of the 
same species all over Africa. They feed chiefly on grass, delight 
in a mud-bath, and take to the water readily ; a wounded buck I 
was following in thick forest tried to escape by swimming the 
Webbe, some 90 yards across, and we shot him as he galloped 
along the further bank. The Waterbucks on the Webbe vary 
much in colour, from brownish grey to nearly black. 

The white lunate marking over the tail is always present ; some 
heads have the forehead bright rufous brown, and others are 
nearly black in this part. The flesh is eaten by the Negroes, 
but not by Somalis. 

The horns obtained on the Webbe are small compared to 
Waterbuck horns in other countries ; out of some 15 heads 
collected by me at different times, none reached 25 inches. The 
females are hornless. 

Bttshbuck (Tragelaphus decula). Native name " Dol." 

The Bushbuck is common in the dense forest on the Webbe 
banks ; and it is the most wary and difficult to shoot of all the 
game-animals I have ever encountered. I never heard of its exist- 
ence till my second expedition to the Webbe last autumn. 

At Karanle I bought several skins and horns of " Dol " from the 
natives, which had been obtained by means of disguised pits, with 
a stake in the bottom of each. The Webbe pits are made by the 
Adone, and are about eight feet deep and five in diameter at the 
top. They are dug in the densest jungle in the paths frequented 
by the " Dol " when going to and returning from the water. 
Some of these paths are long tunnels 3 feet high, bored through 
the masses of vegetation for 50 yards or more. Sometimes I 
could only get to the river by creeping on all-fours through these 
tunnels ; this is exciting work when it is considered that many 
kinds of game use them. 

On my arrival at Karanle I sent skilled Negroes to repair all the 
pits within a mile or two of my camp, in the hope of getting 
a specimen. 

During a month on the Webbe banks I shot only one young 
buck with my own rifle ; but I organized three or four drives, in 
one of which my men shot a buck with their Sniders. 



318 CAPT. H. G. 0. SWAYXE ON THE [Apr. 3, 

On this occasion the buck was in company with one female, 
which broke back through the line in spite of the firing, and in 
rather a curious manner. The only way of crossing the line was to 
jump over the head of one of my men who was standing erect ; 
and this she did, striking him in the centre of the forehead with 
her hoofs and knocking him down ; and so she got away. 

The longest pair of horns were a pair which I picked up, 
measuring about 17 inches in length. Females hornless. 

The young of both sexes are of a distinct reddish brown, 
getting darker as they grow older, and the natives say the old 
bucks become nearly black. The hair is generally curiously worn 
off along the spine. 

There are four or five transverse white stripes and white spots 
up to about thirty on each side, more numerous in the young 
animals. The necks are scantily covered with short hair, and in 
the twc young bucks we killed were very slender. The flesh is very 
good eating. I am not aware that the Bushbuck exists anywhere 
in Somaliland but in the dense forest close to the banks of the 
Webbe-Shabeyli river. 

Clabke's Gazelle (Ammodorcas clarhei). Somali name " Diba- 
tag" or " Diptag." 

The Dibatag is common enough where it is found at all, but it 
is very local in its distribution. 

Since Mr. Clarke first discovered it in the distant Marehan 
country, to the south-east, and in the Dolbahanta country, a few 
have been met with and shot by sportsmen in the eastern parts of 
the Hand "Waterless Plateau. 

I have been singularly unfortunate with this Antelope, never 
having been in the country inhabited by it till I went to the 
IS ogal Yalley three years ago. At that time the "Jilal," or dry 
season, was at its height, and all game scarce and shy. I never 
got a Dibatag till last June, when on my return journey from 
Ogaden across the Waterless Plateau I made a detour of several 
days to the east on purpose to shoot one. 

I searched for Dibatag at Tur, a jungle due south of Toyo grass- 
plains, the distance bein^ some eighty miles from Berbera. 

I was lucky in getting one good buck and in picking up two 
pairs of horns. I saw a good many Dibatag, but all were wild and 
ahy. This is their extreme western limit, and th^y never by any 
chance come so far south as the Golis range. Further east, towards 
Burci, they are more plentiful and less shy. 

Dibatag are very difficult to see, their purplish-grey colour 
matching with the high "durr" grass in the glades where they 
are found. Its glossy coat, shining like that of a well-groomed 
horse, reflects the surrounding colours, making it sometimes 
almost invisible ; and at the best of times its slender body is hard 
to make out. 

I have often mistaken female Waller's Gazelles for Dibatag, and 



1894.] GAME-ANIHAXS OF SOMAMIANT). 319 

shot one of the former in mistake for the latter. The habits and 
gait are much the same, save that the Dibatag trots off with 
head held up, and the long tail held erect over the back like 
a stick, nearly meeting the head, while Waller's Gazelle trots away 
with its head down and its short tail screwed round. Like 
Waller's Gazelle, the Dibatag goes singly or in pairs, or small 
families up to half a dozen or so. 

Like Waller's Gazelle also, the Dibatag is enabled by its long- 
neck and long upper lip to reach down branches of the mimosa 
bushes from a considerable height. As I have mentioned before, 
the shape of head and way of feeding of both the Dibatag and 
Lithocranius walleri are giraffe-like, and I have seen both animals 
standing on the hind legs, fore feet planted against the trunk of a 
tree, when feeding. I think Waller's Gazelle subsists almost 
entirely on bushes, as they are constantly found in places deserted 
by Oryx and all other antelopes because there was no grass. I 
have seen Dibatag feeding both on thorn-bushes and on the 
" durr " grass. Both antelopes can live far from water. 

The country most suitable for Dibatag is jungle of the " Khansa " 
or umbrella mimosa alternating with glades of " durr " grass, 
which grows about six feet high. The females are hornless. 

The Sakaro Antelopes (see P. Z. S. 1892, p. 307). T 

There are certainly two of these small Antelopes, which are 
called by the natives " Sakaro Gussuli" or "Gussuli" and "Sakaro 
Gol-ass" or " Gvl-ass" (i.e. red-belly). 

There is also a third Sakaro recognized by the Somalis, which I 
have often shot and generally classed with the Gol-ass. It is smaller 
than the Gol-ass and has yellowish grey on the sides of the belly 
instead of red, but is in every other respect similar. The Somalis 
call it " Sakaro Gayu " or " Grwyu" and declare it to be a distinct 
variety from the Gol-ass, to be known by its smaller size and 
the yellow bell} 7 . It appears to be found wherever the Gol-ass is 
found. 

I have often noticed, in about two hundred specimens that I 
have shot for food at one time or another during eight years, that 
the skulls appear to vary much in size in adult animals, but my 
attention was called to the third native name only at the end 
of my last expedition. 

I will therefore consider, in the absence of proof, that there are 
only two kinds of this small antelope, viz. the Gussuli and the 
Gol-ass. 

The Gol-ass is the ordinary Somali " Sakdro" which I have 
mentioned in my former paper. 

I came on the " Gussuli " for the first time a day's journey 
south of Seyyid Mahommed's village in the Malingur tribe and all 
over the Her Amaden country. Its range is very similar to that 
of the Ehinoceros, and it is found in many parts of the Hand, 

1 [On these Antelopes see also Mr. Oldfield Thomas's paper, below, p. 323. — 
P. L. S.] 



320 CAPT. H. G. C. SWAYNE ON THE [Apr. 3> 

where it overlaps with the range of the Gol-ass. The female 
Gussuli appear to be much larger than the male ; and it is a 
pretty safe rule, when looking for a buck, to fire at the smaller one. 
The Gussuli have long snouts, in shape quite different from 
that of the Gol-ass, being much longer and tapering to a point. 
Thev are also somewhat larger than the Gol-ass, and are recognizable 
in the bush by their grey colour. They start up in pairs or in 
threes. Sometimes the bush is alive with them, and I have seen 
more than a dozen run off together; but they do so only when 
alarmed, and are not naturally gregarious. 

The Beiba Antelope (see P. Z. S. 1892, p. 308). 

" I first heard of the ' Beira ' near Ali-Maan, in the Gadabursi 
country, among very rugged hills, in the autumn of 1891. Then 
my brother fCapt. E. Swayne, Bengal Staff Corps) saw two for 
the first time, but failed to get a shot. 

"He described them as reddish Antelopes, rather larger than the 
Klipspringer, with small straight horns, bounding away among the 
rocks exactly as a Klipspringer does. 

" On my last trip the Somalia assured me that 1 should find 
' Beira' on the Wagar Mountain and on Xegegr, which is its eastern 
continuation, is about 40 miles S.S.E. of Berbera, and rises to 
nearly 7000 feet. They said it was nearly as large as an ordinary 
flabby-nosed Gazelle, but reddish — that it inhabited ground similar 
to the Klipspringer, but was shy and difficult to shoot. This no 
doubt accounts for no European having shot one, though my 
brother heard of them so far back as 1891. 

" I tried vainly to get ' Beira,' having no time to go again to 
Wagar myself. On leaving the coast last November, I sent men 
in to look for 'Beira,' offering a reward of 20 rs. for a good head 
and skin of a male and female, and gave full instructions to my 
agents in Berbera and Aden to pay the reward and to send me the 
specimens. I received the two skins and pair of horns direct 
from Aden, without explanation, but have no doubt whatever they 
are the specimens of ' Beira ' which I sought. They have 
evidently been killed by natives, and that accounts for the imper- 
fect condition of the specimens. To my brother is due the credit 
of the discovery.'' ' 

Grevy's Zebra (JSquus grevyx). Somali name "Fet^o? 

Grevy's Zebra was, 1 think, first shot in Somalilaud by Colonel 
Paget and myself on our simultaneous expeditions last spring. 

1 found them first at Durhi, in Central Ogaden, between the 
Tug Fafan and the Webbe, about 300 miles inland from Berbera. 
I shot seven specimens, all of which were eaten by myself and my 

1 [Since this paper was read the " Beira " has been described by Herr 
Menges (Zool. Anz. xvii. (1894) p. 180) as a new species, and called Oreotragus 
megatott8.—P. L. 8.] 



1894.] GAME-ANIMALS OF SOMALILAND. 321 

thirty followers ; in fact for many days we had no other food ; 
and this was no hardship whatever, as the meat is better than that 
of many of the antelopes. The flesh is highly prized by the Ber 
Amaden and Malingur tribes. 

The Zebra was very common in the territory of these two tribes. 
The country there is covered with scattered bush over its entire 
surface, and is stony and much broken up by ravines ; the general 
elevation is about 2500 feet above sea-level. 

The Zebras, of which I saw probably not more than 200 in all, 
were met with in small droves of about half a dozen, on low 
plateaux covered with scattered thorn bush and glades of " durr " 
grass, the soil being powdery and red in colour with an occasional 
outcrop of rocks. In this sort of country they are very easy to 
stalk, and I should never have fired at them for sport alone. I 
saw T none in the open flats of the Webbe valley, and they never 
come near so far north as the open grass-plains of the Haud, 
Durhi south of the Fafan being their northern limit. 

The young Zebras have longer hair and the stripes are rather 
light brown, turning to a deep chocolate, which is nearly black in 
adult animals. 

After firing at one of a drove of Zebras I was sorry to find on 
going up to it that it was a female, and that its foal was standing 
by the body, refusing to run away though the rest had all gone. 
We crept up to within ten yards of it, and made an unsuccessful 
attempt to noose it with a rope weighted by bullets, but it made 
off after the first try. We must have been quite five minutes 
standing within ten yards in the thick bush while we were pre- 
paring the noose. 

Zebras are very inquisitive ; when I was encamped for some 
days at Eil-Fiid, in the Eer Amaden country, the Zebras used to 
come at night and bray and stamp round our camp, and were 
answered by my Abyssinian mide. The sounds of the two 
animals are very similar. 

Black Ehinoceros (Rhinoceros bicornis). Native name 
" WiyiV 

For many years the Two-horned Ehinoceros has been known 
to exist in the interior of Somaliland, and going further in 
every year I have constantly been expecting to come upon their 
ground. 

The first Somali Ehinoceroses were shot by my brother and 
myself in our expedition to the Abyssinian Border in August 
1892, and since then only a few have been shot by Europeans. 

They come far north of the range of the Zebras, sometimes 
wandering as far as the open grass-plains of Toyo, a hundred miles 
south of Berbera, where they hide in the patches of " durr " grass. 
They are common in the south-eastern Haud ; I never found any 
signs of them in many expeditions in the Habr Awat, Esa, and 
Gadabursi countries. They are most common in the vallev of the 
Tug Fafan, and thence in the whole of the country as far as the 



322 ON THE GAME-ANIMALS OE SOMALILAND. [Apr. 3, 

Webbe, and they are plentiful beyond in Galla-land. They are 
said to exist to the south-east of Berbera, but I never saw any 
traces of them. 

We found the Ehinoceros the most stupid game-animal we have 
encountered, and easily approached if the wind is right. They 
were not more prone to charge than Elephants, and I only had 
one narrow escape. I have never seen more than three together. 

The ground they like best is very stony broken hills with some 
river-bed not too many miles distant, where they can go at night 
to drink and bathe. They travel considerable distances to the river 
and wander all night up and down the channel looking for a 
convenient pool, and making a maze of tracks in the soft sand. 

The Abbasgul, Malingur, and Eer Amaden tribes eat their flesh 
when hungry, and I found it very good and lived for a week on it. 

"We could usually cut from 15 to 30 shields from each Ehinoceros, 
| inch thick and 15 inches in diameter, worth about a dollar apiece 
at the coast. 

Everywhere in Central Ogaden the caravan-tracks are furrowed 
in grooves a yard or more long and six inches deep, which look 
like the work of a plough. This is done by the Ehinoceros plunging 
his front horn and hard thick lip into the ground as he walks 
along. 

A good pair of bull's horns measure 19 inches for the front and 
5 inches for the back one. 

Miscellaneous Notes. 

Besides the animals mentioned in this and my previous paper, 
the game-animals seen by me in Somaliland include Lions, 
Elephants, Leopards, Wart-Hogs, and Ostriches. 

The Spotted Hyaena is very common, and the Striped Hyaena 
rather rare. There is a wild dog, called " Yey," which I have 
never seen or shot. 

Crocodiles swarm in the Webbe-Shabeyli river. I had a horse 
dragged into the river and killed by one. There are a few schools 
of Hippopotami, one of which had its usual abode near Sen- 
Morettu, but I failed to find it, only coming upon the fresh 
tracks. 

There are Giraffes in the Aulihan country, three days from Burka, 
but I gave them up for the chance of going to the Arussi 
Gallas. 

While on the Webbe 1 heard that four Buffaloes, all bulls, 
had strayed from the Gerire Galla country, through eighty miles 
of bush, and had taken up their abode in the forest on the Webbe 
banks at Sen-Morettu, four years before my visit to that spot. My 
informant, a Gilimiss Somali, told me his father had killed two 
of them, two years before, with poisoned arrows, and that two 
remained. 

I found their fresh tracks, the first I had ever seen, and tried 
very hard for two days to get a sight of them. We put them up 



1894.] ON THE DWARF ANTELOPES OP THE GENUS MADOQUA. 323 

eight times at a few yards distance in the fearfully dense forest, 
without once seeing them, and organizing a drive next day they 
broke through the line of beaters and got away, making for the 
distant Gralla Hills. These are the only Buffaloes I ever heard of 
in Somaliland. 

They are said by the Gallas to be plentiful on the Webbe Web, 
a tributary of the Juba, three days distant from Karanle. 



2. On the Dwarf Antelopes of the Genus Madoqua. 
By Oldfield Thomas, F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived March 17, 1894.] 

The genus Madoqua (by which name, as Mr. Sclater has pointed 
out, Neotragus of most authors should be known *) consists up to 
the present of three species — M. saltiana, Blainv., from Abyssinia, 
M. kirki, GKinth., from S. Somali and E. Africa, and M. dama- 
rensis, Griinth. 2 , from Damaraland. During the recent opening up 
of the fauua of Somaliland, the North-Somali specimens, without 
any very detailed comparison, have been referred to M. saltiana, 
and the Central-Somali ones to M. kirki, these being indeed their 
nearest allies in each case ; but now, on a careful examination of 
the whole genus, which has been helped by the further material 
recently collected by Capt. H. Gr. C. Swayne, and presented to the 
Museum by Mr. Sclater, I have come to the conclusion not only 
that these two are each different from the species to which they 
have been respectively referred, but also that there is a third Somali 
species, different again from the other two. I have therefore now 
to describe all three species as new. 

It happens most unfortunately that a good deal of the material 
before me has been collected by sportsmen who have not been 
trained as professional collectors, and who, in crossing the ranges 
of the three Somali species, have killed and brought home a number 
of skins and skulls, but the exact reference of these each to the 
other is not always quite certain. By care in the selection of type 
specimens, however, risk of error from this cause is minimized, much 
as it has added to my difficulties in working out the genus. 

The genus is readily divisible into two very distinct groups, of 
which M. saltiana and M. JcirH are respectively typical ; the 

1 Madoqua, Ogilb. P. Z. S. 1836, p. 137. Type M. saltiana, Blainv. 
Neotragus, Gray et auct. plurim. (nee H. Sm. in Griff. An. King. iv. p. 269. 

Type ^ r . pygmceus, L.). 

The genus which has hitherto borne the name of Nanotragtis, Sand. (1846), 
must therefore now be known by that of Neotragus. 

2 Mr. True, in his paper on the Mammals of Kilima-njaro (P. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. 
xv. p. 477, 1892), has suggested that M. kirki and M. damarensis are the same, 
and uses for them the latter of these two names, unaccountably as it appears 
to me, kirki having been the first described. In my opinion, however, 
M. dainarensis is really distinct from M. kirkii, being considerably larger thau 
the latter, as may be seen by the synopsis and measurements given below. 



324 



MB. O. THOMAS ON THE DWARF 



[Apr. 3, 



characters that divide them are practically those brought out by 
Dr. GHinther in his description of the latter l , at least so far as the 
skulls and teeth are concerned. 

Fig. 1. 




Skull of Madoqua guentheri, side view. Reduced. 



The first species to be described belongs to the Tcirki section, and 
of this, which I propose to name in honour of Dr. Griinther, who 
first described the remarkable cranial peculiarities of the members 
of the section, the Museum possesses the following material : — 

a. Immature skull, J • Central Somaliland. E. Lort Phillips. 

B.M. 36.11.19.2 2 . 

b. Adult skull, $. Central Ogaden, 3000 feet, Aug. 1893. 

Capt. H. G-. C. Swayne. 94.2.21.18. Type. 

c. d. 2 ad. skins, $ . Central Ogaden, 3000 feet. Aug. 1893. 

Capt. H. G. C. Swayne. 94.2.21.16,17. 

Taking as the type the skull b, which in all probability belongs 
to one or other of the skins c, d, the species may be briefly 
diagnosed as : — 

Madoqua gttenthebi, sp. n. 

Essential characters of M. JcirJci, but the lower, premaxillary 
part of muzzle much longer and narrower, while the nasals are 
much shorter. Tip of nasals, and also the front edge of the upper 
part of the secondary process of the inaxillae, where it meets the 
nasals, level with the front edge of p^4 instead of P-J2. Pre- 
maxillae not reaching to nasals. Breadth of muzzle halfway 
between gnathion and pJ2 less than a quarter the distance 

1 P. Z. S. 1880, p. 17. 

2 The skull mentioned by Sclater, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 504. The skin referred 
to at the same time, as is clearly shown by its size and other characters, did 
not really belong, as was supposed, to this skull, but to another, younger one 
(86.11.19.3), and is referable to the species described below as M.phillipsi. 



1894,] 



ANTELOPES OE THE GENUS MADOQT7A. 



325 



between these two last-named points, while in M. JcirJci this breadth 
is about one-third. Teeth rather smaller than in M. JcirJci. M. 3 
with the additional third lobe found in M. JcirJci and damarensis, 
but it is decidedly smaller than in either of these species. 

For dimensions of the typical skull see table, p. 326. 

Externally, the species, as judged by the skins c and d, is 
coloured almost precisely as in M. JcirJci, and the only obvious dif- 
ference is that the snout is far more elongated and proboscis-like, 
and fully justifies the remarks on its extraordinary length often 
made by Somali sportsmen, remarks which, taking them as applied 
to M. JcirJci, have always appeared to be somewhat exaggerated. 

The function of the proboscis is as yet quite unknown, but one 
might put forward as a suggestion the possibility of its being of 
service in searching for bulbs under the surface of the soil. 

The second species, which I propose to name in honour of 
Mr. E. Lort Phillips, who was the first to obtain it and to whom 
the Museum is indebted for so much interesting Somali material, 
belongs to the M. saltiana group, distinguished by the absence of 
the third lobe on M. 3 and by its less specialized muzzle. 

Eig. 2. 




Skull of Madoqua guenthcri, top view. Keduced. 

Of this, which has hitherto been put down as M. saltiana, there 
are before me the following specimens : — 

a, b. Adult rf & 5 , in spirit. Dobwain, in the Maritime Hills, 
Paoc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XXII. 22 



326 



MB. O. THOMAS ON THE DWARF 



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1894.] 



ANTELOPES OP THE GENUS MADOQUA. 



327 



40 miles S. of Berbera, Jan. 1888. E. Lort Phillips. 
88.6.20.7,8. a the type. 

c. Imm. skin \ S • " Central Somali." E. Lort Phillips. 

86.11.19.2. 

d. Young skull (probably belonging to c). E. Lort Phillips. 

86.11.19.3. 
e-i. 2 skins and 3 skulls. Berbera. Capt. H. Gr. C. Swayne. 
93.12.1.8,9 ; 94.2.21.12,13, & 19. 

As compared with Abyssinian examples of M. sccltiana, the 
following are the characteristics of 

Madoqtja phillipsi, sp. n. 

Size decidedly smaller than in M. saltiana (see skull-measure- 
uients below). Back finely grizzled ashy grey ; sides, shoulders, 

Pig. 3. 




Skull of Madoqiia phillipsi. Eeduced. 



and limbs bright rufous (" cinnamon," Eidgway), as compared with 
the faint rufous of the shoulders and limbs of M. saltiana. Head- 
colours and markings apparently as usual. 



1 The skin mentioned by Sclater, I. c. 



22* 



328 ON THE DWABF ANTELOPES OF THE GENUS MADOQUA. [Apr. 3, 

Dimensions of the type, an adult male in spirit i — Head and 
body 470 mm., hind foot to base of hoof 159, ear from notch 59. 
For skull-nipasurements see table, p. 320. 

Bab. Northern half of Somaliland. 

This, the ordinary " Dik-Dik " of Northern Somaliland, seems 
to be very common throughout its range. Capt. Swayne tells me 
that during every day's march they are constantly being put up 
and shot, exactly like the common European hare, the habits of 
which they closely imitate. 

Although undoubtedly very closely allied to the Abyssinian 
species, its differences, both in size and colour, appear to be so 
marked and so constant that I no longer feel justified in assigning 
it to that form. The name of M. saltiana should therefore be 
entirely struck out of the list of the Somali fauna. 

Lastly we have to deal with a species which, found, like 
M. phillipsi, near Berbera, is there well-known as distinct both to 
sportsmen and natives, and has a different local name. I propose 
to name it after the enthusiastic naturalist and sportsman who first 
drew my attention to its distinctness, and whose notes on it have 
been already published in the ' Proceedings.' 

Madoqua swatnei, sp. n. 

Colour approximately as in M. saltiana ; size less than in M. 
phillipsi, and therefore far less than in M. saltiana. Colour of 
back grey with a strong fulvous suffusion (" isabella " of Ridg wax- 
seems the nearest, but is not yellowish enough). Limbs rufous, 
and sides faintly so, but very different from the strong well-defined 
rufous of M. phillipsi. 

Of this species the Museum has three skins, brought home by 
Capt. Swayne from Berbera, and of these No. 94.2.21.15 is 
selected as the type. 

The measurements are as follows : — Head and body (c.) 500 mm., 
hind foot without hoofs 149, length of hoof 22. 

Besides the skins, one skull of Capt. Swayne' s (94.2.21.20) and 
another one (85.11.16.3), collected at Gerbatir, N. Somali, by Herr 
Menges, are referred provisionally to this species, and the measure- 
ments of the former given in the table on p. 326. 

Capt. Swayne tells me that the native name of M. swaynei is 
" Guyu," of M. phillipsi " Gol-ass,'' and of M. guentheri " Gussuli." 

The following rough synopsis of the species of Madoqua will 
help to summarize the results arrived at : — 

A. Last lower molar without a third lobe ; upper line of pretuaxillae slanting, 
scarcely curved. Proboscis less developed. 
a. Back yellowish or fulvous grey, sides scarcely more rufous. 
a 1 . Size larger, basal length of skull 95 inm . Abyssinia. 

1. M. saltiana, Ulainv. 
b 2 . Size smaller, basal length of skull about 78 mm. N. Somali. 

2. M. swaynei, Thos. 




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o 
z 

X 
3 



1894.] ON THE WHITE RHINOCEROS IN MASHONALAND. 329 

b. Back grey, sides and shoulders rich rufous or cinnamon ; size intermediate 

between last two (skull 84 mm.). "N. Somali. 

3. M. phillifsi, Thos. 

B. Last lower molar with a third lobe ; upper line of premaxilhe S-shaped. 
Proboscis more developed. 

c. Tip of nasals about level with front edge of anterior premolar, about 

33 mm. from end of premaxillse (gnathion). 
c 1 . Back of orbit to gnathion about 86 mm. Damaraland. 

4. M. damarensis, Giinth. 
d 2 . Back of orbit to gnathion about 76 mm. S. Somali to Kilima-njaro. 

5. M. kirki, Giinth. 

d. Tip of nasals about level with back of middle premolar and about 42 mm. 

from gnathion. 
e 2 . Plateau of Central Somaliland. 6. M. guentheri, Thos. 

P.S. (April 13^, 1894).— Since this paper was read Dr. E. 

Donaldson Smith has presented the British Museum with further 
examples of the two Northern Somali species — M. phillipsi (from 
Milmil, 1894) and M. swaynei (also from Milmil). 

3. On the Occurrence of the White or Burchell's Rhinoceros 

in Mashonaland. By B-. T. Coryndon. 

[Received March 30, 1894.] 

(Plate XVIII. 1 ) 

This subject cannot but have a melancholy interest, not only to 
zoologists, but to sportsmen and naturalists all the world over, for it 
is more than probable that before the close of this century the 
White Rhinoceros, the largest of all the mammals after the Elephant, 
will be extinct, and this, too, with but very few preserved specimens 
in existence to give the natural-history student of the future an 
idea of its enormous size and peculiar structure. 

In the early hunting days in Matabililand, and in the high well- 
watered country which has since come to be known as Mashonaland, 
Rhinoceroses of both kinds were comparatively common : the White 
(Rhinoceros simus) was found usually in the open grass-country, 
the Black (R. bicomis) usually in the rugged hill-country. It is 
now generally recognized that there are in Africa only two varieties 

1 [The figure (Plate XVIII.) is taken from one of the male specimens shot by 
Mr. Coryndon, which has been excellently mounted for the Tring Museum by 
Mr. Rowland Ward, F.Z.S., of Piccadilly. It is described (' Land and Water,' 
April 14, 1894, p. 571) as follows :— 

"The specimen stands 6 feet \\ in. at the withers; length between uprights 
12 feet 1 in. ; length from lip, along bases of horns, up between ears, and fol- 
lowing curves of back to root of tail, 13 feet ; to tip of tail 15 feet 8.| in ; girth 
behind shoulders 10 feet 3.| in. ; girth round fore-arm 3 feet 4^ in. The de- 
velopment of the muscle of the fore-arm attracts attention at once. The width 
of the lip between the greatest depth of* the nostrils is just under 12 inches. 
The anterior horn measures 2 feet 3 in. round the base, and is 1 foot 10£ in. 
from base to 'tip.' " 

Mr. Rothschild asks me to add the following remarks : — " In years gone by, 
when this species was common throughout the Cape Colony, those found 
in the south-west are said to have been much paler and whiter in colour than 
those in the north-east, and may have justified to a certain extent the name of 
White Rhinoceros."— P. L. B.] 



330 MR. R. T. CORrSTDOy ON T THE [A-P r - 3, 

of the Ehinoceros, the black and the white ; the old Dutch elephant- 
hunters always believed in several, and advanced as their reasons 
the different lengths of the anterior hom, and made their decisions 
by this standard alone. Both Bhinoceroses are easy to shoot, and 
it is small wonder that when a long train of carriers has to be fed, 
or when natives are hunting for a supply of meat to carry back to 
their kraals, rhinoceroses were shot in preference to buck, wary 
and difficult to stalk as they are and as a rule more tenacious of 
life. Furthermore, it is natural that a White Ehinoceros should be 
shot in preference to a Black, for they generally carry a good deal 
more fat, are very much larger, and as a rule have larger and more 
valuable horns. 

As time went on both white and native hunters carried on their 
work until, a few years ago, naturalists and sportsmen woke up to 
the fact that there were very few of the White Ehinoceros left in 
the country. This happened at an unfortunate time, for just then 
Mr. F. C. Selous, w 7 hom I consider the only scientific hunter between 
the Crocodile and the Zambesi Eivers, was engaged by the Chartered 
Company to guide the Pioneer Expedition up to Mashonaland, 
and was in consequence unable to afford the time necessary for a 
trip to the country where they were supposed still to exist. Need- 
less to say, all this time the natives were shooting in the ordinary 
course and naturally did not understand the view taken in England : 
had they fully appreciated it, however, I do not suppose it would 
have made any material difference to them. 

Thus it was that, thanks to their greater size and to the fact 
that they carried more fat and finer horns than the Black, the 
Square-mouthed Ehinoceros has gradually disappeared, and was. 
until we shot those obtained in 1892, considered by zoologists to 
be very nearly, if not quite, extinct. 

How these names — the Black and White — originated, I do not 
know, and I have heard of no satisfactory theory. 

No serious assertion has, I believe, ever been put forward 
that the Square-mouthed Ehinoceros occurs north of the Zambesi; 
certainly no horns in any way resembling the massive growths of 
R. sirnus have been brought from there. Count Teleki claims to have 
shot a White Ehinoceros in N.E. Africa, not far, I think, from 
Kenia. It is interesting to see that he bases his claim upon the fact 
that this rhinoceros was of a distinctly lighter colour than the 
ordinary varieties ; but, as a matter of fact, there is no difference be- 
tween the colours of the two African species. If anything, I fancy 
the so-called White Ehinoceros is the darker-coloured animal of the 
two. 

I have lately heard of two events which are certainly interesting, 
but which, I think, bear no real significance. About 12 years ago 
Colonel Coke made a short shooting-expedition into Somaliland ; 
he started, I believe, from Witu, and while hunting some distance 
inland he purchased from a caravan several rhinoceros horns. One 
of these horns, Dr. Giinther tells me, it is more than probable is a 
White Ehinoceros horn. Should this surmise prove to be correct, 



1S94.] WHITE BHLtfOCEBOS TS MASHONALAKD. 331 

it is difficult to conjecture how this solitary horn got into Central 
Africa. The second instance is this : I hear that information from 
Lisbon has been received in London to the effect that the White 
Rhinoceros has been seen upon the borders of Angola, on the West 
Coast of Africa. Xow it is possible, I suppose, that continued 
persecution may have driven this animal from the north-eastern part 
of Mashonaland to the upper grounds — still absolutely undisturbed 
— of the Zambesi ; though it is extremely improbable that it would 
go so far as Angola. Besides, the White Rhinoceros is so entirely 
connected with the country south of the Zambesi that it is more 
than possible that the traveller who brought this information may 
have been mistaken. 

The main points of difference between the two African Rhino- 
ceroses are the shape of the mouth and the manner of feeding. 
R. bicomis has a prehensile upper lip and a much smaller head 
altogether than R. simus ; he feeds entirely upon leaves and twigs 
and prefers a rough, bushy, inhospitable country ; he is wary and 
shy, quick to anger and exceedingly obstinate, inquisitive, and 
suspicious. R. simus has a disproportionately large head with a 
great jaw which is cut off quite square in front, and the great 
rubber-like lips are suited for the grass upon which he feeds 
entirely, though in the autumn and winter, when vast stretches 
of country have been burnt away, it is a puzzle how he manages 
to get enough nutriment to sustain his great bulk. He carries 
his head very low, and has long ears slightly tipped with curly 
black hah" ; he is not so inquisitive or suspicious as his black 
brother, and is slightly more sluggish in his movements, though 
upon occasion he can cover the ground with unexpected speed. 
Another curious fact is that the calf of R. simus always runs in 
front of the cow T , while the calf of R. bicomis invariably follows 
its mother : this habit never varies. 

Rhinoceroses drink every day — or rather every night, and as a 
rule do not go down to the water till after midnight. When the 
sun gets very warm they generally enjoy a siesta, sometimes in the 
bush and sometimes out in the glaring, quivering heat ; and though 
they will occasionally lie in thick bush they do not make a point of 
choosing the deepest shade. When fairly asleep they do not 
waken easily, and they may then be readily shot or photographed. 

I am convinced, along with Mr. Selous, that the temper of the 
rhinoceros has been put down very generally as much worse than it 
really is. One strong proof of this is that a native hunter will 
seldom lose the opportunity of a shot at a rhinoceros, whereas 
he will very rarely take advantage of any chance he may get at a 
lion, elephant, or buffalo. When rudely awakened from a comfort- 
able doze by such a sudden shock as a 10-bore bullet most probably 
produces, it is not surprising that a rhinoceros should feel annoyed 
or that he should express such annoyance by a charge ; but I can- 
not believe that the majority of the "vicious attacks" sustained — 
by their own account — by hunters were intended as such by the 
somewhat slow-witted animal. 



332 MR. R. T. CORYXDOX OX THE [Apr. 8 , 

I will now describe a curious habit of R. simus ; it is in the 
manner of dropping its dung. R. bicomis, after doing this, pro- 
ceeds to stamp upon the dung and to tear and dig up the ground in 
the immediate vicinity, so that there is absolutely no chance of any 
one missing the place where a R. bicomis has spent the day. 
R. simus, how ever, leaves his dung alone and does not trample 
and scatter it about ; moreover, he is conservative in these matters ; 
he always drops his dung in one place until he has raised a huge 
heap, then he starts the same operation in another place, and so on. 

For this reason it is impossible to confound the species when 
following spoor, in addition lo which the footprints of R. simus are 
much larger than those of R. bicomis, and one observes also the 
marks that each leaves upon the twigs or the grass they feed upon. 

I think the longest horn of R. simus known measures 56| inches, 
and I believe specimens of the horns of R. bicomis are in existence 
which measure 40 inches. It goes, of course, without saying that 
all the long-horned examples of R. simus have been shot out of the 
country years ago. Should, in the future, another specimen be shot 
and preserved, I fancy the hunter will not cavil at the length — or 
rather the shortness — of the horn it may carry. 

Until 1892, the last White Ehinoceros shot was, I believe, in 
1886. John Engelbrecht and another Dutchman then killed ten of 
them, and five more were shot in the same season by native hunters 
from Matabililand. 

It is a curious fact that under the skin of the two animals which 
I shot I found six native bullets, which the Rhinoceroses must have 
carried about with them for years ; two of these bullets were of 
hammered iron and four were of lead. This remarkable fact is 
decidedly in favour of my argument that it is impossible to preserve 
the very few remaining specimens, as the natives of course do not 
look at the matter from the same point of view as savants at home ; 
they want meat, and when they shoot or trap an animal, which is 
luckily seldom, they do not preserve the skin. 

If the Rhinoceroses are not shot by white men they will most 
assuredly be shot by natives. In the former case the skeletons and 
hides will be set up for the public benefit in our museums ; in the 
latter — well, a few jackals and vultures, and some small kraal hidden 
away in the bush in the almost unexplored flats in Africa, will alone 
benefit — and at a cost which I fancy Europeans do not as yet suf- 
ficiently appreciate. As time goes on zoologists will the more regret 
that the largest of land mammals after the Elephaut has become 
extinct — and this, too, although almost unrepresented in all the 
splendid museums in Europe and America. 

1 will now give a short account of the specimens of the White 
Rhinoceros that I have lately shot. 

About the middle of 1892 I was on the Zambesi, and after 
spending some time with the Portuguese, I proceeded to return to 
Salisbury in Mashonaland. On the way we found three White 
Rhinoceroses and shot the calf; the two old ones, though badly 
wounded, managed to escape. Next morniug my companion, 



1894.] WHITE RHINOCEEOS IN MASHON ALAND. 333 

Mr. Arthur Eyre, succeeded in shooting an old cow ; she had a small 
calf with her, and we captured it with the intention of bringing it 
to England. In spite of our greatest care, however, it died on the 
ninth day. I wrote an account of this to the ' Eield,' and received 
subsequently a commission from a great English collector to shoot a 
specimen for him. In the first few days of June 1893 I started alone 
from Salisbury and, by the greatest of good luck, found some spoor 
in North-east Mashonaland before the end of July. I then formed 
a permanent camp, and began to work up and trace the spoor. Eor 
five days from sunrise till dark I patrolled and quartered every yard 
of country for a good number of miles, and on the sixth day I 
saw — though so far off that they appeared like dark specks — two 
of the huge brutes I was searching for. The first thing to do of 
course was to get below the wind, as when they were first sighted 
the wind blew directly from me to them. In an hour's time I was 
crawling towards them through the fringe of bush that lay about 
150 to 170 yards below the open position they had chosen for 
their midday siesta. I thought they might give me some trouble, 
so I took my coloured boy with me — he could shoot rather 
well and carried a single 12-bore rifle. As I crawled on my 
stomach towards them with the greatest possible care, I saw one 
of them had become suspicious and had got on to his feet, evidently 
much disturbed. When this happened I flattened myself low r er if 
possible into the sharp grass stubble and black ash — this latter was 
the result of a devastating grass fire which had occurred a few 
weeks before. It seemed hours before this very painful crawl 
brought me to the small tuft of dry grass I was making for. After 
waiting for some time I was relieved to see the other brute stand 
up ; I whispered a few words to the boy, and then kneeling right 
up quickly we lifted the rifles. The larger bull stood on the left and 
almost facing me, the other stood broadside on ; I did not wish to 
break any great bones, so I did not fire at the point of the 
shoulder — which would have been the usual shot under the 
circumstances — but put the bullet from the 10-bore "Paradox" 
between the first two ribs and into the lung : as the huge brute 
spun round, I put the second shot behind the ribs ; it travelled 
forwards and also, I found afterwards, reached the lungs. The 
boy fired his rifle almost simultaneously with my first shot, and 
as the animals went off in opposite directions we jumped up and 
followed them at our best pace. For over a mile the old bull went 
like a steam-engine ; he gradually, however, settled down, and I 
came up aud gave him two more bullets from behind : this helped 
him on again, but not for more than half a mile, when he slackened 
again. I soon ran up to him and found him beginning to stagger, for 
all this time he had been throwing blood by the gallon from his 
nostrils. One more shot finished him, and as he sank clown with 
a kind of sob the buffalo-birds (Buphaya) left him aud with shrill 
notes of alarm they flew up and, circling for a few minutes over us, 
disappeared in the direction that the other rhinoceros had taken. 
I was completely exhausted by the severe run, and taking out my 



334 MISS E. M. SHARPE OX BUTTERFLIES [Apr. 3, 

pipe I sat down for a short rest upon the huge grey head. The 
second bull succumbed about half a mile from where I had first 
fired. It was now well on in the afternoon, and my " skerm " was 
about six miles away ; so, leaving the animals where they were, I 
went to the camp, packed up my goods, and came back again. It 
was then close to sunset, and I had only time to take two quick 
shots with the camera and make a cut in the stomach and bush the 
carcass up for the night. I then went to the second bull, cut him 
open, bushed him up, aud then in the pitch darkness proceeded to 
make a large skerm, for it was to be permanent for several days at 
any rate. Next morning the carcasses had swelled up considerably, 
but I managed to take a few measurements and make some sketches 
before skinning them. For eleven days I stayed at that skerm, 
cleaning the bones, drying the skins, and watching the boys, for 
they had an annoying habit of throwing the smaller bones away ; 
it may be imagined that, with the quantity of small scraps of meat 
lying about in the hot sun, in a few days the place had grown — 
well, unpleasant ! 

I stayed about that country a few days longer, then brought the 
specimens into Salisbury — not without a very considerable amount 
of trouble. A few days after that I left Salisbury with the troops 
for Matabililand, served through the whole of the war, and then in 
January I came home. The Rhinoceroses preceded me by a few 
weeks. One of them will be set up in the Natural History 
Museum at South Kensington ; of the other, the skeleton goes to 
the Cambridge University Museum, and the skin to the Hon. 
Walter Eothschild's Museum at Tring. 



4. List of Butterflies collected by Captain J. W. Pringle, 
R.E., on the March from Teita to Uganda, in British 
East Africa. By Emily Mary Sharpe \ 

[Received March 20, 1894.] 
(Plate XIX.) 

The collection of Butterflies described in the present paper 
was made by Captain Pringle, R.E., during his survey for the 
projected railway to Uganda on behalf of the Government, under 
the auspices of the Imperial British East-African Company. The 
care with which the elevations have been recorded by him renders 
the collection of especial value to the student of the geographical 
distribution of Lepidoptera, and it is much to be regretted that 
such an accurate observer as Captain Pringle was not enabled to 
make a longer stay in East Africa. 

In this communication I have referred especially to Mr. Kirby's 
' Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera,' to Dr. Poland Trimen's work 
on South-African Butterflies, and to a paper by Mr. Hampson 

1 Communicated by Dr. R. Bowdler Siiakpe, F.Z.S. 



P. Z.S .1894 .PI. XIX. 






omo 

LFL1ES 1 , :c/v 



1894.] FROM BRITISH EAST AFRICA. 335 

entitled " Lepidoptera from the Sabaki Eiver," Ann. Nat. Hist. 
(6) vii. 1891. 

I am much indebted to Dr. A. G-. Butler for his kind help in 
identifying the more obscure species mentioned in the present 
paper. 

Family Danaid^e. 

1. LlMKAS KLUGII. 

Limnas Hugii, Butler, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 758; Hampson, Ann. 
Nat. Hist. (6) vii. p. 179 (1891, Sabaki Eiver). 

a. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 1-15, 1893. 

b. Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 1892. 

c. Teita to Ndara Hill, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

d. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 4-6, 1892. 

e. March from Mbololo in Ndi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 feet, 
Jan. 9-11, 1892. 

2. MeLINDA FORMOSA. 

Danais formosa, Godman, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 183, pi. xix. fig. 1 
(Gnuru Hills, E. Africa). 

Melinda formosa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 229. 

a. Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza vid Sotik, May 4, 1892. 

3. Amauris echeria. 

Amauris echeria (Stoll) ; Kirby, Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lepid. p. 8 
(1871) ; Trimen, S. Afr. Butt. i. p. 57 (1887). 

Nebroda echeria (Stoll) ; Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 228. 

a-c. Teita to Ndara Hill, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

d. Teita, 3500, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 5-6, 1892. 

Family Satyrim. 

4. Melanitis leda. 

Melanitis leda (Linn.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 43 (1871) : Trimen, 
op. cit. i. p. 112 (1887). 

Melanitis solandra (Fabr.) ; Butler, Cat. Lepid. Satyr, p. 3 
(1868). 

Melanitis bankia (Fabr.); Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 
(1891, Sabaki Eiver). 

a. Voi Eiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

5. MOKOTRICHTIS SAFITZA. 

Mycalesis safitza, Hewits. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 87 (1871); Butler, 
Cat. Satyr, p. 128 (1868) ; Trimen, op. cit. i. p. 105 (1887). 

Mi/calesis (Monotrichtis) safitza, Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 
(1891, Sabaki Eiver). 

a. Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

b-d. Teita to Ndara Hill, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 



336 miss e. m. shabpe on butterflies [apr. 3, 

6. Mycalesis peespicua. 

Mycalesis perspicua, Trim. ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 707 (1877) ; 
Trimen, op. cit. i. p. 107 (1887). 

Samanta perspicua, Butl. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 59 (Tobbo). 

a, b. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 1-15, 1892. 

c. Maunguto Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, Dec. 12, 1891. 

7. Mycalesis socotea> t a. 

Cahfsisme socotrana, Butl. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 175, pi. xvii. fig. 7 
(Socotra). 

a. Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

8. Ypthima doleta. 

Mycalesis doleta, Kirby, Proc. Roy. Dubl. Soc. (2) ii. p. 330 
(1880) ; Godin. & Salv. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 220 (Lower Niger). 

a. March from Mreru in Xdi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 feet, 
Jan. 9-11, 1892. 

b. Voi River, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

9. Ypthima albida. (Plate XLX. fig. 4.) 
Ypthima albida, Butl. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 59 (Foda). 
a. Teita District. 

10. NeOCjEKYEA duplex. 

Neoccenyra duplex, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1885, p. 758 (Somaliland). 
a. Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, Dec. 30, 1891 . 
6. Mreru in Xdi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 feet, Jan. 9-11, 1892. 
e. Xzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 1-15, 1892. 

Rhaphiceeopsis, gen. nov. 

Similar to the genus Neope, but easily distinguished by the 
spatulate club to the antennae. The type is 

11. Rhaphiceeopsis pringlei, sp. n. (Plate XIX. figs. 1, 2.) 

Colour very pale primrose-yellow with black markings. Fore 
wing : basal half pale yellow, the apical half black as well as the 
hind margin beyond the posterior angle. There are three small 
spots of yellow, one in each of the second and third median 
nervules, and the third above the subcostal nervure. From the 
costal margin is an oblique mark of yellow reaching to the apical 
end of the discoidal cell ; base of wing blackish ; near the base is 
a small black spot. 

Hind wing almost entirely primose-yellow, the mottlings of 
the under surface visible ; a black line along the costa and 
hind margin to the anal angle ; on the first median nervule is a 
small maroon spot ; above the hind marginal border a black spot 
between the first and second median nervule, the marginal line 



1894.] FROM BRITISH BAST AFRICA. 337 

being divided by a tbread of primrose-yellow from tbe anal angle 
to the third median nervule. 

Expanse 1*7 inch. 

a, b. Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Sotik, May 5, 1892. 



Family Acr^eiDjE. 

12. Acr^a regalis. 

Acrcea regalis, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Ent. p. 20, pi. ii. fig. 20 
(1893). 

a. Maungu Hill, 3100 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

b. Kibwezi, Eeb. 5, 1892. 

13. Acrcea circeis. 

Acrcea circeis (Drury) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 132 (1871). 
a. Usoga to Uganda, June 1892. 

14. ACRiEA BR2ESIA. 

Acrcea brcesia, G-odm. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 538 (Kilimanjaro) ; 
Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 (1891, Sabaki Eiver). 
a, b. Teita to Voi Eiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

c. Kibwezi, Eeb. 5, 1892. 

15. ACRCEA NATALTCA. 

Acrcea natalica, Boisd. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 132 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. i. p. 155 (1887) ; Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 (1891, 
ISabaki Eiver). 

a, b. Teita to Ndara Hill, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1890. 

c. March from Maungu Hill to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 
feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

16. Acrcea buxtoni. 

Acrcea buxtoni, Butl. ; Trimen, op. cit. i. p. 170 (1887) ; id. 
P. Z. S. 1891, p. 74 (South-western Africa). 
a. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

17. Acr^ia vinte-ia. 

Acrcea vinidia, Hew. ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 720 (1877). 
a-h. Uganda. 

18. Acrcea cabira. 

Acrcea cabira, Hopff. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 132 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. i. p. 173 (1887). 

a. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

6. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 



338 MISS B. M. SHAEPE ON BUTTEEFLIES [Apr. 3, 

19. ACILEA PHAESALUS. 

Acrcea pharsalus, Ward ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 720 (1877). 
a. Uganda. 

20. ACE.EA PEEENNA. 

Acrcea perenna, Doubl. & Hewits. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 135 (1871). 
Gnesia perenna, Butl. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 66 (Kangasi). 
a. Uganda. 

21. ACE-ffiA LYCIA. 

Acrcea lycia (Fabr.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 131 (1871). 
a. Marcb from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

22. ACEJEA OEEAS. 

Acrcea oreas, E. M. Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 193, pi. xvii. fig. 5 
(Mt. Elgon). 

a-c. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Sotik, May 4 
1892. 

23. PLANEMA JOHNSTON!. 

Acrcea johnstoni, Godm. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 537 (Kilimanjaro) ; 
Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 91. 

Acrcea proteina, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Ent. p. 25, pi. i. fig. 4 
(1893). 

a. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

24. Planema fulvescens. 

Acrcea proteina fulvescens, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Ent. p. 26, pi. ii. 
fig. 21 (1893). 

a. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

This specimen does not entirely agree with M. Obertbiir's 
figure, having less black on both wings. It is probably a variation 
of P. johnstoni, Godm., with which P. proteina of Oberthiir is 
undoubtedly identical. 

25. Planema Montana. 

Planema montana, Butl. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 91 (Kilimanjaro). 
a. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Jan. 3, 1892. 
6. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

26. AL.ENA JOBA.NN.a;. (Plate XIX. fig 5.) 

Alcena johannce , E. M. Sharpe, Ann. Nat. Hist. (6) v. p. 442 
(1890). 

a. Tsavo Eiver, 1500 feet. 



1 894.] EEOM BEITISH EAST AFRICA. 339 

Family Nympttalid^. 

27. Hybanaetia delitjs. 

Hypanartia delius (Drury) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 181 (1871). 
a, b. Teita District. 

28. JUNONIA CLELIA. 

Junonia delta (Cram.); Kirby, op. cit. p. 187 (1871); Trimen, 
op. cit. i. p. 214 (1887). 

Junonia cenone (Linn.) ; Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 (1891, 
Sabaki Eiver). 

a. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 feet to 2400 
feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

6. Tsavo Eiver, 1500 feet. 

c. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

cl. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 
e. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

29. Junonia cebrene. 

Junonia cebrene, Trimen, op. cit. i. p. 210 (1887). 
Junonia crebrene, Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 (1891, Sabaki 
Eiver). 

a. Tsavo Eiver, 1500 feet. 

b, c. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, 
Dec. 30, 1891. 

d. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

30. Junonia westeemanni. 

Junonia westermanni, Westw. ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 734 (1877). 
a. Teita District. 

31. Peecis teeea. 

Precis terea (Drury) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 189 (1871). 
a, b. Teita District. 

32. Peecis natalica. 

Precis natalica, Feld. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 190 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. i. p. 238 (1887). 

Junonia natalica, Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 (1891, Sabaki 
Eiver). 

a. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, 
Dec. 30, 1891. 

b. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

c. March from Voi Eiver to Ndi, 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 1892. 

d. Ndara Hill to Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

e. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 16, 1892. 



340 miss e. m. 8harpe on butterflies [-^p r - 3, 

33. Precis limnoria. 

Precis limnoria (King); Kirby, op. cit. p. 190 (1871); Butl. 
P. Z. S. 1885, p. 759 (Somali- land). 

a-c. March from Maungu Hill to Maragoyakauga, 3100 to 
2400 feet. 

d. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi River, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

34. Precis sinuata. 

Precis sinuata, Plotz ; E. M. Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 555. 
a, b. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

35. Precis cuama. 

Precis cuama (Hewits.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 191 (1871). 
a, b. Tsavo River, 1500 feet. 

c-e. March from Maungn Hill to Maragoyakanga,3100 to 2400 
feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

36. Precis sesamus. 

Precis sesamus, Trimen, op. cit. i. p. 231 (1887). 

a. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Sotik, May 4, 1892. 

37. Precis cloantha. 

Precis cloantJia (Cram.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 191 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. i. p. 222 (1887). 

a. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi River, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

b. March from Kikuyu to the Victoria Nyanza via Mau and 
Sotik, 8000 feet, May 4, 1892. 

38. Ergolis enotrea. 

Ergolis enotrea (Cram.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 195 (1871). 
a. Teita District. 

39. EURYTELA HLARBAS. 

Eurytela hiarbas (Drury) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 195 (1871); Tri- 
men, op. cit. i. p. 258 (1887). 

a. March from Kikuyu to the Victoria Nyanza via Mau and 
Sotik, 8000 feet, May 4, 1892. 

40. Eurytela dryope. 

Eurytela dryope (Cram.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 194 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. i. p. 261 (1887); Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 (1891, 
Sabaki River). 

a-c. Voi River, Teita, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

41. Eurytela ophione. 

Eurytela ojjJiione (Cram.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 195 (1871). 
a-c. Voi River, Teita, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 



1894.] EEOH BRITISH BAST AFEICA 341 

42. DlADEMA MISIPPUS. 

Hypolimnas misippus (Linn.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 225 (1871). 
Diadema misippus, Trimen, op. cit. i. p. 277 (1887) ; Hampson, 
op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 (1891, Sabaki Biver). 

a. Marcb from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Biver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

b. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

c. d. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

43. NEPTIS AGATHA. 

Neptis agaiha (Cram.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 242 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. i. p. 270 (1887). 

a-c. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

44. Hamaisthmida d^dalus. 

Hamanumida dcedalus (Fabr.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 249 (1871) ; 
Trimen, op. cit. i. p. 309 (1887) ; Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 
(1891, Sabaki Biver). 

a. Voi Biver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

45. Salamis atsacaedii. 

Salamis anacardii (Linn.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 192 (1871) ; 
Trimen, op. cit. i. p. 244 (1887). 

a. Kibwezi, Feb. 6, 1892. 

b. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

46. Salamis aglatonice. 

Salamis anacardii, Grodt., pt. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 192 (1871) ; 
Trimen, op. cit. i. p. 244 (1887). 
a, b. Tsavo Biver, 1500 feet. 

c. d. Voi Biver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

47. Philognoma vabanes. 

Valla varanes (Cram.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 274 (1871) ; Hainp- 
soa, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 181 (1891, Sabaki Biver). 

a. Usoga, 4000 feet. 

b. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, 
Dec. 30, 1891. 

c. d. Ndara HiU, Teita, 3500 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

48. Philognoma usshebi. 

Palla ussheri (Butl.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 273 (1871). 
a. Uganda, 4000 feet. 

49. Chaeaxes tieidates. 

Nymphalis tiridates (Cram.); Kirby, op. cit. p. 269 (1871). 
a. March from Usoga to Uganda, 4000 feet, June 1892. 
Pkoc. Zool. Soc— 1894, No. XXIII. 23 



342 miss e. m. sharpe on butterflies [apr. 3, 

50. Hypanis ilithyia. 

Hi/panis iliihyia (Drury); Kirby, op. cit. p. 196 (1871); 
Trimen, op. cit. 'i. p. 264 (1887). 

Byblia iliihyia, Hainpson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 180 (1891, Sabaki 
River). 

a~c. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, Jan. 1, 1S92. 

d, e. March from Teita, 3500 feet," to Voi River, 2100 feet, 
Jan. 6, 1892. 

/. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

51. Cyeestis camilltjs. 

Cyrestis camillus (Fabr.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 220 (1871). 
a-d. Uganda, 4000 feet. 

52. ElJRYPHENE CALABARENSIS. 

EarypJiene calabar ensis, Feld. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 246 (1871). 
a. Uganda, 4000 feet. 

Family Erycinidjb. 

53. Abisara gerontes. 

Abisara gerontes (Fabr.) ; Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 67. 
a. Uganda, 4000 feet, June 1892. 

Family Lyc^enidje. 

54. Lachnocnema bibulus. 

Lucia bibulus (Fabr.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 337 (1871); Trimen, 
op. cit. ii. p. 235 (1887). 

a. Ndara HiU, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

55. Zeritis periost. 

Axiocerses perion (Cram.); Kirby, op. cit. p. 338 (1871). 
Chrysorychia harpax, Fabr., pt. ; Trimen, op. cit. ii. p. 162 
(1887). 

a. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

56. Lyoena JUBA. 

Cupidojuba (Fabr.); Kirby, op. cit. p. 349 (1871). 

a. March from Kikuyu, 6500 feet, to Victoria Nyanza via (Sotik, 
May 4, 1892. 

b, c. Uganda, 4000 feet. 

57. Lycena moriqua. 

Gupido moriqua (Wallgr.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 351 (1871) ; Tri- 
men, op. cit. ii. p. 75 (1887). 

a-d. Teita, Jan. 1892. 

e. March from Mreru in Ndi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 feet, Jan. 11, 
1892. 



1894.] from british east africa. 343 

58. Lyceita b^etica. 

Oupido bceticus (Linn.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 354 (1871). 
Lyccena bcetica, Trirnen, op. cit. ii. p. 58 (1887). 
a. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza vid Mail and Sotik, 
7000 to 8000 feet, May 4, 1892. 

59. Ltcjena gaika. 

Cupido cja'ika, Trim. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 362 (1871). 
Lyccena gccika, Trimen, op. cit. ii. p. 50 (1887). 

a. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Jan. 15, 1892. 

b. Yoi River, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

c. JS T dara HiU, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

d. Uganda, 4000 feet. 

60. Lyccena puechra. 

Lyccena pulchra, Murray, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1874, p. 524, pi. 10. 
figs. 7, 8. 

Tarucus pulcher, Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 68. 

a-e. March from Mreru in Ndi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 feet, 
Jan. 11, 1892. 

f-h. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

i-m. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

n. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 16, 1892. 

61. LrCjElSrESTHES ligures. 

Lyccenesthes ligures, Hewits. ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 783 (1877). 
a. Uganda, 4000 feet. 

62. Lyccenesthes earydas. 

Lyccenesthes larydas (Cram.) ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 783(1877) ; 
Trimen, op. cit. ii. p. 96 (1887). 
a. Uganda, 4000 feet. 

63. Tatura pachalica. 

Hypolycama {Tatura) pachalica, Butl. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 69 
( Wadelai). 

a. Tsavo, 1500 feet. 

b. March from Mreru in Ndi, 2300 to 1650 feet, Jan. 11, 1892. 

c. d. Uganda, 4000 feet, June 1892. 

64. Castaeies margaritacetjs. 

Castalius margaritaceus, E. M. Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 636, 
pi. xlviii. fig. 3. 

a. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza vid Man and Sotik, 
7000 to 8000 feet, May 4, 1892. 

65. CASTAEIUS MELiEISrA. 

Lyccena melcena, Trimen, op. cit. ii. p. 82 (1887). 
a. Voi River, 1600 feet. Jan. 20, 1892. 

23* 



344 MISS E. M. SHARPE ON BUTTKBFLIB8 [^P r - 3, 

Family Pieeid^e. 

66. Xychitoxa alcesta. 

Pontia alcesta (Cram.); Kirbv, op. cit. p. 439 (1871); Triuien, 
op. cit. iii. p. 8 (1889). 

a. Xdara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

67. Teeias beigitta. 

Eurema brigitta (Cram.); Kirby, op. cit. p. 447 (1871). 
Terias brir/itta, Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 14 (1889). 

a. March from Mreru in Xdi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 feet, 
Jan. 9, 1892. 

68. Teeias zoe. 

Eurema brir/itta, var. d, Kirbv, op. cit. p. 448 (1871). 
Terias zoe, Hopff. ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 16 (1889). 
a, b. Maungu Hill, 3600 feet, Dec. 30, 1892. 
c March from Mreru in Ndi, 2300 feet, to Tsavo, 1600 feet, 
Jan. 9, 1892. 

d, e. Xdara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 
/, g. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Jan. 15, 1892. 

69. Teeias oeientis. 

Terias orientis, Butler, P. Z. 8. 1888, p. 71. 
a. Teita District, 3000 feet. 

7<J. PlNACOPTEETX PIGEA. 

Pieris pigea, Boisd. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 455 (1871) ; Trimen, op. 
cit. iii. p. 46 (1889). 

a. Voi Eiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

b. Xdara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

71. PlNACOPTEBYX SIMANA. 

Pieris simana, Hopff. ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 50 (1889). 
Pieris charina, Boisd.,. pt. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 456 (1871). 
a, b. Voi Eiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

72. PlNACOPTEEYX SPILLEEI. 

Pieris spillen, Staudinger ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 54 (1889). 
a, b. Voi Eiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

73. PrXACOPTEEYX NIGEOPUXCTATA. 

Pinaeopteryx nigropunctata, E. M. Sharpe, Ann. Xat. Hist. (6) 
v. p. 336 (1890) ; Waterb. Aid, pi. 189. fig. 4 (1882-90). 

a, b. March from Teita to Voi Eiver, 3500 to 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 

1892. 



1894.] from british east africa. 345 

74. Belenois severina. 

Pieris severina (Cram.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 457 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. iii. p. 68 (1889). 

Belenois severina, Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 182 (1891, 
Sabaki Eiver). 

a-c. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2100 
feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

d-f. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi River, 2100 feet, 
Jan. 6, 1892. 

g. March from Voi River to Ndi, 1925 to 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 
1892. 

h-k. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

75. Belenois agrippina. 

Pieris agrippina, Feld. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 457 (1871). 

Pieris severina (Cram., pt.) ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 68 (1889). 

a-d. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, 
Dec. 30, 1891. 

e-h. March from Voi River to Ndi, 1925 to 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 
1892. 

i-l. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

76. Belenois boguensis. 

Pieris boguensis, Feld. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 457 (1871). 

Pieris severina (Cram., pt.) ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 68 (1889). 

a. Marcb from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, 
Dec. 30, 1890. 

b. Marcb from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi River, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892 

c. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Jan. 3, 1892. 

77. Belenois zochalia. 

Pieris zochalia, Boisd. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 457 (1871); Trimen, 
op. cit. iii. p. 57 (1889). 

a. Ndara Hill, Teita, Feb. 3, 1892. 

6, c. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Sotik, May 
1892. 

78. Belenois infida. 

Belenois infida, Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 78 (Wadelai). 

a. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, Jan. 1, 1892. 

b. Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi River, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 1892. 

c-h. March from Mreru in Ndi to Tsavo, 3300 to 1680 feet, 
Jan. 11, 1892. 

I. Kibwezi, Feb. 5, 1892. 

m. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Sotik, May 
1892. 



346 miss e. 1c s1lvrpe 0>" butterflies [apr. 3, 

79. Belexois gidica. 

Pieris gidica, Godt. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 457 (1871) ; Trimen, op. 
cit. iii. p. 64 (1889). 

Belinois gidica, Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 182 (1891, 
Sabaki River). 

a, b. Uganda, 4000 feet. 

80. Belexois thtsa. 

Pieris thysa, Hopff. ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 44 (1889). 
a-d, Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

81. Mtlotheis agathtnta. 

Tachyris agathina (Cram.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 464 (1871). 
Mylothris agathina, Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 30 (1889). 
a-b. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

82. Mtlotheis bhodope. 

Tachyris rhodope (Fabr.); Kirby, op. cit. p. 463 (1871). 
a-d. Teita, 2000 to 3000 feet. 

83. Mtlotheis narcissus. 

Mylothris narcissus, Butler, P. Z. 8. 1888, p. 95 (Kilimanjaro). 

a. Marcb from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi River, 2100 feet, Jan. 5. 
1892. 

b. Xclara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

84. Mtlotheis jacksoni. 

Mylothris jacksoni, E. M. Sbarpe, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 190, pi. xvi. 
fig. 3. 

«, b. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Xvanza via Sotik, May 4, 
1892. 

85. Eeonia dilatata. 

Eronia dilatata, Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 96. 
a-g. Maungu Hill, 3900 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 
h. Marcb from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, 
Dec. 30, 1891. 

i. Xdara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 8, 1892. 

86. Eeonia led a. 

Eronia leda (Boisd.), Kirby, op. cit. p. 480 (1871); Trimen, op. 
cit. iii. p. 174 (1889). 

a. Maungu Hill, Dec. 31, 1891. 

b. Marcb from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, 
Dec. 31, 1891. 

c. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 



1894.] from british east africa. 347 

87. Nepheronia thalassina. 

Eronia thalassina (Boisd.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 481 (1871). 
Nepheronia thalassina, Hainpson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 182 (1891, 
Sabaki Biver). 

a-f. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

88. Nepheronia argia. 

Eronia argia (Fabr.); Kirby, op. cit. p. 481 (1871); Trimen, 
op. cit. iii. p. 179 (1889). 

a. Teita, 2500 to 3000 feet. 

89. Nepheronia buquetit. 

Eronia buquetii (Boisd.) : Kirby, op. cit. p. 481 (1871) ; Trinien, 
op. cit. iii. p. 177 (1889). 

a. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Biver, 2100 feet, Jan. 5, 
1891. 

b. March from Voi River to Ndi, 1925 to 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 
1892. 

90. Callieryas plorella. 

Catopsilia fiorella (Fabr.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 481 (1871) ; 
Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 185 (1889). 

a. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, Jan. 1, 1892. 

b. March from Voi Biver to Ndi. 1925 to 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 
1892. 

e-cl. March from Mreru in Ndi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 feet, 
Jan. 9, 1892. 

e. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

91. Callidrtas pyrenne. 

Catopsilia floretta (Fabr., pt.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 481 (1871). 
a-b. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Biver, 1200 feet, 
Jan. 6, 1892. 

c. March from Mreru or Mbololo in Ndi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 
feet, Jan. 11, 1892. 

d. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

92. COLIAS ELECTRA. 

Colias electra (Linn.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 490 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. iii. p. 165 (1889). 

a. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Mau and Sotik, 
7000 to 8000 feet, May 1892. 

93. Teracolus chrysonome. 

Idmais cJirysonome (Klug) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 498 (1871). 
a, b. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, Jan. 1, 1892. 
c, d. Teita District. 



348 MISS E. 1£. SHARPE ON BUTTERFLIES fApr. 3, 

94. Teracolus aurigineus. 

Teracolus aurigineus, Butler, P. Z. IS. 1888, p. 72 (Wadelai). 
a-d. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet. 
Jan. 6, 1892. 

e,f. Voi River, 1600 feet, Jan. 20. 1892. 

95. Teracolus eris. 

Idmais eris (Klug) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 499 (1871). 

Teracolus eris, Trinien, op. cit. iii. p. 93 (1889) ; Hampson, op. 
cit. (6) vii. p. 181 (1891, Sabaki Eiver). 

a. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, Jan. 1, 1892. 

6. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

c-e. Voi Eiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

96. Teracolus phlegyas. 

Callosune phlegyas, Butl. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 500 (1871). 

Teracolus phlegyas, Trimen, op. cit. p. 109 (1889) ; Hampson, 
op. cit, (6) vii. p. 181 (1891, Sabaki Eiver). 

a-c. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, 
Jan. 6, 1892. 

97. Teracolus imperator. 

Callosune imperator, Butl. ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 804 (1877). 
Teracolus imperator, Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 181 (1891, 
Sabaki Eiver). 

a. Maungu Hill, 3600 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

/>. March from Teita, 3300 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

c March from Voi Eiver to Ndi, 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 1892. 

98. Teracolus het^era. 

Callosune Jietcera, Gerst. ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 804 (1877). 
a-k. Maungu Hill, 3100 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 
1. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

99. Teracolus omphale. 

Callosune omphale (Godt.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 502 (1871). 
Teracolus omphale, Trimen, op. cit. p. 142 (1889). 
«. Maungu Hill, 3100 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

b, c. Voi Eiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

cl. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

100. Teracolus phillipsii. 

Teracolus phillipsii, Butl. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 772, pi. xlvii. fig. 11. 

a. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, Jan. 1, 1892. 

b. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

c. March from Voi Eiver to Ndi, 1925 to 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 1892. 



1894.] erom british bast africa. 349 

101. Teracolus mtnans. 

Teracolus minans, Butler, Ent. M. Mag. xviii. p. 229 (1881-82). 

a, b. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, 
Dec. 30, 1891. 

c. March from Voi Eiver to Ndi, 1925 to 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 
1892. 

d-f. March from Mreru in Ndi, 2300 feet, to Tsavo, 1650 feet, 
Jan. 9, 1892. 

102. Teracolus ignifer. 

Callosune ignifer, Butl. ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 804 (1877). 

a. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

b. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Mail and Sotik, 
May 4, 1892. 

103. Teracolus phxenius. 

Callosune plicenius, Butl. ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 805 (1877). 

Teracolus phoenius, Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 181 (1891, Sabaki 
River). 

a, b. March from Voi Eiver to Ndi, 1925 to 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 
1892. 

c. d. March from Mreru in Ndi, 2300 feet, to Tsavo, 1650 feet, 
Jan. 9, 1892. 

e. Voi Eiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 
/, g. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

104. Teracolus hanntngtoni. 

Teracolus hanningtoni, Butler, Ann. Nat. Hist. (5) xii. p. 104 
(1883). 

a. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

105. Teracolus Calais. 

Idmais calais (Fabr., pt.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 499 (1871). 

a. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi Eiver, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

b-e. March from Mreru in Ndi, 1330 feet, to Tsavo, 1650 feet, 
Jan. 9, 1892. 

/, g. Voi Eiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 23, 1890. 

106. Teracolus incretus. 

Teracolus incretus, Butl. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 93 (Kilimanjaro). 

a. Maungu Hill, 31 00 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

b. March from Maungu Hill to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 
feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

c. March from Voi Eiver to Ndi, 1925 to 2303 feet, Jan. 8, 
1892. 

d. Tsavo Eiver. 

e. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 
f-l. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892, 



350 MISS E. M. BHABPB ox butterflies [Apr. % 

107. TeRACOLTJS HILDEBRAXDTI. 

Callosune hildebrandti, Staudgr. Exot. Schmett. i. p. 44, pi. 23. 
fig. 12 (1888). 

a-e. Teita, 3500 feet, to Yoi River, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 1892. 
/. March from Voi Eiver to Ndi, 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 1892. 
g. Voi Kiver, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

108. TERACOLUS LEO. 

AntJwcharis leo, Butl. Ann. Nat. Hist. (3) xvi. p. 397 (1865). 
a-c. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, Jan. 1, 1892. 

109. HerPjEnta iter at a. 

Herpomia iterate, Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 96 (Kilimanjaro). 

a-e. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 
feet, Dec. 30, 1891-Jan. 1, 1892. 

f. March from Voi River to Ndi, 1925 to 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 
1892. 

110. Glutophrissa CONTRACTA. 

Glutoplirissa contractu, Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 75. 
a, b. Tsavo River, 1500 feet. 

Family Papilionid^e. 

111. PAPILIO LEONID AS. 

Papilio leonidas, Fabr. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 520 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. iii. p. 211 (1889). 

a. Voi River, 1600 feet, Jan. 20, 1892. 

112. Papilio demolels. 

Papilio demoleus, Linn. ; Kirbv, op. cit. p. 543 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. p. 223 (1889) ; Hampson, op. cit, (6) vii. p. 182 (1891, 
Sabaki River). 

a, b. March from Maungu to Maragoyakanga, 3100 to 2400 feet, 
Dec. 30, 1891. 

c. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi River, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1892. 

d. March from Voi River to Ndi, 2300 feet, Jan. 8, 1892. 

e. Ndara Hill, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 
/. Xzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

113. Papilio niretts. 

Papilio nireus, Linn. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 562 (1871). 

a. Maungu Hill, 3100 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

b. March from Teita, 3500 feet, to Voi River, 2100 feet, Jan. 6, 
1891. 

c-e. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892, 



1894.] FROM BRITISH EAST AFRICA. 351 

114. PAPILIO BRONTES. 

Papilio Ironies, Groclra. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 540 (Kilimanjaro). 
a. Kikuyu, 4500 feet. 

115. Papilio phorcas. 

Papilio phorcas, Cram. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 563 (1871). 
a-c. Kikuyu, 6500 feet. 

116. Papilio hesperus. 

Papilio hesperus, Westw. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 563 (1871). 
a. Teita, 2000 to 3000 feet. 

117. Papilio merope. 

Papilio merope, Cram. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 563 (1871). 
Papilio cenea, Stoll, pt. ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 243 (1889). 
Papilio dardanns, Brown, pt., Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 182 
(1891, Sabaki River). 
a. Teita, 1500 to 2500 feet. 

118. Papilio cenea. 

Papilio cenea, Stoll ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 243 (1889). 
Papilio merope, pt., Kirby, op. cit. p. 563 (1871). 
a-c. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 
d. Kikuyu, 6500 feet. 

119. Papilio colonna. 

Papilio colonna, "Ward ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 812 (1877) ; 
Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 209 (1889) ; Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. p. 182 
(1891, Sabaki River). 

a-d. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

120. Papilio ntass^e. 

Papilio nyassce, Butl. Ann. Nat. Hist. (6) vii. p. 49 (1891). 
a-c. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

121. Papilio jacksoni. 

Papilio jaclsoni, E. M. Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 188, pi. xvii. 
figs. 1, 2. 

a-d. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Sotik, May 
1892. 

122. Papilio hackxnttoni. 

Papilio machinnoni, E. M. Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 187, pi. xvi. 
fig. 1. 

a. March from Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Sotik, May 
1892. 



352 ON BUTTERFLIES FROM BRITISH EAST AFRICA. [Apr. 3, 

123. Papilio pringlei, sp. n. (Plate XIX. fig. 3.) 

General colour saffron-yellow, the hinder wings more clouded, 
the markings chestnut-brown ; the apical portion of the wing 
chestnut-brown, extending down the hind margin to the first 
median nervule ; the apical portion broken by two spots of saffron- 
yellow between the 4th and 5th subcostal nervules. The costal 
margin and base of fore wing brown, with a large spot of chestnut- 
brown near the end of the discoidal cell, which is irregular in 
shape. 

Hiud wing yellow, rather darker than the fore wing, having the 
tail chestnut-brown, and a spot of the same colour, varying in shape, 
at the end of each nervule. 

Expanse 3*7 inches. 

a. Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Sotik, May 1892. 

124. Papilio constantinus. 

Papilio constantinus, Ward ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 812 (1877) ; 
Trimen, op. cit. hi. p. 232 (1889); Hampson, op. cit. (6) vii. 
p. 182 (1891, Sabaki Eiver). 

a. Maungu Hill, 3100 feet, Dec. 30, 1891. 

b-f. Kibwezi, Feb. 6, 1892. 

125. Papilio ophidicephalus. 

Papilio ophidicephalus, Oberthiir ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 229 
(1889). 

a-c. Kibwezi, 3000 feet, Feb. 6, 1892. 

Family Hesperid^;. 

126. ISMENE ANCHISES. 

Ismene anchises, Gerst. ; Kirby, op. cit. App. p. 819 (1877). 
Hesperia anchises, Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 374 (1889). 
a-cl. Tsavo River, 1500 feet. 

127. Pamphila zeno. 

Pamphila zeno, Trim. ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 599 (1871) ; Trimen, 
op. cit. iii. p. 313 (1889). 
a. Tsavo River, 1500 feet. 

128. Pamphila hottentota. 

Pamphila hottentota (Latr.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 599 (1871); Tri- 
men, op. cit. iii. p. 314 (1889). 

a. Nzoi, 3500 feet, Feb. 15, 1892. 

b. Kikuyu, <6500 feet. 

129. Ptrgus inconspicufs. 

Pamphila inconspicua (Bert.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 605 (1871). 
a. Tsavo River, 1500 feet. 



1894.] mr. p. l. sclater on protopterits annectens. 353 

130. Hesperia diomus. 

Hesperia diomus (Hopff.): Kirby, op. cit. p. 615 (1871). 
Pyrgus diomus, Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 287 (1889). 
a. Nzoi, 3500 feet, May 15, 1892. 

131. Hesperia sataspes. 

Hesperia sataspes (Trim.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 615 (1871). 
Pyrgus sataspes, Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 289 (1889). 
a, b. March from Mreru in Ndi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 feet, 
Jan. 9, 1892. 

132. Hesperia dromus. 

Pyrgus dromus (Plotz) ; Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 283 (1889). 
a. Kikuyu, 6500 feet. 

133. Cyclopides metis. 

Heteropterus metis (Linn.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 623 (1871). 
Cyclopides metis, Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 266 (1889). 
a. Ndara, Teita, 3300 feet, Feb. 3, 1892. 

134. Ptertgospidea dj^lmj^m. 

Nisoniades djcelailce (Wallgr.) ; Kirby, op. cit. p. 630 (1871). 
Pterygospidea djcelcelce, Trimen, op. cit. iii. p. 354(1889). 
a-d. March from Mreru in Ndi to Tsavo, 2300 to 1650 feet, 
Jan. 8, 1892. 

EXPLANATION OP PLATE XIX. 

Fig. 1. Rhaphiceropsis pringlei, p. 336. 

2. Rhaphiceropsis pringlei (underside). 
2 a, 2 b. Figures of structure of do. 

3. Papilio -pringlei, p. 352. 

4. Ypthima albida, p. 336. 

5. Alcena johannce, p. 338. 



April 17, 1894. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq., F.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Sclater called attention to the attempts about to be made 
to induce the specimens of Protopterus annectens to breed in the 
Society's Reptile-house, where one of the large oval open tanks 
had been specially fitted up for their accommodation. There were 
now six adult examples of this Mud-fish in the Collection, two 
presented by Mr. H. H. Lee in 1887 and four purchased in 1889. 
These had been until now all kept together in one of the large 
water-tanks, and had thriven well, the largest having attained a 
length of 18 or 19 inches — except that they were all more or less 



354 pboe. k. von babdeleben ok the [Apr. 17, 

mutilated from the loss of their fins, which were continually eaten 
away by the Mud-fishes from each other. 

The mode of reproduction of Protopterus seemed to be wholly 
unknown, except as regards the information contained in an 
article recently published in ' Le Mouvement Geographique ' 
(1894, p. 30), in which it was stated, from observations made by 
the French Missionaries at Mpala on the western shore of Lake 
Tanganyika (lat. 6° 45' S.), that the embryos of the Protopterua 
(there called locally Sembe or Sornpe) were carried about in an 
elongated gelatinous sac attached to the sides of the back of the 
parent and were very numerous. 

1. On the Bones and Muscles of the Mammalian Hand and 
Foot. By Prof. Karl von Bardeleben, M.D. Berol. 

[Received April 16, 1894.] 
(Plates XX. & XXI.) 

As the Committee of the " Anatomische G-esellschaft " has 
asked me to give a Report on the Mammalian Hand aud Foot at 
the next meeting of the Society at Strassburg, I wish previously to 
publish my own investigations on this subject made since 1885 
at Jena, Ley den, Amsterdam, Brussels, Berlin, and Paris, and 
especially in 1889 and 1890 in the Natural History Museum, in 
the Royal College of Surgeons, and in the dissecting-room of the 
Zoological Society's Gardens in London, of which 1 have only pub- 
lished short abstracts in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889 (p. 259, pi. xxx.), 
in the Anat. Anz. 1890, and in the Verhandlungen d. anat. Ges. 
P. V. 1891. 

I have examined the distal parts of the fore and hind limbs in 
all orders of Mammals either in skeletons or in specimens dissected 
by myself. 

Naturally I have paid greatest attention to the "praepollex" 
and "praehallux" and to the " postminimus " l , especially to the 
muscles and other soft parts of these structures. Apart from 
all theory, I think everybody may agree with me in calling a 
bone or a thumb-like outgrowth on the radial side of the pollex 
" praepollex," and a structure behind the minimus " postminimus." 

The name " sesamoid bone " is much more misleading, and as 
I cannot agree that the structures I am speaking of are " sesa- 
moids," or that they consist only of bone — for there are also soft 
parts, such as muscles, vessels, nerves — I must use the abbreviations 
Pp., Ph., and Pm. 

This paper will be divided into three parts : the first concerning 
the skeleton, and the second relating to the muscles ; in the third 
the bones and the muscles will be compared, and the conclusions 
concerning the meaning of Pp., Ph., and Pm., and concerning 
the homologies between the bones of hand and foot, will be given. 

1 I will use the abbreviations Pp., Ph., Pin. 



P.Z.S.lB94.PlateIX. 




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E.C h, G.lf.Wood-wax-d del. etlith. 



"efcst.KeYTHian rnrp- 



Bones of Mammalian Hands and Feet. 



V 



F.L.Sim^.k'iaXeAlA. 






pirn 







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E.C S.&.MWooawOTd del .etlxtk . Vest.Ne^nan .mrp 

Muscles of Mammalian Hands and Feet. 



_- 



1894.] MAMMALIAN HAND AND FOOT. 355 

A.— ON THE SKELETON. 

As the pisiform and the calcaneum are present in all mammals, 
and as it is of no importance whether these bones are large or small, 
and whether they are directly connected with the ulna or the fibula, 
or not, I will not give here details on this point. Nobody will 
doubt that these bones are constant and that the large pisiform of 
lower mammals is homologous to the smaller one of the highest, 
e. g. Man — nor that the calcaneum of Monotremata, though it is 
directed forwards or outwards, is homologous to the calcaneum of 
higher mammals, where it is always directed backwards. Further, 
1 must recall what I published in these Proceedings in 1889, 
that the pisiform is divided into two pieces in Bathyergus, being 
the only animal in which I met with this separation. 

As I cannot tell here the names of all mammals in which I 
have found the Pp. and Ph., I will only mention those in which 
I made a sketch or measured these structures. 

I am sorry I did not pay attention to the carpus and Pp. in my 
first investigations made in 1885 in Berlin, when I examined the 
mammalian foot for the " intermedium tarsi " or " os trigonum." 

To the names of the animals which I examined in London, 
Berlin, Leyden, and other places I put the letters Lo., Be., Le., 
Pa. (Paris), Je. (Jena), A. (Amsterdam), Br. (Brussels) ; otherwise 
London, especially the Nat. Hist. Museum, is intended. I use the 
following abbreviations : — long or length 1., breadth br., thickness 
th. ; do.-vo. (dorso-volar), do. -pi. (dorso-plantar), sag. (sagittal), 
tr. (transverse), r. (right), 1. (left) ; = no, or not present. The 
numbers mean millimetres. 

N.B. — As the Pp. and Ph. are often lost in preparing and cleaning 
the skeletons, I am often doubtful whether a Pp. or a Ph. had 
been present (and lost) or not. In such cases I put a " ? ". 

Maesupials. — The Pp. is situated on the trapezium (carp. dist. 1), 

the Ph. on the internal cuneiform. 
Macropus (Halmaturus) bennetti : Pp. 
Trichosurus vulpecula : Pp. 

Phascolomys ivombat : Pp. 7 1. ; 4 br. ; 3 do. -vol. 
(Be., Lo.) Didelphys marsupialis [cancrivora, Be., Je. ; aurita, 

Be.] : Pp. Ph., 4-5 1. ; about 3-0 br. ; 2 do.-pl. " D. aurita " : 

5 1.; 3br. ; 2 th. 
Didelphys elegans : Pp. Ph. consists of two bones ! 
(Be.) Didelphys azarce : Pp. Ph. 
Didelphys philander : Pp. Ph. 
Didelphys crassicaudatus : Pp. Ph. 
(Le., Be.) Ohironectes minimus (yariegatus) : Pp. Ph. 2*5 1. ; 

1-8 do.-pl. ; 1-2 br. 

Edentata. — The Pp. is attached on the scaphoid and trapezium ; 
the Ph. on the naviculare and first cuneiform. 
(Be., Lo.) Tamandaa (Myrmecophaga) tetradactyla : Pp. Ph. 
(Be.), 10 1. ; 5-6-5 do.-pl. ; 2-5 sag. 



356 PROF. K. VON BARDELEBEN ON THE [Apr. 17, 

Myrmecophagajubata: Pp. Ph. 18 1. 
Dasypus sexcinctus : Pp. Ph. (vide Plate XX. fig. 1). 
Euphractus minutus (dissected) : Pp. Ph. 
Euphractus minutus (skeleton) : Pp. Ph. very well developed, 
resembles metatarsal bone. 

Ungulata. — Naturally neither a Pp. nor a Ph. is present in 

the Ungulata vera nor in Hyrax. 
Proboscidea, or Elephas africanus, " Embryo " (R.C.S.) has a large 

Pp. ; it is longer than the pollex. The Ph. is also very 

strong. 
In Cetacea the Pp. has been found by Prof. Kiikenthal. 

Insectivora. — Pp. on the scaphoid ; Ph. on the naviculare and 
internal cuneiform. 

(Je., Le., Be., Lo., A., Pa.) Centetes ecaudatus : Pp. Ph. 2 1. ; 
1 br. ; 1 th. (vide Plate XX. figs. 2, 3). 

(Le.) Hemicentetes nigriceps : Pp. Ph. 

HemicnteUs variegatus : Pp. Ph. 

(Le., Lo.) Ericidus setosus : Pp. Ph. 

(Je., Le., Be., Pa., Lo.) Talpa europcea : Pp. ! sickle-shaped. 
Ph. ! sickle-sbaped. 

(Le., Lo.) Talpa wogura : Pp. ! sickle-shaped. Ph. ! sickle- 
shaped. 

Scalops argentatus : Pp. sickle-shaped. 

(Be., Le.) Myogale moschata : Pp. Ph. very long, transv. 

(Le.) Urotriclms talpoides : Pp. Ph. 

Tupaja tana : Pp. 1 1. ; 0*75 br. Ph. 

(Je., Le., Be., Pa., Lo.) Erinaceus europasus : Pp. Ph. 

Oymnura rafflesii : Pp. Ph. ? (single bones in a box). 

GaleopitJiecus philippinensis : Pp. Ph. 

Eobentia. — Pp. on the scaphoid (and metac. I.). Ph. on the 

internal naviculare and internal cuneiform. 
Sciurus arizonensis, S. niger, S. vidgaris : Pp. large. Ph. 
Xerus eryihropus (Monbuttu, Emin Pasha) : Pp. 1 1. ; 06-07 

br. Ph. small. 
Cynomys ludovicianus : Pp. 7*2 1. ; 4*7 br. Ph. 
Arctomys marmotta: Pp. ! sickle-shaped (though thumb reduced). 

Ph. 2-5 1. ; 3 do.-pl. ; 2 transv. 
(Je., Be., Le., Lo.) Castor fiber, canadensis: Pp. andPh. enormous. 
(Be.) Myoxus glis (avellanarius) : Pp. ? 
(Be.) Sp>alax typhlus : Pp. ? Ph. 
(Be., Lo.) Bathyergus maritimus : Pp. 7"5 1. ; 4"5 br. Ph. — (Be.) 

6 1. ; 2-5 do.-pl. ; 1 th. (1885) : (Lo.) 7 1. ; 3 do.-pl. ; 1 th. 

(1889), ending cartilaginous (vide Plate XX. fig. 4). 
GeorycJius capensis : Pp. '? Ph. 2*7 1. ; 2-5 do.-pl. ; 1 tr. 
Myoscalops (Heliophobius) argentocinereus : Pp. and Ph. resemble 

Bathyergus, but much smaller. 
Geomys hispidus : Pp. 9-5. Ph. ? 
Dipus jaculus : Pp.? 



1894.] MAMMALIAN HAND AND FOOT. 357 

Pedetes capensis (caffer): Pp. two bones, — prox. 13 1., 4*5-5 , 5 
br. ; dist. 7 L, 5-2 br. No Ph. 

(Be.) Myopotamus bonariensis : Pp. 7 1. ; 5*5 br. 

Aulacodus swindenerianus : Pp. very large. No Ph. (hallux 
rudimentary). 

Chcetomys suhspinosus : Pp. Ph. very large. 

(Be., Lo.) Cercolabes (Synetheres) insidiosa : Pp. and Ph. tri- 
angular. 

Synetheres prehensilis : Pp. about 8 1. ; 4*5 br. Ph. 12*5 1. ; 
7-5 br. 

(Pa., Lo.) Erethizon dorsatus : Pp. ? lost. Ph. 9 1. (int. cunei- 
form divided into two bones) (vide Plate XX. figs. 5, 6). 

Hystnx malabariensis and H. javanica : Pp. large. Ph. 5 1. ; 
3br. 

Caenivoba. — Pp. on the scapho-lunatum and trapezium. Ph., 
if present, on the naviculare and internal cuneiform. 

Felis macroscelis : Pp. 

Felis paguros : Pp. 

(Be., Le., Lo.) Felis tigris : Pp. ca. 15 1. ; 10 br. 

(Be., Le., Lo.) Felis par dus : Pp. 

Felis tigrina : Pp. 

Felis macrura : Pp. 

Cyncelurus jubatus : Pp. large. 

(Be., Le., Lo.) Cryptoprocta ferox : Pp. Ph. lost ? 

Viverra tangalunga : Pp. 3-2 1. and do.-vo. 

Viverricula malaccensis : Pp. 

Genetta pardina : Pp. lost ? 

Linsang (Prionodon) pardicolor : Pp. very small (almost 1 mm.). 

Linsang (Poiana) gracilis : Pp. 

Paradoxurus philippinetisis : Pp. 5 1. ; 2 br. Pp. has a transv. 
direction. Ph. ! 5 1. ; 2-75 br. ; 2 th. 

(Be.) Paradoxurus typus : Pp. 5 1.; 3 br. ; 1 th. Ph. ! 

(Be., Lo.) Herpestes fasciatus — (Be.) Pp.21. ; 1-5 br. f) 
1-5 th. : (Lo.) Pp. 2-5 1. ; 2-5 do.-vo. | 

Herpestes griseus : Pp. I -»- p, 

Herpestes javanicus : Pp. f 

Herpestes ichneumon : Pp. 3*8 1. ; 2*5 do.-vo. 

(Le.) Herpestes pulverulentus : Pp. J 

Oynictis penicillata : Pp. seems to be united with the scapho- 
lunatum. 

Galidea olivacea : Pp. 

Hemigalea (= Herpestes) galera : Pp. 2 1. ; 2 br. 

Hemigalea hardivickii : Pp. 3 1.; 3 br. ; 2 th. Ph. ! 2*8 1. 

Eupleres goudotii : Pp. 2 1.; 2 br. ; 1 th. 

Proteles cristatus : Pp. ? lost? 

Hycena striata : no Pp. ; no Ph. 

In the CanidcB there are separated neither Pp. nor Ph. 

In the Ursidm Pp. seems to be coalesced with the scapho- 
lunatum. No Ph. 
Paoc. Zool- Sou— 1894, No. XXIV. 24 



358 PBOF. K. VON BABDELEBEN OX THE [Apr. 17, > 

(Le.) Procyon lotor (3 spp.) : Pp. and Ph. 

(Le.) Procyon cancrivorus (3 spp.) : Pp. 4 1. ; 2'5 br. Ph. (Lo. 

no Ph., always lost). 
JSlurus fulgens : Pp. 6 1. ; 4 br. ; 3 th. Ph. 7 1. ; 2*5-2 br. ; 

ending cartilaginous (vide Plate XX. figs. 7, 8, 9). 
(Le., Lo.) Nasua narica (nasica) : Pp. Ph. 
(Je., Be.) Cercoleptes caudivolvulus : Pp. 
(Be., Lo.) Lutra brasiliensis : Pp. Ph. (Be.) 12 1. ; 6-4 br. 

(pointed) ; 4th on the proximal end ; like a metatarsal. 
Lutra canadensis : Pp. Ph. ! 
(Be.) Lutra platensis (2 sp.) : Pp. 
Latax lutris : Pp. 
Mephitis mephitica : Pp. 4 1. ; 1 '5-1*8 br. (top ends cartil.); 

shaped like a metacarpal. Ph. 2-3 1. ; 2 br. 

Conepatus mapurito : Pp. Ph. 

Mydausmeliceps; Pp 2-5 1. ; 1-2 br. | Traces suture (pk ?) 

Metes taxus : Pp. 4'8 1. ; 3 br. ;>..,. , i -\ 

. , , r I in the internal cuneiform, 

pointed. J 

Taxidea americana : Pp. 7*7 1. ; 3 br. ; a little sickle-shaped, 

pointed. 
Helictis orientalis : Pp. 3*5 1. ; 1*6 br. Ph. 2*5 1. ; 1*5 br. 
Ictonyx (Zorilla) capensis : Ph. on the 1. hand separated and 

isolated; on the r. hand coalesced with the scapho-lunatum. 
(Le.) Galictis (Grisonia) Barbara (2 spec.) : Pp. 
Galictis (Grisonia) vittata (young) : Pp. 3*2 1. ; 1*5 br. ; resembles 

a metacarpal bone. Ph. 2*5 1. ; 2 br. 
Gulo borealis : Pp. ! 16 1. ; 5 br. ; 3 th. ; comma- or sword-like ; 

top cartilaginous. 

Pinnipedia : — 

(Br., Lo.) Tricliechus rosmarus : Pp. 
Phoca vitulina : Pp. ? 
Arctocephalus cinereus : Ph. (Pp. ?) 

Chiropteba. — Pp. attached to the scaphoid, small. Ph. ? 
Pteropus medius : Pp. 
Cynopterus marginatus : Pp. 
Vesperugo : Pp. 
Phyllostoma liastatum : Pp. 

Lemuboidea. — Pp. situated on the side of the trapezium, before 
the scaphoid, behind and on the side of the metacarpale 1. 

(Je.) Indris brevicaudata (Lichanotus indri) : Pp. 

Avahis (Microrhynchus) laniger; Pp. 3'0 1. ; 1*5 br. Ligament 
to the trapezium. 

Lemur catta : Pp. 3 , 1. ; 2*0 br. 

Lemur macaco : Pp. 

Lepidolemur mustelinus, Greoffr., and L. microdon (Forsyth 
Major) : Pp.41.; 2 br.; pointed, at the free end cartilaginous. 

(Je.) Otolicnus galago (Galago sp.) : Pp. 

(Je.) Nycticebus (Stenops) tardigradus : Pp. 



1894.] MAMMALIAN HAND AND TOOT. 359 

(Je., Lo.) Loris gracilis : Pp. 

Perodicticus calabariensis : Pp. 

Tarsius spectrum : Pp. 

Chiromys madagascariensis : Pp. 4"3 1. ; 3 br. on the basis. 

Primates s. s. (Anthropoidea). — Pp., if situated on the trapezium, 

connected by ligaments with the scaphoid. 
Cebidce : — Chrysothrix sciwea : Pp. 2 1.; 2 th. 
Cercopithecidce : — 
(Je.) Cynocephalus anubis : Pp. 

Cynocephalus (Hamadryas) cegyptiacus : Pp. r. ! (1. lost). 
Macacus leoninus : Pp. 6 1. ; 5*5 do.-vo. 
Maccaus laniger : Pp. 4 1., 3'1 do.-vo. 
Macacus sp ? (young spec.) : Pp. 
Macacus inomatus : Pp. 
Cercopiihecus ruber : Pp. 4 1. ; 3*5 do.-vo. 
Cercopithecus ceplius : ? lost. 
Cercopiihecus mona : ? lost. 
(Je.) Cercopithecus cynosurus : Pp. 
Semnopithecus mitratus : Pp. seems to be coalesced with the 

scaphoid. 
Colobus bicolor : Pp. ? lost. 
Colobus ursinus (2 spec.) : Pp. 3 viz., 3 1. 
Simiido3 : — Uylobates lav : Pp. 5*8 1. ; 4 do.-vo. 
In Simla, Gorilla, Anthropopithecus no Pp. (= tuberos. scaph.?); 

no Ph. 
Homo : no separated Pp. or Ph. 

B.— ON THE MUSCLES AND NEEVES. 1 

I. Forearm and Hand. 

a. MARSUPIALS. 
1. Didelphts marstjpialis. (Plate XXL figs. 1, 2.) 
«. Flexor es. 

The nerv. medianus and art. brachialis pass the supracondylar 
foramen of the humerus. Nerv. ulnaris accompanied by the ulnar 
artery runs behind the internal condyle. 

The pronator radii teres arises from the radial border of the 
humerus (or entepicondyloideum) ; it is not perforated by the 
median nerve. 

The ». ulnaris supplies the following muscles : — 

Forearm : — (1) The ulnaris interims (flex, carpi ulnaris) arises 
by two heads (humeral and ulnar) which become united ; 
inserted into the pisiform. 
(2) The palmaris longus takes origin connected with the ulnar 
head of the former muscle ; it is divisible into two layers, a 
radial and superficial one and a deep or ulnar : the super- 

1 I am very sorry to say that ray notes and sketches concerning the Mono- 
tremata, Edentata, and some of the other lower mammals have been lost. 

24*" 



360 PROF. K. VO> BAKDELEBEX OX THE [<^P r - 1 ~> 

ficial muscle eads in a weak aponeurotic expansion (fascia 
palmaris) and the Pp. ; the deep one goes to the lig. carpi 
trausversum. 
Hand: — (3) The "piso-metacarpeus" comes from the pisiform 
and the lig. c. transv., and is inserted into the fifth rneta- 
bone. 

(4) A muscle from the lig. carp, transv. (tendon of the deep 

palmar muscle) to the fifth metacarpal and first phalanx of 

the minimus, divides into 

f (a) =the opponens ) . . • 7 - ... 
\ )i\ .11 A i ■ > minimi diqih. 
\(b) = tne flexor brevis J J 

(5) A muscle from the tendon of the superficial palmaris to the 
second phalaux of the fifth digit ; the tendon is perforated 
by the tendon of the fl. proj 'tcndus. 

J consider the muscle (4) and its homologue — also in Man — 
as the vestiges of an old flexor brevis superficialis (comp. H if rax). 
Supplied by the n. ulnaris and medianus: — 

(1) The flexor digitorum sublimis, connected with the profundus 
at the origin and with the lumbricales of the 4th and 3rd digits 
(vide below). 

The^. sublimis arises — (i.) from the humerus, connected with 
the humeral head of the ulnaris interuus and two heads of the 
palmaris longus ; (ii.) from the radius, in common with the radial 
head of the profundus ; (iii.) from the ulna, with the ulnar part of 
the profundus. 

Insertion : digits 2-4 ; ends in tendon-sheaths and on the 
phalanges. 

(2) The flexor digitorum profundus. 

Origin : (i.) humerus, with the radialis internus ; (ii.) radius, 
with the sublimis ; (iii.) ulna, with the sublimis. 

Insertion : by five tendons to digits 1-5 and eight lumbricales- 
like muscles to the tendon-sheaths of digits 2-5. 

(3) The 8 " lumbricales " are quite remarkable : — 

Origin. Insertion. 

(a) Tendon for the 5th dig., radial Radial border of the 5th dig. 

side. 

(b) Tendon for the 4th dig., above. Tendon of the flex. subl. to the 4th 

dig., and sheath. 

(c) Tendon for the 4th dig., rad. side. Rad. border of the 4th dig. 

(d) Tendon for the 3rd dig., above Tendon of the flex. subl. for the 3rd 

(ulnar). dig., and sheath. 

(e) Common tendon and tendon for Rad. border of the 3rd dig. 

the 3rd dig., rad. side. 
(/) Tendon for the 3rd dig., rad. Ulnar border of the 2nd dig. 

side. 
(g) Tendon for the 2nd dig., above Tendon of the flex. subl. 2nd dig., 

(ulnar side). and sheath. 

(h) Common tendon, tend. 1st and Radial border of the 2nd dig. 

2nd dig. 

I think the muscles a, c, e, and h are real " lumbricales, ," What 
the others mean I do not know. Perhaps we have here the 



1894.] MAMMALIAN HAND AND TOOT. 361 

explanation of the two-headed lumbricales of higher mammals, 
which, e. g. in Man, are so very often met with. 

j3. Extensores. 

Origin. Insertion. 

The supinator longus (bv&chio- Humerus^ Pp., with the tendon of the 

radialis). [as in abd. (ext.) pol. longus. 

The radialis ext. longus. Humerus fnian. Metacarpus II. 

The radialis ext. brevis. Humerus,/ Metacarpus III. 

The extensor dig. comm. rod. Humerus, radius. digits 2-5. 

s. subl. 

The extensor dig. comm. uln. Ulna. digits 1-3. 

s. prof. 

The extensor dig. IV. and V. Ulna. 4th and 5th digits. 

(ext. minimi, Man.) 

The ulnaris externus. Humerus. Metacarpus V. and into 

volar ligaments. 

The prcepotlex gets a very long nerve from the n. medianus, and 
vessels from the art. brachialis. 



2. Trichosukus ytjlpecuxa. (Plate XXI. fig. 3.) 
a. Fleccores. 

The ulnaris interims: origin, humerus and ulna; insertion, 
pisiform. 

The il palmaris longus" consists of two muscles, a superficial 
and a deeper one ; the superficial one is inserted into the Pp. and 
the ligam. c. transv., some fibres going to the pisiform : the 
deeper palmaris ends in the fascia palmaris (vide Plate XXI. fig-3). 

The flexor digitorum sublimis is weak ; it divides into four rather 
slender tendons which go to digits 2-5, mostly ending in the thin 
sheaths of the deep tendons. 

The flexor digitorum profundus is strong ; it comes from the 
humerus and both ulna and radius. The five tendons spring from a 
united tendinous mass ; they become almost superficial on the 
digits. 

There oxe four lumbricales. 

/3. Extensores. 

The supinator longus, a strong muscle, arises from the humerus 
and is inserted on the radial side of the scaphoid (Pp.?). 

The radiales extemi longus and brevis are almost quite separated. 

N. medianus supplies the Pp. ; a strong nerve goes to the dorsum 
of the hand for the supply of the thumb and the radial side of the 
2nd digit. 

3. Macbopus bennetti. 

(Zool. Soc. Gardens, London.) 

The palmaris longus ends in a long narrow tendon which 
continues into a triangular aponeurotic expansion on the wrist, 
sending a distinct tendinous strip to the Pp., 3rd digit, and Pm., — 
not only to the bones but also to the pads and even to the skin. 
Nerve-supply by the ulnaris. 



362 PROF. K. VOX BABDELEBEX OX THE [A-P r - ' ~ 

From the pronator radii teres goes a muscular belly to the 
radialis interims (comp. Bodentia and Carnivora). 

A muscle arises from the Pp. and is inserted into the metacarpal 
I. (as in Carnivora) =Interosseus ? 

There is an extensor pollicis et prcepollicis. 

A very strong muscle is present on the Jiypothenar, arising from 
the distal end of the pisiform and the tendon of the palmaris 
longus. 

b. INSECTIVORA. 1 

The " pahnaris longus " gets its nerve only from the ulnaris, the 
muscle being situated rather on the ulnar side and inserted into 
the pisiform. 

The ulnaris intermits is also implanted in this bone (perhaps 
there are two ulnares ?) 

c. RODENTIA. 

1. Sciurus abizoxexsis. (Plate XXI. fig. 4.) 

(Zool. Soc. Gardens.) 

Bone and pad of the Pp. are large, the thumb being small ; on 
the Pm. a large pad. 

The palmaris longus has on the wrist an aponeurotic expansion 
of triangular shape ; it is inserted into the Pp., Pm., the other pads 
of the volar manus, and the sheaths of the digits. Xerve-supply 
from medianus (from the ulnaris no branch being found). 

Very strong muscles are met with in the pad of the minimus 
digit, connected with the palmaris longus and the ulnaris internus ; 
the muscular fibres reach the Pp. JS T . ulnaris : the tendons of 
theji. digit, sublimis (phalanx II.) are weak, those of the ft. profun- 
dus (phalanx III.) are very strong. 

There is an extensor (or abductor) pollicis et prospotticis arising 
from the ulna (comp. Herpestes). 

2. Bathyergits haritimus. 

On the Pp. and Pm. there are nail-like formations (comp. Pedetes 
capensis). Its Pm. consists of two bones (P. Z. 8. 1889, p. 260) ; 
there are also two muscles, one for each bone. Whether these 
muscles be two ulnares interni or one of them be a palmaris longus 
I cannot say. Both are supplied by the ulnaris nerve. 

On the -wrist there are five muscles : — (1) A superficial muscle 
running obliquely from the Pm. to the Pp. and pollex, it continues 
the supposed palmaris (or ulnaris int.); (2) a superficial muscle from 
the Pp. to the thumb (nerv. medianus) ; (3 & 4) deep transverse 
muscles on the carpal joints (nerv. ulnaris); (5) a deep muscle 
between Pp. and pollex. 

Each digit has two " interossei " or deep short flexors. 

Extensor pollicis et prcepollicis longus runs obliquely from the 

1 My notes and sketches concerning Centetes and other Insectivora having 
been lost, I can for the present give these few remarks only. 



1 894.] MAMMALIAN HAND AND TOOT. 363 

ulna to the aponeurotic sheaths of these digits, like the ext. pollicis 
in Man. 

3. DlPUS JACTTLTTS. 

From the Pp., which is of enormous size, a strong muscle — 
m. transversus carpi — arises ; it is inserted into the fifth meta- 
carpal bone. 

A very large superficial muscle is situated on the flexor side of 
the forearm and hand : it takes origin from the humerus and the 
ulna and ends by tendons on the Pp. and on the top of the pisi- 
form (Pin.). As there is another superficial muscle with distinct 
tendons running down to the hand, and there are also flexor es 
digitorum sublimis and profundus, I suppose that those two super- 
ficial muscles are parts of the palmaris longus (the flexor digitorum 
superficialis). 

I could not make further investigations, this animal not being 
well preserved. 

d. UNGULATA. 

1. Hykax brijcei. 
a. Flexores. 

Prom the tendons of the palmaris longus arises a flexor brevis 
superficialis ; this is common in the foot, but very seldom met with 
in the hand. 

As this animal has not four digits (Mivart) but five (Dobson), 
there are muscular bellies to each digit except the third, i. e. four. 
(Dobson describes only three.) 

The belly for the thumb is 3*5 mm. long and 2-5 mm. broad. 

The tendons of this superficial flexor are cleft and let pass the 
deep tendons. 

The three inner bellies of the flexor brevis are supplied by the 
medianus, the outer one (5th digit) by the ulnaris. 

Ulnaris interims consists of tivo muscles (taking origin from the 
humerus and the ulna). 

ft. Extensores. 

The radialis extemus, situated under the ext. poll, longus, ends 
by four tendons : — the first is inserted into the second metacarpal 
bone ; the second and third into the third metacarpal ; the 
fourth into the unciform. 

The ext. pollicis is very strong, its broad tendon ends on the 
small rudimentary thumb (quite as in the Pp. in animals with 
"five'"' digits). 

The ulnaris extemus is also very strong, it is inserted into the 
fifth metacarpal, bone. 

The extensor digitorum communis is perforated by the (2) ten- 
dons of the extensor minimi (el quarti) digiti. 

2. Elephas africanus (Embryo). 

(Roy. Coll. Surg.) The specimen was already dissected for the 
Collection. 



364 PROF. K. TON BABDELBBBX ON THE [Apr. 1"> 

The palmaris longus is large, it ends in the fascia palmaris. 

There is only one flexor digitorum, which gets an accessory belly 
from the ulna. 

From the very large Pp. arises a strong muscle which goes to the 
pollex. 

From the deep layer of the wrist comes a muscle which is 
inserted into the Pp. aud the pollex. It may be called flexor pollicis 
et prcepollicis brevis, or, as it is also a " little adductor," perhaps 
" opponens poll, et praipollicis? 



e. CARNIVORA. 

1. Linsajstg gracilis. (Plate XXI. fig. 5.) 

( Viverra, Prionodon.) 
a. Flexores. 

There are two palmares longi and two ulnares interni. 

The palmaris longus radialis is supplied by the n. medianus; 
the palmaris longus idnaris by the n. ulnaris ; both idnares intemi 
(radialis, ulnaris) being supplied by the latter nerve. 

The palm. long. rad. arises with the m. ulnaris int. uln. from 
the internal condyle of the humerus, and ends in the volar pads 
and in digits 2-5, also between them in the webs. 

The palm. long. uln. arises with the former muscle and goes to 
both the radial and ulnar pads on the wrist, mainly to the ulnar 
one. 

The ulnaris int. rad. (humeralis) takes origin from the internal 
condyle of the humerus, while the idnaris int. idnaris s. proprius 
comes from the ulna ; both are inserted together into the pisiform. 

In this animal can be observed the fissure of main tendons and 
the coalescence of its delicate parts, and the development of a fascia 
or aponeurosis from tendons. 

Muscles on the wrist : — 

Connected f (1) An almost transverse muscle, like the palmaris 
with each -j brevis of Man, ending in the ulnar pad. 

other. ( (2) An oblique muscle, ending in the thumb. 

(3) A muscle representing the greatest part of the " lig." carpi 
transversum of Man ; this " ligament " consisting partly of the 
tendon of the palmaris longus ulnaris, for the greater part of 
muscular fibres. 

The flexor digitorum sublimis sends four tendons to the second 
phalanx of digits 2-5 ; the tendons are very weak, they are not 
so distinctly divided in two parts as in Man ; a strong tendon 
joins the profundus and continues mostly into the 2nd and 3rd 
digits. 

The flexor digitorum profundus forms a fibrous mass near the 
wrist; from this mass arise five strong tendons for digits 1-5. 



1894.] MAMMALIAN HAND AND FOOT. 365 

There is to be observed the first stage of a crossing of the 
tendons of the sublimis and profundus, as in the planta pedis. 

/3. Nerves of the extensor side : — 

Earn us superficialis of the musculo-spiral nerve (n. radialis) runs 
just as in Man. 

The deep branch, situated between the m. bracliialis internus 
and the supinator longus, ends in branches for the skin which 
provide the ivhole dorsum maims, except only the ulnar border of 
the fifth digit. 

2. HEEPESTES GKISEUS. 

(Zool. Soc. Gardens.) 
a. Flexores. 

From the pronator r. teres come tendinous fibres to join the 
radialis internus (comp. Sciurus), 

The palmaris longus ends partly in the pads, partly it is inserted 
into digits 2-5 by delicate tendons which are a little connected 
with each other. 

Nerve-supply : n. medianus (only). 

There are four strong superficial muscles on the wrist, connected 
with the ligam. c. transv. and also (partly) with the deep ligaments 
of the carpus : — 

f (1) Origin : Pp. ; insertion : pollex. 
} (2) Origin : tendon of the palmaris longus and the 
Nerv. J former muscle ; ins.: pollex. 

medianus.] (3) Origin : tendon of the palmaris I. ; ins. : pad of 
the Pm. (or the pisiform) = muse, transversus carpi. 
[_ (Nerve-supply not quite sure.) 

N. ulnaris : (4) A deep muscle like the former, separated from 
it by the nerv. ulnaris. 

There are two m. idnares interni, as in Linsang : — 

The ulnaris int. ulnaris (proprius), the stronger one, arises from 
the humerus and the ulna ; it is inserted by a flat tendon into the 
pisiform, more superficial and ulnar than the following muscle. 

The ulnaris int. rad. (Jium.eralis) springs from the humerus (cond. 
int.) and ends fleshy on the pisiform. 

The flexor digitorum sublimis, supplied by both the median and 
ulnar nerves, divides in four thin and narrow tendons, which end 
in the tendon-sheaths of digits 2-5. 

The flexor digitorum profundus has five very strong tendons for 
the 1-5 digits. 

The four lumbricales are also connected with the fl. sublimis ; 
they form a mass filling the space between the sublimis and the 
profundus. 

fi. Extensores. 

The supinator longus is fleshy as far as the carpus ; its insertion 
is not quite distinct on one bone ; there is one insertion into the 



366 PEOF. K. VOX BAEOELEBEX OX THE [Apr. 17, 

lower end of the radius, but also an aponeurotic expansion reaching 
to the first and second metacarpal bones. 

The extensor digitorvm communis (" sublimis ") arises from the 
humerus and goes to digits 2—5. 

The extensor digitorvm " profundus" as I should like to call it, 
takes origin from the ulna and has the following insertions : — 

(1) Three tendons for digits 3—5 (ulnar border); (2) a tendon 
dividing and going to the 3rd and 2nd digits ; (3) a strong muscular 
bellv with a very broad tendon divides into two, which end on the 
first metacarpal and on the Pp. 

3. PAEAJDOXrEES, Sp. 

a. Flexores. 

There are two palmares longi (as in Linsang), the stronger radial 
one being supplied by the n. medianus, the other (ulnar) by the 
ulnar nerve. 

Two m. ulnares interni are present, both being supplied by the 
ulnar nerve : — 

(1) The via. int. rad. (humeralis) comes from the humerus and 
is inserted into the top of the pisiform ; (2) the via. int. v.lnaris 
springe from the ulna and ends in the wrist in a fascia (ligam. 
carpi transversum). 

These muscles are supplied by the ulnar nerve. 

The " flexor digiti brews saperflcialis'' is present in this animal; 
it springs from an aponeurotic expansion on the wrist (which is 
connected with the Pp.) and has three bellies, two of them being 
inserted into the fifth digit, one into the fourth ending on phalanx 
I. and on the sheaths of the tendons. 

The tendon of th.isflt.vfr br. tuperfie. for the 4th digit is cleft 
and perforated by the corresponding tendon of the flexor sublimis. 

Both flexores longi, sublimis, and profundus take origin from the 
humerus, the radius, and the ulna; the sublimis is weak and goes 
to phalanx II. of digits 1-4 (!), the profundus is strong and ends on 
phalanx III. of digits 1—5. 

There are four lumhrieales ; the third is the strongest, the fourth 
arises from the tendon of the sublimis (4th digit). 

On the radial border of the forearm runs a strong muscle from 
the humerus (internal condyle) to the radius and the Pp., where it 
ends in an aponeurotic expansion which is perforated by the art. 
radialis. 

The superficial muscles on the Pp. are connected with the tendon 
of the pronator radii teres. 

(3. Extensores. 

The extensor pollicis et prcepotticis longus (ext. poll. I., Man) is 
present ; it arises from the ulna and the radius. 
The supinator longus is weak. 
The radialis ext. long, and brev. are both present. 
The ulnaris ext. is extremely strong ; it takes origin from the 



1894.] WA10KAT.TAW HAST) AST) FOOT. 367 

humerus and the ulna and is inserted into the pisiform and the 
fifth metacarpal bone. 

The extensor die/it. long, (radial is tubl. '?) goes to digits 3-5. 

The " extensor dig. minimi propriv.s" ends by three tendons on 
digits 3-5 (1st phalanx). 

The ext. indicis et pollicis comes from the distal end of the ulna. 

4. Yiykbkicula m alaccensis. (Plate XXI. fig. 6.) 

Flexores. 

The " palmaris longus" arises (very broad) from the internal 
condyle (ham.) and ends by four tendons (connected with each 
other) on digits 2-5, some fibres going to the Pp. and to the 
neighbourhood of the Pm. 

As this muscle has two nerves (from the medianus and the 
ulnaris) it may perhaps be considered as formed by union of two 
palmares. 

On the wrist there are four little muscles : — 

^(1) Prom the pisiform and the tendon of the idnaris 

internus to the ulnar border of the manus. 
(2) Prom the pisiform : ( continue into one tendon, 
J which ends on the sheath 
*.(3) Prom the Pp : I of the flexor longus on the 

[ fifth digit. 

X. medianus : (4) Prom the Pp to the thumb. 
Underlying these four muscles there is a strong transverse 
ligament. 

' The flexor dig. sidA. has delicate and narrow tendons 
I which are cleft and perforated by the following 
X. medianus ) muscle. 

and